SEFH - Science and Engineering Fair of Houston

SEFH 2020 - Project Abstracts

- Limited information on Projects submitted by students for SEFH 2020.

# TableNumber ProjectTitle Category Division AbstractText
2 1002 Do dogs have color preference? Animal Sciences J Abstract The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether dogs can see specific colors better than others. Dogs are partially color blind, and they don t have red-green cones in their retina. This means that deciphering between colors like red and green is difficult for dogs. The hypothesis states that if dogs can see a specific color better than others, then it is most likely they will see yellow the best because it is a bright, decipherable color.In this experiment, a dog chose between 6 food bowls of different colors red, blue, purple, yellow, green, and the dog s normal food bowl . Each food bowl contained a small amount of food in which the scientist reset before each trial. This experiment is observing the number of times a specific food bowl is chosen. In conclusion, the yellow colored food bowl was chosen the most, which was chosen 37% of the time. The hypothesis has been supported and the experiment had the suspected results. This information is extremely useful to those who own or care for dogs, and it might improve a dog s eating or exercising habits. With the knowledge from this experiment, a dog s overall well-being may be improved by switching out their toys or food bowls with those that have easier to see colors.
3 1003 Revolting Tardigrades Animal Sciences J The Tardigrades will die when exposed 60 volts for 5 minutes because there have not been stressors that would have caused tardigrades to develop resistance to electricity. For lesser voltages of 15, 30, and 45 volts they will become partly active. I electrocuted of the tardigrades with 4 voltages, 15, 30, 45, and 60 volts using a 10-amp autotransformer. I had 3 trials for each voltage and 4 tardigrades for each trial. I recorded 3 variables before, during, and after the experiment. At 15-volts there was no observable effect on the smaller tardigrades and minimal effect on the larger tardigrades. At 30-volts, there was no observable effect on the smaller tardigrades. The larger tardigrades curled up and were barely moving. At 45-volts, the larger tardigrades were even slower than at 30-volts. The smaller tardigrades were more erratic and active than pre-electrocution. At 60-volts the same effects occurred, and some larger tardigrades stopped moving. The hypothesis was partially correct. I accepted the part of my hypothesis that stated the adult Tardigrades will become partially active when exposed to 15, 30, and 45-volts. I rejected the part of my hypothesis that the younger Tardigrades will become partially active when exposed to 15, 30, and 45-volts.The Electricity caused the adult tardigrades to slow as if entering a tun state. The Electricity caused the younger tardigrades to slightly become more erratic and active.
4 1004 Animal Disease Animal Sciences J Animal Disease This project is important because a lot of people around the world have pets, and many of those animals can carry dangerous diseases. The problem is, how much bacteria is being transferred from animals to humans The hypothesis is that ferrets will have the most bacteria. The scientists predicted ferrets because they smell bad and even roll around in their own feces, which can lead to a lot of bacteria. First, the scientist swabbed their hands 10 times without handling any animals and sanitizing their hands in between each trial. Then did the same thing but handled ferrets. Then repeated with bunnies, snakes, and turtles. Then they took the samples to the lab, came back 5 days later to collect their results. The data that was collected showed that turtles had the most bacteria with an average of 86 colonies, and the hypothesis, ferrets, only had an average of 1.3 colonies. Snakes had an average of 5.3 colonies, and bunnies had an average of 1.8 colonies. In conclusion, the hypothesis was incorrect. Turtles had an average of 86 bacteria colonies and even had some fungi, while ferrets only had an average of 1.3 and no fungi. One real world use for this project is for pet owners. If you have a pet that can carry a lot of bacteria, you would want to know because you could be at risk of different diseases.
5 1005 Does Dog Age Affect the Bacterial Transfer to Humans? Animal Sciences J Many families across America own one or more dogs, and most people nowadays come into contact with dogs daily. But bacteria transfer to the human skin can potentially be very harmful to those who own dogs, or those who care for dogs on a daily basis such as veterinarians. So what affects the bacteria transfer to human skin Age of dog is a potentially very big factor. This project was designed to test how much bacteria transfers to human skin via dog lick based on dog age. There were 6 dogs tested in every age group, which were, 0-2yrs, 3-5yrs,6-8yrs, 9-11yrs, and 12yrs and up. Each dog licked the human subject s arm once, and the area the subject licked was cultured to find bacteria growth, and the amount of colonies grown was subtracted from the number of colonies grown on the human subjects arm alone. It was found that dogs aged 6-8 had the most bacteria transfer to human skin. So, the hypothesis that dogs ages 12 and over would have the most bacteria transfer was proved incorrect by the data collected.
6 1006 What's Your Angle Animal Sciences J In this project I will be conducting the experiment of whether or not the theory of a wider shoulder angle will produce a longer stride length in horses. After we test this we will record the data and make a graph to show the results.
7 1007 Puzzled Pooches: Puzzle-Solving Skills in Dogs Animal Sciences J The inspiration for my experiment was largely due to dogs I have seen and or met over the years. Many of these dogs were ours, our neighbors , or the stray dogs that commonly show up in our neighborhood. Their vast differences were always interesting to me. Some dogs were smarter, or taller, or stockier - but somehow in my mind certain things linked to each other, such as what sort of dogs were smart. In this experiment, I attempted to see what those links entailed. Variable-wise, the layout was as follows the independent variables were the dogs the dependent variables were the solution times and the two controlled variables were the puzzles and the treats. All parts are absolutely necessary in order for the experiment to work. Functionally in the context of said experiment and the question within it, they must all coexist. The experiment itself did have to be modified. Interactions with the dog cannot in any way be prohibited or nothing will ever be done. Instead, a level of encouragement scale from 0 - 10 was put in its place. No dog was given more than was absolutely necessary. Overall, the results of this experiment were not too surprising for me. Though I did expect the older dogs to do better, I had suspicions about Heidi being a German Shepherd and Skye being naturally curious and wanting to prod into things, especially when it came to food from the first day.
8 1008 Worm Game: The Effect of Larvae on Plastic Bags Animal Sciences J Plastic is a very cheap and essential material that millions of people use. Many people like to use disposable plastic bags, like trash bags as an easy, clean, efficient way to dispose of things but unfortunately, they are detrimental to the environment. A recent discovery has found that certain larvae can eat plastic. This evidence can play a big role in the amount of pollution on earth. Therefore, this experiment is on the effect of larvae on the consumption of plastic bags. The hypothesis for this experiment is that the waxworms will eat the most plastic bags. This is because an incident was found that waxworms ate out of a beekeeper s plastic bag after they put those pests out of the beehive and into the bag. Other data points include mealworms, super worms, and giant mealworms because they were found to eat Styrofoam.The experiment had 150 of each larva separated into 3 equal containers 50 in each container . There were 12 containers in all. Each container had 10 cm2 plastic bag pieces. All containers were all put in a dark box. Each trial was 24 hours. Every 24 hours, all the plastic bag pieces were weighed on a digital scale.At the end of the experiment, the super worms were the only larvae that appeared to be making holes with their mouths in the plastic, but the waxworms had the highest amount of mass decrease from the plastic. This experiment can help the growing number of plastic pollution.
9 1009 Puppy Potty Time Animal Sciences J I did my project, Puppy Potty Time, to find the treat that would be the most beneficial for the dogs. Treats can be a wonderful way to train dogs, give them a reward but some treats have adverse responses, such as giving dogs diarrhea. If you are a fur parent and you want your pup to be healthy, well come and see my project to find out which treat is best for your pup. Dog feces can tell us so much about their health, through color, consistency, shape, and coating. I did my project to see which treats you should avoid or not give to your pups at all. My hypothesis is that between the selected treats cookies, training treats, jerky, and treat filler, I suspect that treat filler will have the lowest percent of healthy stool. The first thing I did to begin the project was make a schedule for my family and I so everyone knew the correct procedures for the experiment. Then I gave the dogs their assigned treats for 4 days, followed by a day of no treats. Then my family and I repeated the steps for the 3 other types of treats. The results were very surprising to me. The training treats had the highest percentage of healthy stool with a percent of 93.25. The cookies had the lowest percent of healthy stool with 68.75. My project fits in to the animal category because dogs are used in my project.
10 1010 Wool Growth Animal Sciences J There are so many products to help a lambs leg wool grow. So I wanted to put it to the test which one works the best For this project I took three popular brands of wool growth products Weaver ProCharge, Sullivans Supply wool grower, and Green Stuff Leg Shag and I used three different sheep to test those on. I also washed one sheep with no product just to compare to the others as a control. My hypothesis was that Weaver was going to do the best, only because that s what I have always used. But after six weeks of applying the product I discovered that green stuff leg shag did the best in terms of helping the wool grow. I also noticed that green stuff leg shag was the only product that contained tea tree oil and a mix of vitamins.
11 1011 Pets VS Frequencies Animal Sciences J Our project was about the reactions of animals towards different frequencies. We realized that many animals can be disturbed by unusual sounds. We decided to record how they react to different frequencies, and found that our pets were highly erratic when hearing higher frequencies, and acted normally to lower frequencies.
12 1012 The Dark Side of Light: Fruit Flies' Plight Animal Sciences J Light plays an important role in our everyday life, but prolonged exposure to light may be causing more health issues. Nowadays people are exposed to increased amounts of light which can interfere with the normal sleep cycle. Long term effects of light LED exposure is still not completely understood.The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effects of prolonged light exposure in the animal model of Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly . The fruit fly is a good model since it shares more than 60% of its genes with humans. To start the experiment 60 flies three groups of 20 flies were put into constant light while another 60 flies three groups of 20 flies were put into the normal light dark cycle. Each group of 20 flies were tested every week using three behaviors Positive Phototropism are the flies still attracted to light , Negative Geotropism are the flies still moving against gravity , and Olfaction can the flies still smell their food . The data showed that the flies put in constant light were less attracted to light, did not move against gravity and was not attracted to the smell of food compared to their siblings kept in the normal light dark cycle. The research hypothesis that constant light changes the behavior of the flies was proven correct by the data.
13 1013 The Effect of Oyster's Weight on Heavy Metals Animal Sciences J An oyster filters water and people enjoy eating them, so it is important that they don t contain anything harmful. Sadly there have been discoveries of heavy metals in oysters tissues, which could be harmful for consumption. The problem is what is the effect of the oysters weight on the amount of heavy metals it contains. This project was tested by grinding up the oysters and then dipping a heavy metal test strip in it.The hypothesis was if the oyster is heavier, then it will contain more heavy metals. The hypothesis was proven to be incorrect and that is fine because that s science. This project showed that oysters do contain heavy metals and after observing that data it showed that there were not enough heavy metals in them to be harmful.
14 1014 Leap'n Lizards 2 Animal Sciences J I decided to do this experiment because I wanted to answer a question that I had at the end of last years experiment. I wanted to test what material Green Anoles could stick to best. My question was, what material do Green Anoles stick to best in high winds My hypothesis was, if I put the Green Anoles on wood, glass, brick, metal, and plastic and subject them to high winds, then I think that the lizards will hang onto the wood the best and the glass the worst. I put three lizards on a material at a time and used a leaf blower to simulate being in high winds. When they fell off, I recorded the wind speed using an anemometer. I recorded their mph in a graph and found my hypothesis was incorrect. Brick was the best followed by wood, plastic, metal, and glass the worst.
20 1020 Body Language Behavioral & Social Sciences J To finalize our project, we found out that when we are able to read these signs, we can use it to our advantage. For example, Navarro, who was an agent for 25 years, says the skills he learned in the bureau can be used in business, helping companies win clients, and employees to develop their careers. When you recruit a spy or you get someone to confess, it s no different to making a sales pitch, Navarro told.
21 1021 Can you resist? Behavioral & Social Sciences J My project is a follow up on the marshmallow experiment it it test teenagers ability to resist a notification from a cell phone. In our age now we are all addicted to our cell phones we do everything on them. I will see what three teenagers will do when they are doing a puzzle and getting notifications from their cell phone. They will get five minutes to do a 25 piece puzzle but when they are doing that they are getting text messages instagram notifications and snapchat notifications i will be recording the reaction of the teens.
22 1022 Professional Bluff Behavioral & Social Sciences J Lying is extremely common in our world. Whether it be about how our day is going or whether or not we finished an assignment or not, a lie is a lie, and we humans tend to lie at least once or twice in our daily lives. As we were talking about the deceptive art of lying, a question popped in our heads, Does your profession affect your ability to detect a lie We all had different hypothesis which speaking plainly, one thought that Business would be able to detect the most lies because of how in business your every move is risky and it is important to be able to have the ability to detect lies to sensor through and achieve their goals. The others thought Education because as students, we see our peers lying about small things like leaving their assignments home or the classic, the dog ate my homework.What we did to test this gave our subjects a 30-question interview to ask us questions and as we responded to those 30 questions, they would have to indicate a mark next to the questions whenever they thought our response was a lie.In the end, Business and Education both tied and detected the most correctly with 6 lies, which proved both our hypothesis s to be correct. We concluded that job sites that interacted with various people had a higher chance of detecting a lie. To see results about Public Service and STEM look at graph analyzation and graphs.
23 1023 How Do Colors Affect Your Mood? Behavioral & Social Sciences J The purpose of my science fair project was to prove how and if colors affect our mood. My hypothesis for this project was if I ask 65 people if and how each of the nine colors affected their mood feelings, then I will prove that colors do affect our mood. The constants and control in my experiment were the color survey and different change in mood based on gender and age. The manipulated or independent variable in my experiment was the subjects people . The way that I measured the responding or dependent variable was by using percents and fractions. The results of this experience were that colors did affect the subjects mood. The results show that my hypothesis should be accepted because the subjects said they had different feelings with each color. If I were to do this experiment again in the future or expand on this experiment i would use more people with more diverse ages. Another thing I would use more colors. Last I would get different items with different colors to see if the colors affect what item people choose.
24 1024 The Correlation between Music and Memory Behavioral & Social Sciences J This project is on exploring the memory of the human teenager s brain and its correlation with music. It is beneficial in real life because students and teachers can know if they should or should not use music while studying and memorizing various objects. For this experiment, students were given a list of words to memorize. Then, music was administered to one group of students and not given to the other group of students. The students could memorize more words with music than without music therefore, students and teachers should adopt using music while studying and memorizing information.
25 1025 How do distractions affect the time it takes to successfully complete a task? Behavioral & Social Sciences J About 50% of teens watch TV while doing homework, about 76% listen to music while doing homework, and about 60% text while doing homework. Doing any of those things may be better to do, or it may be better to do just do your homework without any distractions. This experiment will be to find out if it is more time-beneficial to complete a task with differing levels of distractions, which include audio, audio and visual, or no distractions. To do this, a website was created to allow participants to complete puzzles with varying levels of distraction. Then, participants were asked to complete these puzzles and record their time. This way, the data was already set into a table. In this experiment, the first puzzle was much harder than the others, so the Excel table also turned the times into z-factors, or how far the time is off the average. When the data was compared this way, it was much easier to see how much the distractions affected the time. The data showed that more people did well in the third puzzle, but about the same amount of people did better in the first puzzle and second. Also, the data shows that the percentage of people who did well on the puzzle matches the percentages on the STAAR. This shows that the hypothesis was correct about the STAAR, but incorrect about how distractions affect people.
26 1026 Do sandbox video games change your behavior? Behavioral & Social Sciences J My topic is based on if calmer video games will affect a person s mood positively the same way studies have shown violent video games may change a person s mood negatively. Since many studies have shown that violent video games cause more aggressive behavior, I am learning if calm video games can influence more peaceful behavior. The purpose of this experiment is to show that video games not only may influence negatively, but also on a positive note and cause more positive actions in people. I will be recording each participants mood before and after playing Minecraft and observing if there is a change whether it be positive or negative in my project s case . I hope this project will solve that video games are not only may be harmful for you, but also may give positive effects as well to counter that effect.
27 1027 What Do You See in the Mirror? A Study of Body Image on Overall Outlook Behavioral & Social Sciences J This project was chosen because of the growing problem that girls are feeling social pressure to look a certain way. This project is trying to see if there is a connection between body image satisfaction and overall outlook. This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that if the difference between the perceived and ideal body image is large, then the overall outlook will be negatively impacted. For example, if a girl would like to have a body that is drastically different than the body she has, then this will negatively affect her outlook. An online survey was created and shared with middle school aged girls. Most of the girls surveyed were happy with their body and these girls were also happy in life, so the hypothesis is correct. On the other hand, the hypothesis may be seen as inconclusive because only 117 girls were surveyed. The survey would have to include more participants for the hypothesis to be conclusive.
28 1028 Autism & Genetics Behavioral & Social Sciences J In my project known as Autism Genetics I will be tracing my genetic trait of Autism using the knowledge of my family tree and how people in my family relate to the symptoms of Autism. I will be learning the discovery and origin of Autism and how it affects people s everyday life. Learning about chromosome seven I will try to understand how Autism is passed down genetically from generation to generation.Use this knowledge data that I have gathered I will share my knowledge, so that other people can understand what Autism means, and how it affects our everyday life from birth to death. If we can understand
29 1029 Color Makes Me Smarter Behavioral & Social Sciences J Color Makes Me SmarterThe purpose of this project was to determine if changing the color of key information in a text would increase the reading recall of a junior high student. A passage on the inventor of the key card was chosen. Seven important sentences were selected for text color change. The colors chosen for the key information color changes were red, blue, green, yellow and black. Fifty copies of the passage were printed. 10 with red key information, 10 with blue, 10 with green, and ten with yellow. The remaining 10 were printed with all black text. 50 junior students with similar reading levels were asked to read the text and take a short five question reading comprehension quiz. The quizes were graded by color and averages were calculated. The data confirmed the hypotheses that changing the color of the text improved recall among junior high students. Based on the averages students reading the red passage had the highest recall average on the quiz. Further color research could ask if certain colors are more beneficial for remembering certain types of information.
30 1030 Does The Tempo of Music Affect Your Memory? Behavioral & Social Sciences J This project is important because many students like to listen to music while working in school when their teachers let them and it s important to memorize the things you re learning. Some people remember more and some people remember less, what I noticed is that both groups are listening to music with different tempos. Doing this study and finding out whether faster or slower tempo helps more would help many students to get better results on tests and any general grades. My hypothesis was I think that music with a faster tempo would increase someone s memory more than music with a slower tempo. I ended up changing my procedure to just getting one person to take a test, showing them a list of words for 20 seconds then having them write down the words they remember in the order they were written, then repeating with a different list of words and having them listen to Stay With Me by Sam Smith 84bpm , and repeating one last time with a different list of words and having them listen to Bad Guy by Billie Eilish 135bpm . Then I would do that procedure with 15 people. With no music there was an overall of 56 correct words, with listening to Stay With Me there was an overall of 50 correct words, and with listening to Bad Guy there was an overall of 54 correct words. My hypothesis was correct, fast tempo was more successful then slow tempo, but no music worked best overall.
31 1031 The Effect of Music Speed/Volume on Human Consumption Speed Behavioral & Social Sciences J The speed of music does not affect the speed a human. These results did not agree with my research. However, I originally thought that the speed of music would not change the speed people eat because it doesn t affect me. There are multiple reasons why my experiment did not have the same results as what I read in the research. One reason is that the noise from the kitchen and people talking seemed to overpower the sound of the music. In each restaurant, I measured the level of decibels. So, it was not because of the overall volume. Another reason could be that the type of food was different in each restaurant. I noticed, for example, that when people ate their salad, their bite seemed to take longer than when they ate soup. Another variable that could have impacted the speed a person chewed could be the temperature of the food. Sometimes, people chew fast to hurry and swallow food that is too hot and other times, people take longer to put it in their mouth. The reason why I thought it would not make a difference is people s natural eating habits. In conclusion, I would like to suggest something based on the results found in my study. If the research is true and music does affect eating speed, then restaurants should be designed to increase the opportunity for music to influence the dining experience. Restaurants could design their interior to cut down on sounds that may overpower the music.
32 1032 Do 8th Graders Have Better Memory Recall than 4th Graders? Behavioral & Social Sciences J The purpose of this experiment is to determine if eighth graders have a better short term memory recall than fourth graders. The hypothesis states that if fourth graders and eighth graders are asked to recall the same list of everyday objects, then fourth graders will have better memory and recall more, because age affects memory. As students age, they take on more responsibilities and have more on their minds. With unimpaired brains, they should recall more words. Also, it is scientifically known that older people have a hard time remembering things. In this experiment, the scientist has made three lists of ten randomly selected everyday objects. Volunteer participants listen to an audio recording of the first list and recall all the words they remember. The scientist records the correctly recalled words on a chart and continues in the same manner with the remaining two lists. The scientist uses this process with 20 eighth graders and 20 fourth graders.In conclusion, eighth graders had a greater number of correctly recalled words than fourth graders. The hypothesis has not been supported through this project, and the experiment had different results than what was expected. It became clear that eighth graders use strategies that they have learned to aid in their memory recall. This information will be extremely useful to educators and those in marketing.
33 1033 The Effect of Temperature on the Human Body and Mind Behavioral & Social Sciences J The objective of this project was to find out what temperature workspaces should be set for maximum success on mental and physical activities.We started by gathering 24 participants, half male and half female in the age groups following children 12 and under , teens 13-17 , adults 18-64 , senior 65+ . Our participants went through 2 activities intellectual and physical, under 3 temperatures control 72 , hot 79 , and cold 65 . In each room, we had our participants take a diverse written test. They then did a basic workout, wall sits. After each activity we recorded the participant s results.In our data, there was little correlation between age and test scores. Group average and median charts proved that overall the participants worked best in the hot room, and worst in the control room. Next, we looked at participants genders and how they performed on the written test in each room. Interestingly, the females performed significantly better in the hot room, while the males performed best in the cold room. In the data from the wall sits, we found that everyone performed best in the cold room and worst in the hot room.We concluded that females work better in warm conditions, while males work better in cold conditions when performing mental tasks, but both genders perform well in cold conditions when doing physical tasks. Although we did not prove our hypothesis we were able to find useful information that can be used in people s daily life.
34 1034 Lights, Camera, Meditation Behavioral & Social Sciences J The test to see if a person was able to stay calmer for longer in blue or white light was indeed a successful one. The project consisted of participants wearing a device named Muse and sitting in a room with daylight light and blue light. Each test would be 5 minutes long. The Muse device emits a white noise that gets louder when your mind wanders and gets lower when you are calm. The Muse would measure how many birds a participant would get. Birds are how many times you were able to stay calm after a few seconds. The test was administered on seven subjects and the test came to an end with results. The results showed that participants were able to be calmer for longer in daylight light, then in blue light. This could be due to the amount of blue light in daylight or it could just be they didn t like the blue light. Overall the experiment was successful and solved the question.
35 1035 Sound of Silence -- The Effects of Infrasound on Emotion Behavioral & Social Sciences J The purpose of this Science Fair experiment was to test whether infrasound has a negative effect on human emotions. It is said that infrasound is responsible for the feeling that people get when they suspect that they are around ghosts. A system was devised to play music and infrasound with a subwoofer. Subjects were asked to listen to music with and without infrasound and give their emotional responses. They were asked to choose their mood prior to and after each musical selection. The songs played were Exhale by Alexis Ffrench and Duet by Steve Reich. They were each played twice, once with infrasound and once without. After analyzing the data, it was found that the first time infrasound was played with Exhale , 11.1% 3 28 had positive responses, 29.6% 8 28 had negative responses, and 59.3% 17 28 had an unchanged response. After the second time infrasound was played with Duet , 21.4% 6 28 had positive responses, 21.4% 6 28 had negative responses, and 57.1% 17 28 had unchanged responses. It was concluded that the hypothesis was falsified for the majority of the people that participated in the experiment. Most participants had no great reaction to the presence of infrasound their mood stayed the same.
36 1036 Combating Cyberbullying : Developing an Application to Identify Cyberbullying using Machine Learning for Sentiment Analysis Behavioral & Social Sciences J Conventional methods of dealing with cyberbullying rely on a user to handle the situation alone by using a method called Stop, Block, and Tell . This can be extremely inefficient due to a user not feeling like they have anyone to talk to. Very few research has been conducted to find out methods to stop cyberbullying on the spot, as soon as a user sends a message. What would happen if a parent was watching their child Also could this system be implemented in an app In order to address this question, two groups with significant age differences were created. The 9-12 age group and a 13-18 age group. Both were given sheets of paper containing cyberbullying messages. Participants were asked to rewrite these messages as if they were being watched over. Results showed that the average sentiment of the rewritten messages boosted to 97% positive sentiment, opposed to the original cyberbullying message sentiment being 0.5% positive sentiment. In addition to this research an application to identify cyberbullying on the spot was created. The application can identify cyberbullying, and easily send an alert to the parent of the adolescent using machine learning. This highly accessible method of combating cyberbullying can applied to all kinds of messaging apps to create a free protection online to adolescents all over the world.
37 1037 Is that my voice? Behavioral & Social Sciences J Title Is that my Voice Introduction Majority of our population is affected by glossophobia or the fear of public speaking. This fear can be caused by a fear of his hers own voice. The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices around them. The A.I industry is becoming more and more relevant and we may be able to eventually develop models that better capture human invariances. Our project is using two psychoacoustic parameters pitch and volume to learn more about our brains perception of our voice.Purpose. The purpose of this project is to understand if there is a way to perceive or quantify voice perception.Hypothesis If each voice is quantified in terms of pitch and volume then we can determine a range of frequency and decibels that will be evaluated to understand the voice perception.Materials Methods The iPhone app Voice Memos was used to record the voice, which was then played to the Voice Analyst app, and quantified in dB and Hz. The voice characteristics of 50 subjects of two age ranges 10-20 and 30-50 were studied. The self perception was evaluated by performing pre and post surveys, which were then compared with the perceptions of 3 independent observers Conclusion.Majority of the subjects perceived their voices differently from how they heard it. They also perceived their voice as softer and lower prior to hearing it. Age groups had a way more significant impact in pitch than the different genders.
38 1038 Influence of Peer Pressure on Boys vs Girls Behavioral & Social Sciences J In our society, teenagers grow up and face a multitude of pressures from peers around them. Sometimes they are influenced in ways that they didn t even realize. I chose my experiment to identify which gender is more likely to give into peer pressure so that parents and teachers can be aware of the issues we face. I hypothesized that boys would be more affected by peer pressure than girls would be. To test this, I gathered a group of 15 girls and a group of 15 boys together and started by showing them a picture of two circles and asking them to choose the larger circle. Everyone but one boy choose the larger circle when I individually asked their opinion. Then I had just the girls standing a group and choose the larger circle again in the same picture, but I had 4 girls saying that the smaller circle was actually bigger and having them try and change their peers minds. Out of the 11 girls, 9 of them changed their answers to say that the smaller circle was actually the bigger circle. I then repeated the same experiment with the boys, and only 7 out of the 11 changed their answer. According to my research, girls are more likely to give into peer pressure than boys are. This data will help society understand how to teach their children to handle the influences around them appropriately.
39 1039 Immigrants: Safe or Scared? Behavioral & Social Sciences J Research indicates that when global political change happens, immigrants are often viewed with suspicion, and loyalty of immigrants is often called into question. Given the rise in political debate about immigrants in the USA, the researcher wondered whether if the perception of immigrants about their own safety might differ from the perception of natural citizens about the safety of immigrants. This study asked both groups whether Immigrants will think they are still physically safe in the US today. The research was conducted by a paper-based questionnaire which was distributed to both US-born and Immigrant students at a junior high school in The Woodlands, Texas. All questionnaires were answered anonymously and the data was represented as averages. Although most of the data indicated that US-born and Immigrant students have similar opinions about most issues, it was, however, interesting that US-born students viewed immigrants as more vulnerable than immigrants view themselves. The researcher concluded that the difference in opinion may be due to the fact that immigrant students have more resilience, but also questions the US-born students perception of whether they see the Immigrant students as less able. This question, perhaps with the addition of the effects of adversity or significant life changes, should be addressed in another study.
40 1040 The “Piece” To Be Successful In Work Behavioral & Social Sciences J Many people want to get the best results from their work and become successful. Knowing how to work is critical in accomplishing this goal, however, some people do not know whether if working alone or in a group will help them the most. The objective of this experiment was to find the most effective and efficient way to work between working alone and working in a group. For this experiment, 51 volunteers worked individually to complete a 100-piece puzzle in 30 minutes. Later, the volunteers were placed in groups of 3 people. In these groups, the individuals had to work together to complete another 100-piece puzzle in 30 minutes. Also, 100 surveys about how people worked efficiently and effectively were given to volunteers to support the experiment s results. At the end of this experiment, the data showed that most people preferred to work in a group because they got better results than when they worked alone. Also, the individuals completed 95% of the puzzle on average when they worked in a group during the experiment. When the individuals worked alone, they had an average of 80%. With this information, it can be concluded that working in a group is the most efficient and effective way to work. For this reason, group work and the exchange of ideas between individuals should be encouraged. Groups are more likely to produce the best results and guide people towards success.
41 1041 Wait a Second... Behavioral & Social Sciences J The Semantic Illusion is a psychological phenomenon in which a word in a commonly known fact is replaced with a word that is similar, either phonologically or definition-wise. In studies done over this illusion, people that have more responsibilities to deal with, i.e. families, jobs and other such things, have performed worse in spotting errors. This experiment tested if age really affects the performance in noticing errors. There were five age ranges 11 to 19, 20 to 35, 36 to 50, 51 to 64, and 65+ and each age range was split into 3 groups A, B, and C with each of these groups having 10 persons. Each group viewed a specific scenario. Each scenario had different amounts of questions that fell into the Semantic Illusion Scenario A having 5 questions, Scenario B having 3 questions, and Scenario C having 7 questions . Overall, the data showed that the 36 to 50 age range noticed the least amount of errors, which supports the theory that more responsibilities affects how many inaccuracies are noticed. The data also supports the hypothesis of this experiment, which was that the 36 to 50 age range would notice the least inaccuracies overall.
42 1042 The Power of Pets Behavioral & Social Sciences J The purpose of this study is to find out whether or not dogs lower anxiety levels in a testing setting. Knowing if dogs lower anxiety will help people to more effectively get stress relief help. The proposed hypothesis is that if somebody is petting a dog while testing, then their stress levels will decrease, resulting in a better test score than if they were to take the test alone. In order to test the hypothesis, the participants took two multiplication tests of the same level of difficulty. The first one they took alone, and the second one they took while petting a dog. Before, between, and after the tests, their blood pressure was also recorded. After all the experiments, it was learnt that with a dog, average test scores barely increase, and average test time decreases. The average diastolic and systolic blood pressure also decrease after petting a dog. The only negative effect that has been detected is that the pulse increases with a dog. Because of these findings it can be concluded that dogs lower anxiety levels for some people. This study helps hospitals who are considering whether or not to incorporate a dog therapy program into their facility, or patients in a mental state of need who could benefit from animal-assisted stress relief.
43 1043 Broken Mirroring Behavioral & Social Sciences J The purpose of this study was to determine if mirror testing could be used as an early detection for autism. Is it true that autistic children do not mirror others or have difficulty reading mirroring cues Could dysfunctional mirror neurons cause the social difficulties that autistic children struggle with daily Using a control group of four typical non-spectrum children and another with four children on the autism spectrum, each were individually tested using the exact same method, time, environment, and mirroring cues. After each mirroring cue, data was collected to indicate whether the subject did or did not mirror the test administrator. The mirroring cues used during the test were simplistic and administered in the same order during the experiment. Within the testing time and during random questioning, the mirroring cues were in this order, nose rub, facial expression caused by lemon , hand movements drumming fingers on table and picking at fingernails , averted gaze, laughter and yawning. Typical non-spectrum participants did mirror 80 percent more that autistic participants. Autistic participants had an obvious disconnect with mirror cues except for the more obvious cue of laughter. Overall, the typical participants mirrored more that the autistic participants. The autistic participants are seen to have a dysfunctional mirror neuron system when compared to the typical participants. This study would have been more accurate if more participants were added to both groups and it would have been more informative if more mirroring actions were done during the experiment.
44 1044 The Generation of social media Behavioral & Social Sciences J We believe that for scholars to be prosperous in life, they must have a good school environment. When teachers notice students utilizing their phones in social media, the teachers waste time attempting to reform the expectations thus, students who want to learn get aggravated and irritated. Therefore, they lose motivation. In this world, we need to learn and manifest our beliefs. But how will we do so if we don t have a good educational environment Our goal was to have students understand the impact social media has on them. We believe that young teens are addicted to social media, for it keeps them entertained by communicating with others allowing them to be notified frequently with what s going on with people and events.
45 1045 Break Choice Behavioral & Social Sciences J The topic of my project is to see if there is a link between age and break choices. The question I am trying to answer is Does age affect the activity you choose to break away from a task , the purpose of the project is to show how the human mental and choice development changes as new generations populate. I will test my question by observing three age groups in different rooms, while doing a certain task, and seeing what they do to break away from that task using a certain option. The key impact I wanted my experiment to show is that age matters in all the things we do, even small things. The outcome of my project was that age does affect your activity you choose to break away from a task.
46 1046 Revolver to Glocks, Testing the shots Behavioral & Social Sciences J My dad being a retired game warden for 30 years brought interest in my project. When he said that law enforcement became way more dangerous, and more officers are getting injured more often, I decided to test my project. I am looking to see if there is a correlation between the officer change in handguns, revolver to semi-auto and the increase of both bullets traded in a shootout, and officer fatalities in the line of duty over the years. In 1895, officers started to carry revolvers, and the average amount of bullets traded was 3 bullets in 3 seconds at point blank range. Now that officers started to carry semi-automatics, the average bullets traded increase from 13-15. This means that the criminals start to fire back more often, and they are not as scared of the semi-auto as they were of the revolver. My test proves that revolvers are more powerful and loud. Some officers even call the revolver a noise flash diversionary device, or a flash bang. We used a photometer to measure the light power of the two firearms, and we found that the revolver had a light intensity over 100 compared to a semi-automatic. We also measured the two handguns with a decibel reader, and again, the revolver was way more powerful. We also interviewed many police officers, retired and active, and asked their opinion. We also looked at the LEOKA report and the UCR, and both show the increase of officer fatalities over the past years.
47 1047 Color's Great Effect On Human Memory Behavioral & Social Sciences J The purpose of this experiment is to determine if writing in color better helps people remember what they wrote. The hypothesis claims if the experimental group in the experiment take notes in color, they will score better on the quiz than the control group who takes notes in pencil and black pen because color pops out to you. The information will stick in someone s brain better because of how much the colored text popped to the person.In this experiment, the scientist divided twenty-six people into two equal groups of thirteen, one being the control group who writes in pencil and black, and learns in black, and the other being the experimental group who writes and learns in color. After this, the scientist brought the experimental group into a room, presented them the colorful slideshow, and had them take notes in colored pen, after collected their notes pages, and lastly had them exit the room. Next, the scientist did the exact same thing with the control group, except they took took notes in pencil and black pen, and saw the slideshow in black. For the next week they studied their notes pages. Exactly a week later they took a quiz on the notes. In conclusion, the experimental group overall scored better than the control group. The hypothesis was supported by the data collected, claiming that color does help someone remember what they wrote better. This data will help schools in the future because it will help students retain more information.
48 1048 The Effect of Scents on Recollection of Amusement Park Areas and Rides Behavioral & Social Sciences J The nose is connected to the brain, and identifies thousands of smells, using olfactory receptors. Those receptors are connected to the olfactory bulb, which in turn is connected to the amygdala and temporal lobe having to do with memory. These smells embed into your memories via brain waves. Knowing this, amusement park developers implement certain smells in an area to trigger feelings or as a way of you remember said area. This experiment was used to test whether participants were able to correlate certain scents to where the scents are were implemented at Disney land and world . It was hypothesized that participants would be more likely to correlate the orange scent to the Soarin ride. During the experiment participants were asked to smell diffuser steam containing a scent and were asked what area ride the smell reminded them of from Disney. The data found that more 15 participants participants correctly correlated the pool water scent to its ride, and that only 1 person was able to correlate the Morning Mist scent to Its correct ride. As with the pool water scent, more people were able to correlate the orange scent to the Soarin ride The hypothesis proposed was incorrect in that more people correctly correlated the pool water scent and not the orange scent. Knowledge gained included the fact that this wasn t the most efficient way of testing the subjects as it would have been easier for participants to remember the ride if the scent was emitted in the exact same way.
49 1049 Face Off Behavioral & Social Sciences J Through every interaction, it is important to know how to make the best first impression. Consciously and subconsciously, people are judged on their looks, personality, and style, which can further lead to how they are viewed in other aspects of life. So, does the physical attributes of a person affect how they are perceived by others In 1920, Edward Thorndike wrote a paper called The Constant Error in Psychological Ratings. Through this paper, Thorndike discovered that more attractive military soldiers were seen as has having higher perceived qualities when judged by their officers. An experiment was conducted where 25 participants of various men and women, multiple races and ages, were asked to rate 25 photographs of a diverse group of people. The categories to be ranked focused on personal qualities, such as their likeliness of pursuing a high paying career. However, the only data presented was a photograph.After all the data was collected, the results showed that the most attractive woman was seen has having the overall highest perceived qualities. The most attractive man, was seen as having the 3rd- highest perceived qualities. The least attractive woman, was seen has having the 2nd- highest perceived qualities, and the least attractive man had the least ranked perceived qualities.In conclusion, the surveyed data showed that women score higher overall, and the least attractive male scored the lowest.
50 1050 A Trip Down Memory Lane Behavioral & Social Sciences J Let s get on the train of thoughts. Oh, wait did you lose it People tend to not focus on why we forget our memories. Could there be a possible reason That s why we pulled out a factor called senility that is a major culprit to memory loss. Senility is the physical and mental decline due to old age or diseases such as dementia, Alzheimer s, atherosclerosis. We want to express that though there are many more reasons we are prone to failing to remember our retentions, the most chronic cause is due to a process called senility. We will investigate and solve our hypothesis by experimenting with three age groups Adolescence, Adults, and Elders. Our investigation includes cards similar to each other. Essentially, we will observe their ability to remember the correct card. Whoever receives the most points will determine our confirmation about our research. After testing, we finally came out with results that showed our hypothesis was correct The answer came out as adolescents scoring 80%, adults 40%, and elders 0% percentages calculated out of 5 people per age group . Our project contributes to the area of Behavioral and Social Sciences, and we fall through with this because we talk about psychology. We ve completed our objectives by answering our question about if age groups affect our ability to remember.
51 1051 How to memorize it? Behavioral & Social Sciences J This project is being done because lots of students struggle with finding a way to study and memorize information. There are many techniques for studying but people can be overwhelmed with these. The goal of this project is to figure out what technique works best. If student start to use techniques that work well for most other people, then grades will improve. Also studying will be easier, so more students will be willing to do it. The experiment was done to test the hypothesis that if students studied using acronyms then they would get the best grades. Typical high school students were asked to use various techniques to memorize the uses of the Spanish word to be Ser . The hypothesis was partially correct because using acronyms and drawing pictures were tied for the best results.
52 1052 learning techniques Behavioral & Social Sciences J AbstractAll over the world people have troubles with memorizing simple things, that are incredibly important. Speeches for conferences, items for test, even little events like a friend s birthday. My project specializes on taking that confusion in upcoming events, turning it into a wide memory for little things. There are three types of learners, Auditory, Visual, Tactile. Auditory is when you learn better by listening. Visual is when you learn best by seeing actions. And lastly, Tactile means you learn better by doing physical movement. For my project I used three different methods to test your type of learner, Loci, Writing, and Mozart. The Loci method is where I make you imagen a place for you to experience weird event. The weirder it is, the higher chance for memorizing. The next method is writing, I give them and item, or a color for them to write down. This method gives them a chance to see what they wrote to have a good chance of memorizing it. And lastly Mozart, is where I make them listen to simple Mozart while I name out simple colors for them to memorize From my Data I saw that there were more Tactile than other learning style. I also saw that people work better by listening to Mozart. And even though there were more tactile and Mozart learners. The other methods worked just as good for other learners. There were no similarities. Then again, people aren t the same. The mind in a curious thing.
58 1058 Where's the Beef? Biochemistry & Microbiology J AbstractThe purpose of this experiment is to determine whether meat alternatives are more easily digested than real meat and, therefore, healthier for the consumer. The hypothesis states that since meat alternatives contain plant-based products and less fat they will be more rapidly broken down in the gut and more effectively digested. There has been a great deal of hype and aggressive marketing of these newly introduced meat substitutes and the claim that they are healthier than real meat was assessed in this experiment.To simulate the digestive process ground chuck and a popular meat alternative were cooked, briefly chewed and placed in separate plastic pouches filled with acetic acid. Acetic acid was used as a substitute for stomach acid. The bags were regularly rotated to simulate the churning motion of the gut. Samples taken from of each of the pouches were tested at regular intervals to determine the respective levels of sugar in each. Changes in color and consistency of the samples were also documented.The results showed that the real meat samples had higher sugar levels and were dissolved considerably more than the alternative meat samples after going through the digestive process. As the real meat appeared to be healthier, the hypothesis was not supported. Future applications could involve evaluating additional meat alternatives, including veggie burgers, and expanding the analysis beyond just beef to include other sources of real meat. Replacing acetic acid with stomach acid would also allow for a more natural assessment.
59 1059 Algae, water experiment Biochemistry & Microbiology J The purpose of this project was to see if green algae could provide aid in the cleaning of filthy water and if so does more algae clean the water faster. Green algae is a clean alternative to other types of filtering, reducing emissions and helping lower greenhouse gasses therefore lowering global temperatures. A total of nine test tubes were used. Three tubes were filled with 5ml of algae and then filled to 45ml with ditch water. The next three were filled with 10ml and were then filled to 45ml. The final three tubes were filled with 15ml and then filled up to 45ml of ditch water. Each of the tubes were exposed to the same amount of sunlight and the same temperature. After three days one tube from each group was tested using water strips. The chemical values shown on the strips were recorded to a table. The water had actually gotten worse before it got better which was very surprising. Using this experiment people can have cleaner water to drink at an affordable price. People can then realize the benefits of algae and use its full potential.
60 1060 Reducing the risk of Obesity and Diabetes: Which fruits, vegetables and whole grains are good for you? Biochemistry & Microbiology J Purpose The purpose of this project is to identify healthy fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains that have low glycosidase amylase activity and that slowly raise blood glucose levels.Method Starches are complex carbohydrates that react with iodine solution to produce a purple-black color. Glycosidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into simple sugars. To test for the presence of starch and hidden sugars, samples of the food items underwent reactions with iodine solution or were incubated with glycosidase acidic pH stomach conditions and then reacted with Benedict s solution, respectively. To determine the amylase activity of food items, the clear zones produced by amylase on starch-agar plate with iodine solution were measured. Data All grains expressed high carbohydrate content and low amounts of reducing sugar. The reaction with glycosidase acid indicated high concentration of hidden sugars slow-releasing . Cornstarch had the highest amount of carbohydrate and sugar content. Vegetables and nuts had low, while fruits had high sugar content. The sweeteners, Equal and Splenda , had high starch and sugar content. Mango and spinach had the highest amylase activity. Cooking did not affect the starch or sugar content but lowered amylase activity.Conclusion The approach of testing glycosidase activity and measuring sugar content helped categorize carbohydrates as good or bad. Foods with high glycosidase activity and high sugar content rapidly increase the blood glucose levels. Selection of low sugar grains, vegetables and fruits serve as good carbohydrates that can help maintain healthy glucose levels in the bloodstream and reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes.
61 1061 Killing Bacteria Biochemistry & Microbiology J Overall, I learned that no matter how much we clean things and think of how clean they are, bacteria is always there. Even when cleaning with Clorox, which says that it clean 99.9% of bacteria and germs, there was still bacteria on my petri dish. And even though the Thieves didn t clean as well as the Clorox did, it still cleaned, and imagine how well it would clean when made with distilled water instead of filtered water This also proves that essential oils are helpful to many people, no matter how they use them. I also learned how Clorox and other chemical based cleaning products can effect you, and with giving people a 40% increased risk of COPD, Thieves cleaner sounds like much better option to clean with.
62 1062 Don't Touch That! Biochemistry & Microbiology J In the United States alone there have been over 1 billion cases of a common cold recorded last year, most of which consist of sick kids and teenagers. The reason these kids have a much greater chance of becoming sick is because of attending schools and or daycares that are filled with all different varieties of dangerous bacteria that can easily make an underdeveloped body sick. This experiment was conducted in order to find which areas in a public school have the most bacteria and would be an area where a student is most likely to become sick. In this experiment, samples of five different school surfaces school water fountain, desk, door handle, computer keyboard, cafeteria table from 3 separate schools were swabbed into Petri dishes and put in an incubator for 48 hours to let bacteria grow. The number of individual bacterial colonies were counted for each surface and compared with the other test surfaces. While all the averages for each testing surface was high, the average amount of bacteria colonies on a school water fountain was the greatest by far. The next most bacteria ridden surfaces were the cafeteria table and student desk.With the knowledge gathered from this experiment schools can now pinpoint which areas in a school are major bacteria hotspots and can make sure these areas are cleaned more regularly and thoroughly. This will reduce chances of disease being spread throughout school and will immensely decrease the number of sick students in all of America.
63 1063 Optimization of Microbial Fuel Cell Start-Up Times Biochemistry & Microbiology J AbstractMicrobial fuel cells MFCs are very useful things. They can be used for small amounts of power generation in remote places to power things such as sensors, or in more established locations to treat wastewater. MFCs use exoelectrogenic bacteria to generate power. However, these bacteria can t directly consume complex organic matter. Instead, they depend on other bacteria to break down the complex matter into simple organic acids, such as lactate, acetate or butyrate, before they can consume it. One type of MFC is the soil-based MFC, sometimes used to power sensors in remote locations. One problem with this is that soil-based MFCs are characterized by excessively long start-up times, during which they aren t generating useful power. Also, during this time, they are using up locally available biomass, limiting their ultimate lifetime. I believe that the limiting factor in the length of the start-up phase is the availability of simple organic acids to feed the growth of an exoelectrogenic biofilm on the anode. In the project, I added different amounts of acetate to different microbial fuel cells, and measured their voltages over the course of 7-10 days. Unfortunately, our results were chaotic, and not much can be concluded from them. From what I found, I have tentatively concluded that low amounts of acetate help microbial fuel cells start up.
64 1064 Sun and Skin Bacteria Biochemistry & Microbiology J This project dealt with bacteria. The bacteria was taken from skin swabs and exposed to ultraviolet and visible light. The light caused changes in the amount of bacterial growth produced after two weeks of exposure. The final results showed that visible light was far more conducive to skin bacterial growth than the ultraviolet light. This can be used in sanitizing products such as the PhoneSoap.
65 1065 Osmosis Biochemistry & Microbiology J The purpose of the experiment was the test how different environmental factors affects the process of osmosis. We tested temperature and different solutes on gummy bears, potatoes, and stalks of celery. Given the experiment results, we concluded that varying environmental factors plays significant role in osmosis.
66 1066 Hemoglobin Biochemistry & Microbiology J Blood is crucial to sustain the life of a living organism and without it, you d basically be dead. A few years ago my dad told me about how his dad my grandpa donated blood to him as a child when he was sick and that got me wondering, could different blood types be donated to anyone. There are only eight different blood types A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, and O- . Just like a fingerprint, you can group people based on their blood type. When two different blood types that shouldn t be mixed are mixed there would be a dramatic outcome the white blood cells would think that there is an invader and try would try killing it other blood types but will accidentally start killing itself the red blood cell . Due to the growth of technology humans now are able to know their specific blood type which will lead them to have a higher chance of still living after their procedure. So to conclude knowing your blood type could either keep you alive or kill you.
67 1067 Kill Zone Biochemistry & Microbiology J The objective of this science fair project was to see which natural antibiotic made the largest area of inhibition when placed in an E. coli k12 bacteria culture. By knowing about which natural antibiotics work the best, people who don t have access to the modern antibiotics can have something that works if even a bit. Also if modern antibiotics are used too much then bacteria will get resistant to it to using it for minor stuff can help slow that down. The hypothesis for this experiment was that if historic antibiotics were added to an E. coli k12 culture then they will show varying degrees of inhibition but now would be as effective as modern antibiotics. To set up this experiment first take a sterile swab and rub it on the E. coli k12 culture then swipe it across the sterile agar filled petri dish in a zigzag motion to cover all of it then get a blank sterile filter disk and soak it in whatever substance is being used then put the filter disk in the section labeled whatever substance was used. As expected the modern antibiotics did the best and was followed by tea tree oil then gentian violet. The other substances had little to no effect. The project went smoothly and the hypothesis was right, but one thing that could be changed to make the data more accurate would be to use a bacteria commonly found on the body and in the body.
68 1068 The Effect of Natural Antibiotics on E.coli Bacteria Biochemistry & Microbiology J Natural Antibiotics have been a way that our ancestors have used to cure illnesses for many years. They have recently been resurfacing and are giving doctors and patients an alternative way to treat infections. This has sparked a lot of debate in the medical field, some scientist supporting it and others not. These types of treatments may also give a solution to stop growing modern antibiotic resistant bacteria if they are proven to work. This project was run to test those theories and questions about Natural Antibiotics. E. coli bacteria was treated on to a petri dish and then applied with either Echinacea, Garlic, Clove, Goldenseal, or Oregano oil. They were left in an incubator for two days and then observed to see the diameter of no bacteria growth where the oil was dropped. Some oils preformed better than others, Goldenseal killing the most bacteria and Oregano killing the none. This concludes that Goldenseal is the most effective at killing bacteria out of these independent variables. This also proves that the hypothesis If natural antibiotic remedies have an effect on E. coli bacteria growth, then Echinacea will perform the best to be incorrect.
69 1069 The Effect of Household Solutions on Hyphae Filament Growth in a Yeast Culture Biochemistry & Microbiology J In last year s project on yeast viability and growth, it was observed that as salinity increased, the yeast developed feathery strands known as hyphae filaments. These branching structures occur in yeast infections are sometimes deadly. There is not a consistently effective medication for combating hyphae filaments. The goal was to see if household solutions could either eliminate or minimize hyphal growth. The question for this project is What is the effect of household solutions on the quantity of hyphae filaments in a yeast culture and the hypothesis is If different household solutions are added to a yeast culture, then the vinegar will eliminate the most hyphal growth. Water, salt, sugar, yeast, and various household solutions were combined. Using methylene blue dye, cells and hyphae were counted using a microscope. Sodium bicarbonate and isopropyl alcohol solutions tended to increase filament reproduction. Vinegar and Dawn Dish Soap decreased the amount of hyphal growth. All the solutions discouraged yeast cell growth.The hypothesis was correct. Vinegar solutions yielded the most substantial reductions in hyphae filaments. Vinegar also reduced the yeast cell reproduction it could be a good preventative of yeast infections. Dawn Dish Soap may be a good anti-fungal solution for established infections. Sodium bicarbonate and isopropyl alcohol increased hyphal growth but produced fewer yeast cells compared to the control and to Dawn Dish Soap. This information is promising given that eliminating hyphae filaments has been a challenge for many scientists. Therefore, further experimentation combining vinegar with Dawn Dish Soap could prove useful.
70 1070 Effects of UV Light on Bacterial Growth Biochemistry & Microbiology J The use of antibiotics have increased tremendously and is a part of global issue. In today s world the cause of various types of diseases are the growth of bacteria. If we do not find ways to control the bacterial growth, we will be increasing the usage of antibiotics to cure the diseases. The constant use of antibiotics can create severe unknown health issues.This project investigates an alternate method for controlling bacterial growth using UV light to cause mutations in the bacterial cells.In this investigation bacteria was exposed to range of UV exposure times as well as lamp light exposure times and effects this had on the survival of the bacteria was measuredIn this project, e coli bacteria was used to create bacterial growth on agar plates. The bacteria was exposed to a lamp light and UV light using the amount of time. Half of the plates were covered with aluminum foil as a controlled group keeping the same range of light exposure time. The bacterial colonies were counted after 48 hours of exposure. Increasing the range of UV light decreases the growth of the bacteria on the agar plates.Increasing the range of lamp light increases the growth of bacteria. This might be due to the amount of heat and light energy generated by the lamp light.
71 1071 Global warming on staph aureus virulence Biochemistry & Microbiology J THE EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON S. AUREUS The problem for this project is what is the effect of temperature oC on staphylococcus aureus The temperature variable in the real world is global warming. The scientist s hypothesis was If Staphylococcus aureus is exposed to different temperatures, then the virulence as demonstrated by the presence amount of hemolysis will vary. With increased temperature global warming the virulence as demonstrated by the presence amount of hemolysis will increase. What that means is that with increased temperatures, the hemolysin amount will also increase.When the scientist tested, they did 5 different temperatures, 25, 35, 37, 39, and 42 oC. At each of these temperatures, they did 10 Petri dishes and 1 electrophoresis slot.At 25 oC there was the least hemolysin in the entire experiment, only 0 s. At 35 oC there was slightly more hemolysin, only 1 s-2 s. at 37 oC there was the most hemolysin in the entire experiment, almost all 3 s. At 39 oC, the hemolysin count went back down, to 1 s and 2 s. At 42 oC it went back up to 2 s. At 42 oC the bacterial colonies turned yellow instead of grey. The scientist they were working with thinks another virulence factor might have been activated by the higher temperatures.The scientist s prediction was partially correct because the hemolysin amount did change, but didn t go up the entire time. In the real-world scientists can use this data to expect S. aureus to still be a problem even with the warming globe
72 1072 The effect of colored light on Bacterial growth in Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid Biochemistry & Microbiology J My project is determining whether the color of light affects bacterial growth in Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid. The research from this project could be implemented as a treatment of bacterial infections, specifically postoperative infections after neurological surgery. My question is Does the color of light affect bacterial growth in Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid My hypothesis was Yes, blue light inhibits bacterial growth the most. The procedures used in the duration of this investigation are as follows.First, I aerated the Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid ACSF .Then, I swabbed the bacteria from the desk into the agar plates.Afterwards, I placed 0.2mL of ACSF into each plate. I then let the bacteria incubate. Each day, for 6 days, I measured the bacterial growth and recorded my results. At the end of the experiment, I bleached and disposed of the agar plates.The results found out from this investigation support my hypothesis because blue light inhibited the most bacterial growth. The results of this investigation are in line with the results of the studies conducted by other scientists. The results are important because they offer a possibly new way of treating bacterial infections.
73 1073 Natures Medicine Biochemistry & Microbiology J The project was chosen because the scientist had a love for microbiology that came from his grandpa. That s how the project What Parts of a White Oak tree are the Most Effective Killers of the Staph E. bacteria with the variables Xylem, Phloem, Bark, Penicillin Notatum, and the Control developed. After more research the scientist made the hypothesis If different parts of a White Oak tree are used, then Penicillin will be the most effective against the Staph E. bacteria . The xylem was collected using the vacuum pump. The phloem was collected using the EDTA method. The bark was shaved from the tree and the Penicillin Notatum was cultured. The Staph E. was cultured and spread on the agar plates. The samples were dropped into the Staph E. agar plates. The plates were incubated, and the measurements were taken. The results got were that the Xylem did the best with an average of 0.23cm. Phloem was the next best with an average of 0.18cm. Bark was next with an average of 0.115cm. The Penicillin was next with an average of 0cm. Last was the control with an average of 0cm. The hypothesis was incorrect with Penicillin Notatum having no effect on the Staph E. bacteria. This was probably because of the Staph E. bacteria s resistance to antibiotics like penicillin. Bacteria such as the Staph E. bacteria have evolved to resist antibiotics making them deadlier. This project has opened the door to new more natural medicines that kill the evolved bacteria.
74 1074 Measurement of UltraFine Particles on the Ligustrum Japonicum plant Biochemistry & Microbiology J UFP poses a great threat to the human body, and due to its size of .1 m, it can pass through the body s immune system, impede the function of the alveoli, and get absorbed into the bloodstream giving it passage into sensitive organs like the brain. This makes it carcinogenic. This project aims to measure the UFP saturation on guard cells and compare them at different locations. The underside of a Ligustrum Japonicum leaf was observed in the 40x zoom level of a light microscope and particles of size 0.5 2.5 m were counted for each of the collection sites. The order of most to least contamination was the busy roadside 520.83 UFP mm2 , school pickup line 382.50 UFP mm2 , backyard 37.5 UFP mm2 , and plant nursery Control group 2.08 UFP mm2 . Vehicle emissions were suspected to be the most probable source of UFP since the locations exposed more to vehicle exhaust had more particles. The most significant observation was that UFP was found to collect in large numbers surrounding the stomata, potentially clogging the opening and disrupting photosynthesis. A low-cost UFP Counter prototype was developed with several layers of filters to isolate and trap the UFP. A virtual map was created for people around the world to upload their findings and a UFP Gauge was created to calculate the approximate UFP mm2, and determine how hazardous the air is at a given location.
75 1075 Eye of the Fly Biochemistry & Microbiology J Abstract Eye of The Fly Mitchell Colvin This experiment was conducted to determine if the fruit fly white eye mutation is recessive and sex-linked. The hypothesis is if white eyed males are crossed with wild type females then 25 percent of F2 second generation males will have white eyes. Procedures Mate white eyed males with red eyed wild type virgin females.When offspring begin the pupa stage, remove the parent flies.Once flies emerge from the pupa, nap the flies. Take the flies and split them up into two separate culture tubes.Once larva or pupa is visible in cultures, nap tubes and remove the parent flies.When flies emerge from the pupa stage, nap and observe the ratio of red eyed flies to white eyed flies.The total number of flies in the F2 was 195. 97 were males and 98 were females. Overall, 24.1% of the flies were male and had white eyes. Of the males, 47 were white eyed and the remaining 50, were red eyed. All females were red eyed.Because all of the F1 females had red eyes, this proves that the white eyed mutation is recessive. In addition, because only the males in F2 had white eyes, this proves that the white eyed mutation is on the X chromosome. A future experiment would be putting the cultures with any fly type near a wifi router, seeing if the radio waves affect the flies in any way.
76 1076 Measuring Yeast Reproduction in Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Biochemistry & Microbiology J Have you ever wondered how bread got its puffy structure When baking bread, the sugar used mixes with the yeast. The yeast cells then derive energy from the sugar, which emits carbon dioxide. In bread dough, carbon dioxide produced by yeast forms bubbles that causes the dough to rise, and thus gives bread it s puffy structure. But what if you used a sugar substitute when baking with yeast. How will the structure of the bread vary compared to baking with sugar And what s the best sugar substitute to use when baking with yeast My experiment tested this through mixing warm water, sugar or sugar substitute, and yeast. I used 3 sugar substitutes saccharin, sucralose, aspartame. I measured the amount of CO2 produced by each solution by connecting tubing from the top of a bottle holding the yeast solution. That tubing connected into an upsidedown graduated cylinder that s full of water, which sat in a plastic tub that also held water. The CO2 produced by the yeast solution displaced water in the graduated cylinder, and after 30 minutes, the amount of displaced water was the amount of CO2 produced by the solution. The more CO2 produced by the solution, the better use that sugar substitute will serve when baking with yeast!
77 1077 Aspirin Absorption Biochemistry & Microbiology J Aspirin is commonly used to relieve pain and reduce fevers. It also can be used as a blood thinner in patients that have had a stroke or heart attack. This science fair project is intended to determine which solution dissolves an aspirin more quickly. If aspirin is consumed as a liquid it is more rapidly absorbed in the bloodstream.The Ph of the solution was also tested before and after adding the aspirin to measure whether or not the Ph was in range for the aspirin to be absorbed in the bloodstream. Aspirin absorbs better with a PH range 3.5-6.5.
78 1078 Battle of the Freshest Biochemistry & Microbiology J The long debate between organic and non-organic crops has been going on since the 1940s. As the non-organic methods in the agriculture industry are growing, we are faced with a problem between non-organic and organic crops. We have to test out which one lasts longer. Which one stays fresher. We need to decide which one is worth the customer s dollar.Our problem was which stays fresher longer organic or non-organic We hypothesized that if there is an organic and non-organic crop then the inorganic crop would last longer because it would have chemicals.We first started this problem by researching the difference between organic and non-organic products. And also how do things spoil. It was important for us to make sure that they had the same amount of time and we re set in the same place so it won t affect the data. The materials we used were 3 non-organic bananas, 3 organic bananas, 3 non-organic cauliflower, 3 organic cauliflower, a table, and a roll of measuring tape. Then we left the crops for 8 days to spoil.The non-organic data of the crops were in the lead in spoilation rates and was always spoiling faster. In this project, we want to see the advantages that organic products have to offer. To learn about it and see which one has the most advantages, is healthier and is worth your dollar.
79 1079 Water you Drinking? Biochemistry & Microbiology J I decided to test the bacteria count of reused bottles of water. I thought that reusing a bottle of water would increases bacteria but that was a pretty basic hypothesis, so I added a rinsing component to see how much did rinsing help get rid of bacteria. Most of the materials used for this experiment were household items like pens, tape, and bottles of water, but some materials were special and had to be requested like petri dishes and an incubator. For the procedure of this experiment, I drank out of two bottles of water a day and then in the morning I would refill one and rinse out the other. After two days of the drink rinse refill procedure, I would go to the lab to culture the bacteria. To do this I had to swab the inside of the bottles and streak the swab onto the petri dishes careful not to contaminate the dishes with other bacteria. Next, I placed the petri dishes into the incubator. Then I did the whole process again for Set 2. In conclusion, the hypothesis was proven correct and the reusage of water bottles will increase bacteria growth.
80 1080 Phage Warfare Biochemistry & Microbiology J As a result of antibiotic resistance, 35,000 people die each year in the United States alone. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the T4 bacteriophage could not only efficiently kill E. Coli, but also not harm any good bacteria i.e. probiotics in the process. This information could help many people who are battling antibiotic resistant bacteria with another viable treatment option. The hypothesis stated that the T4 bacteriophage would be able to efficiently kill E. Coli without harming good bacteria. Furthermore, it was essential to see if there was a relationship between E Coli bacteria growth and the bacteriophage when it was diluted at different levels. In order to test the aforementioned hypothesis a petri dish with just E. Coli bacteria and a petri dish with E. Coli bacteria combined with different bacteriophage dilutions 10-7, 10-6 and 10-5 were monitored. In addition, another petri dish with just probiotics was compared to a petri dish with probiotics and the bacteriophage. Each day, for a period of four days, colony counts and plaque counts were recorded. At the end of the experiment the results were in agreement with the hypothesis in the fact that the bacteriophage was able to efficiently kill E. Coli without harming the probiotics. With this conclusion one can also generalize that the bacteriophage could now be a viable option for treatment of antibiotic resistance.
87 1087 Icy Roads Chemistry J For my project this year, I decided to test how ice affects the melting rate of ice. I wanted to know if it would increase the melting rate of the ice, decrease the melting rate, or if it would have no impact on the ice.I chose this project because I knew that if my theory was proven right, then it could help people who live in areas where ice forms on roads. I simulated the ice roads with the cookie sheets with ice and then sprinkled different amounts of salt into each. For my control group I used no salt. Then I recorded the time it took the ice to melt on each of the cookie sheets. After doing the experiment I learned that salt does affect the melting rate of ice. The more salt the faster the ice melts.
88 1088 Pool Container Accurateness Testing Chemistry J This project was crafted because it was attempt proving and to give out some information that would help pool maintenance workers and pool owners on which type of material for a container would be best to preserve the accuracy of pool water testing. Three types of containers were selected to be testers. For the experiment, the containers used were Professional ones from lisle s pool supply, plastic daily drinking water bottles, and glass containers. Water was contained inside the containers bottles and was placed under the sun for 10-15 minutes. There was three containers bottles for each material type because there are more than one trial. Then the water was tested and the data was recorded. The results were surprising, because although the plastic water bottle and glass container was less accurate, the results did not differ too much, but as expected, the professional bottle given by Leslie s pool supply was the most accurate container. This experiment can prove that although plastic drinking water bottles and glass containers are great material to store water, using the professional bottle has the most accuracy when testing pool water.
89 1089 Baiting Them Flies Chemistry J We decided to create fly traps because there were a lot of flies flying around our backyards. So then we experimented with two traps and wrote down our results. Our problem question was What bait would make the best fruit fly trap. We had believed that the Apple cider trap would succeed as the best bait, we were correct on that. We concluded that the Apple Cider Trap was the greater successor as shown in our results.
90 1090 Mint Condition Chemistry J The reason I chose Mint Condition was by the influence of my mother. Initially I wanted to do a project about soap but once my mother explained the interest of the effects on peppermint, I decided to do my project on the coolness of gum versus a mint. I always asked myself Am I crazy or is this water cold Now I understand whether the mint or gum have a better cooling agent.
91 1091 Biodegradability of Starch-Based Bioplastics in an Ocean-Environment Chemistry J The purpose of this project was to determine the starch-based bioplastic with the most significant hydro-biodegradation rate in ocean water. It was predicted that if 3 forms of starch-based bioplastics are created and then submerged in ocean water, then the tapioca starch bioplastic will have broken down the most because tapioca starch has the lowest amylose content. Amylose is a component of starch that expels water and prevents solubility. This project was inspired by the growing issue of plastic degradation across the globe. Bioplastic is made from organic polymers including lignin, cellulose, and starch, and is meant to combat this.3 starch-based bioplastics were created using glycerin as a plasticizer. The 3 types were cornstarch, potato starch, and tapioca starch. The samples were weighed before and after a 3 week submersion. The difference in weight was used to find the percentage of total weight loss, which were averaged for each subgroup and compared alongside HDPE plastic. The data collected supported the hypothesis. The tapioca starch bioplastic displayed changes expected from a lower amylose content, including increased water retention and the highest percentage of weight loss 34.54% . The cornstarch and potato starch bioplastic had similar percentages to the tapioca starch. All forms of bioplastic were almost equal in hydro-biodegradation efficiency. This information is valuable to companies looking to switch to a more eco-friendly plastic alternative, which diminishes the global plastic waste crisis by accelerating the process of degradation, cutting carbon emissions, and decreasing usage of fossil fuels.
92 1092 Eggs N' Stuff Chemistry J This science fair project is revolved around different acidic scales and their impacts or enamel-like structures. This project was decided when one of our group members made an egg-citing discovery. When boiling eggs, the substance that they re boiled in has a great impact on the initial outcome or after-product. Things such as color, odor, form, and quite possibly taste, can be greatly affected. When they realize any liquid s effect on the teeth is the same as the liquid s effect on the eggs the idea was formulated. After thorough communication, we got straight to work.
93 1093 Strongest SPF Chemistry J The purpose of this experiment was to determine if high sun protection factor SPF sunscreens really are the greatest. If the different SPFs on sunscreens only measure the blockade against UVB ultraviolet B-rays , then the highest SPF won t necessarily be the best, because it doesn t measure protection against UVA ultraviolet A-rays, which are slightly less harmful. Studies show that there are about 500 times more UVA rays than UVB. UVB rays cause sunburn and cancer, but UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin creating harmful effects. In this experiment, the scientist has used an ultraviolet flashlight, shining a light on bags covered with different sunscreens. The bags held ultraviolet sensitive beads that display how much light has penetrated the sunscreen. Sunscreens with SPF 30, 50, 70, and 100 were used for the experiment creating a wide range of testable sunscreens.The results of this experiment agree with the hypothesis. The order of SPFs from giving the highest protection to the lowest protection is 100, 30, 70, and 50. The beads in the SPF 50 bags were the darkest and the beads in the SPF 100 bags were the lightest. Although the highest SPF turned out to be giving the most protection, the hypothesis was proven correct because the SPF 30 sunscreen provided greater protection than SPF 70 and 50. This data is useful because people will know they can t completely depend on high SPFs to provide full protection from ultraviolet radiation, but instead to look for UVA protection also.
94 1094 Will energy drinks dissolve certain foods Chemistry J I put certain foods in energy drink to see if they would dissolve, but they didn t completely only on the edges a little. This means that energy drinks will only dissolve certain foods. I used cheese, pasta, beef jerky and orange slices and for the drinks I used Red Bull, Nos, Rockstar, Monster, Gatorade, and water. The foods just got soft and they lost their color but didn t dissolve completely. I still think the energy drinks are bad for you because they changed the color of the foods and some of the foods got the sides dissolved, this does mean they are bad for you. On one of the websites I looked at they put an egg in an energy drink, the egg came out all brown and had cracked in it. I concluded that the energy drinks didn t dissolve the food totally but they did some damage to the food.
95 1095 Plastic Milk Experiment Chemistry J Plastic wastes are dangerous to the environment and to our health, yet we use ginormous amounts of plastics. I got interested in milk-based plastic because they are a way more eco-friendlier choice. My project was to see whether boiling the milk used to make plastic or not boiling the milk will make the plastic stronger. I predicted that the plastic would be stronger if I do not boil the milk. To test the strength of the plastic, I used a 12.1 pound hammer and see at what height the hammer needed to be dropped on the plastic to break it. My hypothesis was correct because the average height of the hammer that needed to be dropped to break the plastic without the milk boiled was slightly higher than the average height of the hammer that needed to be dropped to break the plastic with the milk boiled.
96 1096 Paper Chromatography Chemistry J Have you ever wondered what food dyes are in your favorite candies such as Skittles, M M s, or Airheads By using Whatman Chromatography paper, a mason jar, rubbing alcohol and salt, you can find the variety of food dyes found in your candy. Conducting this experiment can show people how much labels really can be trusted, and we need to make sure labels are factual since some people could be allergic to certain kinds of food dyes. In this experiment, we will solubilize Airhead bites, Red Hots, Cherry Great Value drink mix, Strawberry Jell-O, Skittles, Kroger jelly beans and M M s and use them in the paper chromatography process. Each food dye travels a different distance on the chromatography paper due to their individual chemical structure. Food dyes that are more attracted to the solvent will travel further up the paper, whereas those not as attracted to the solvent will remain lower on the paper. After conducting the chromatography trials, the chromatographs will be compared to the FDA food dye standard retention factor Rf . The Rf is found by dividing the distance the solute traveled by the distance the solvent traveled in each trial. These Rf values are then averaged. This allows you to see the differences between the food dyes you tested to the standard based ones. The results showed that out of the 23 candies tested, 14 food dyes were found and 9 were undeterminable. The experiment was conducted with older paper which may have made some dyes undeterminable.
97 1097 Synthesis of Aspirin Using Natural Catalysts Chemistry J The purpose of this experiment was to see if aspirin can be synthesized using natural ingredients. Sulfuric acid and Phosphoric acid are corrosive and dangerous to the environment. It was hypothesized that aspirin can be synthesized using natural or green catalysts.Aspirin was synthesized using salicylic acid and acetic acid with various catalysts including sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, citric acid, and pineapple juice. The findings of the experiment demonstrate that aspirin can be synthesized using natural catalysts such as pineapple juice. The melting points of each synthesized aspirin were similar to commercial aspirin.In conclusion, natural acids that are safer for the environment can be be used at catalysts for chemical reactions. Future experiments may include more efficient and more environmentally safe alternatives to dangerous and expensive chemicals
98 1098 Desiccant Power Chemistry J I had fun doing this experiment, trying to figure out ways to help our planet become a better place. This experiment didn t go as well as I expected because there was a desiccant that didn t dry at all. Next time I do a project like this, I will study more about the materials im using to get good data. I appreciate my teacher s help for finding most of the desiccants I used. After i finished testing , I wondered why potassium carbonate wouldnt dry at all. After doing some research after a while, i found out that potassium carbonate can make some liquids become corrosive. I think that was the problem with the data. The silica gel data impressed me a lot because i didnt expect it to be really good.The normal time for the solution to dry up without the silica gel, was around 6 hours. After applying the silica gel with the solution, the time was brought down to about 1 hour and 54 minutes. Sodium chloride only managed to bring those six hours down to an average of 3 hours and 13 minutes. I enjoyed doing this experiment, the only boring part was just waiting to record my results. One thing i will make sure of, is that next time i will study more about the materials i will be using for my experiment so my data can be good. I feel confident about my board and my science journal, and how my presentation skills are going.
99 1099 Electrolysis Rust Removal Chemistry J Abstract This experiment is efficient and its a solution to the problem of overpricing when getting sand blasting or sanding done on your metal object. As listed in my procedure it can be done at home with an inexpensive cost. A brief summary of my procedure is Make a structure, tie your object to the PVC pipes with two metal wires, apply the terminals to your anode, add the solution into your container, turn on your battery and set it to 10 amps then repeat with 40 amps and let sit for 10 hours. My results were way better after than before. The shotgun barrel was smooth and shiny after the experiment rather than rusty and rough. This experiment required more than one trial. I tested it with 40 amps and with 10 amps. Before I performed the experiment I made an educated guess on which amount of amperage would work best over the course of 10 hours. I guessed 40! I was actually correct. Referring back to my hypothesis, the more amperage applied the more rust would come off quicker. I find this experiment useful, even though not everybody deals or works with metal daily.
100 1100 The effect of lemon juice on over the counter medicine Chemistry J The purpose of the project was to determine how fast over the counter OTC medications dissolve in lemon juice. The medicine used in the study were HEB Acetaminophen 500 mg , Kroger Acetaminophen 325 mg , Tylenol Acetaminophen Rapid Release 500 mg , Tylenol Extra Strength 500 mg , Kroger Ibuprofen 200 mg , HEB Ibuprofen 200 mg , BC Aspirin NSAID, and Goody s Aspirin NSAID. The question investigated is Will the powder over the counter medicine OTC have a 50% increase dissolution rate than the crushed pills Today, more Americans are using a variety of over-the-counter medications to treat everything from colds to headaches. OTC medicines now account for majority of all medications used in the United States, even available only by prescription. Over the counter medicine has become more popular each day and it is important for people and doctors to know how fast the medicine will take to cure the pain. Over the counter medicine is the Rate of dissolution which the amount of drug substance that goes in solution per unit time under standardized conditions of liquid solid interface, temperature and solvent composition. Based on the data collected, the hypothesis for dissolution time of over the counter BC medicine was accepted. As the results indicated, the BC medication had a faster reaction time of 19.02 seconds. Therefore, the dissolution rate was able to exceed the expectations of the hypothesis.
101 1101 The Impacts of Baking Powder on Muffins Chemistry J The intent of this project was to find the appropriate amount of baking powder to add to a recipe to increase rise. The results of my project show that an airier muffin or cake as expected can be achieved by adding baking powder. By following my procedure and recipe somewhat on the recipe portion I created 60 muffins through a trial experiment as proof of concept and 5 trials in my actual experiment. Each trial consisted of each of the 5 batters in spots which rotated between trials to prevent a cold spot or a malfunction from only affecting one part of the data. The results came back with the lowest amount of baking powder having the least rise and the greatest amount of baking powder rising the most on average. This supported my hypothesis that the largest amount of baking powder would rise the most. Although I did meet my goals for the project, I still feel that the room for error was too great and I may get different results if I were to run more trials so I cannot consider this project a success. Furthermore, I simply think that the project could have been more carefully conducted as I made many dumb mistakes such as recording data in inches and not properly measuring the base height of the muffins.
102 1102 Petal to the Metal Chemistry J Iron is an important part of a daily diet. It helps prevent diseases and disorders like anemia and keeps us healthy. Breakfast is often called the most important meal of the day so it is a good time to get iron. This experiment tested which of four popular breakfast cereals provided the most iron in a serving. By blending the cereals with water and pouring them through an iron capture device the most iron was found in Cheerios. Grain Berry said that it had the most iron in a serving, but after this experiment the data shows that Cheerios has the most iron. Out of the 4 cereals Froot Loops came last. Froot Loops came at 4.5mm iron per 250mL, and Grain Berry came in third with 5mm iron per 250mL. They were very close and that this showed not all healthy cereals provide the most iron.
103 1103 The Effect of Repeated Re-Boiling of Water Chemistry J This project was inspired by the article Warning Don t Reboil Water Ever Again! . The article stated that boiling water will increase the concentration of certain chemicals, namely arsenic, nitrates, and fluoride. This might be a problem because a lot of people drink tea, coffee, and for baby formula. This project tested for chlorine, iron, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. The procedure was as follows Fill kettle with 1.7 litters of tap water.Boil the water in kettle.Let it sit for 1 hour to cool.Take a 100 ml sample of the cooled water and test for the analytes.Repeat steps 2,3, and 4. Do this until you have 10 samples.Test all sample for desired chemicalsWhat was found was that the iron fell out of solution, the chlorine boiled off, ammonia and nitrite disappeared, and nitrate increased with every sample.It can be concluded from this experiment that the hypothesis was incorrect because it was thought that iron would be more concentrated with each sample. This project disproved the article that it was based upon. If this project could be continued it would be to see if boiling water in a different way such as under argon has an effect on the chemical concentration. If this project were to be changed then the boiling of the water would have started earlier to make testing more consistent.
104 1104 Break The Tension Chemistry J I chose this project because I wanted to do a science experiment where I could learn and challenge myself. The topic of surface tension has piqued my interest ever since I learned about it. The big question I had was if temperature could affect the surface tension of water.As I researched about surface tension I learned it was a phenomenon created through the cohesion of hydrogen bonds at the surface of water. The water molecules at the surface of the water got packed a little tighter and moved slower so they created a thin film. The potential energy of the hydrogen bonds made the film, so the stronger the potential energy, the stronger the surface tension. That is when I learned that heat gives water molecules more energy overpowering the potential energy of the hydrogen bonds. This led me to the hypothesis that the warmer water gets, The less drops the penny will hold leading to less surface tension. To do my experiment you have to heat water up to 65 degrees Celsius. You also cool water with ice cubes to 5 degrees Celsius and leave a beaker of water at room temperature. Than you drop the different waters on a penny until it can t hold anymore.The results I got were as followed cold water averaged 32 droplets,room temperature water averaged 23 droplets, and warm water averaged 19 drops.My hypothesis was correct. Having heated water is good for cleaning dishes and clothes. That leaves less germs in our environment.
105 1105 Which Sports Drink has the Most Electrolytes? Chemistry J The purpose of this research project is to determine which sports drink has the most electrolytes. The researcher hypothesized that if seven different types of sports drinks are tested, then Gatorade will have the most electrolytes because it is widely used in many sports across the world. Sports drinks are beverages that help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy before and after physical activity. Water provides hydration but does not provide electrolytes. On the other hand, sports drinks provide hydration and electrolytes, which are essential for participating in physical activities. In this experiment, a conductance sensor is dipped into seven different sports drinks. Using Ohm s formula, conductance for each drink is acquired. The researcher records the current of three samples of each drink and compares the averages.Out of the seven different sports drinks that were tested, Body Armor had the most electrolytes, while the electrolyte waters had significantly less electrolytes than the other sports drinks tested. The hypothesis that if seven different types of sports drinks are tested, then Gatorade will have the most electrolytes was not supported by the experiment. This information allows athletes to select more efficient sports drinks to stay hydrated during physical activity.
106 1106 Do Scented Candles Melt Faster Than Unscented? Chemistry J Do scented candles burn faster than unscented We were interested in doing a project about candles because we wanted to figure out what was the best way to spend your money. The purpose of our experiment was to determine if scented candles burn faster than scented candles. The problem of our project was, Do scented candles burn faster unscented Our hypothesis was incorrect. We lit all our candles at the same time, then let them stay for 1 and a half hours. We had done 3 test runs to make sure our data was reliable. We measured the are burned by using the equation area pi times the radius squared. That is how we discover how much of the candle was burned. We figured out that the unscented had the largest area burned, while the scented had the smallest area burned.
107 1107 Does Fat Content Make a Difference? Chemistry J For this project I tested different fat contents of coconut milk to see if the amount of fat plays a role in leavening the cake. This project was important to me because there is a tapioca honeycomb cake I like to make with my mom, and in the past the results from multiple times of baking this cake have been inconsistent. The only ingredient change has been the coconut milk used, so I wondered if the fat content of the different milks was making the difference.I tested three different fat contents, a low, medium, and high, to see how it affected the cake. Each fat content was tested twice so I made a total of six cakes. All cakes had a similar outcome, however, the cake with the highest fat content turned out best, meaning that it rose better, kept its shape, and had a more obvious honeycomb texture. The cakes with the highest fat content were also lighter and less chewy than the cakes with less fat. My hypothesis was correct. The coconut milk with the highest fat content produced the best cake. I learned through research that fat when mixed with sugar creates air pockets and the higher fat content was more effective for this cake. I was able see how fat plays a role in many chemical functions of baking, such as leavening, holding moisture, and providing texture. For this tapioca honeycomb cake, the higher fat content resulted in a better cake.
108 1108 Soymilk Experiment: How will the procedures of making soymilk affect its pH value and conductivity? Chemistry J Soybean is a popular food in East Asia. It s used to make soymilk and tofu. Soybeans contain high amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. In 2016, the United States is the largest 35% of world total soybean producer in the world. 90% of its soybean is exported to different parts of the world.Yan n.d mentions that it is important to know the pH value of our favorite beverages. The most desirable pH for our bodies is about 7.4. The pH value of soymilk is about 6. Bai, Wilson Glatz 1998 studied four brands of shelf-stable soymilk and their pH value was between 6.41 and 7.34.The goal of this project is to study the relationship between the boiling time of the soybeans and the pH value and conductivity measured in S of soymilk. The hypothesis is if boiling time increases, pH value and conductivity will both increase. The method of study is by doing experiments. The independent variable is boiling time and the dependent variable are pH value and conductivity of soymilk.It is found when water is added to the filtrate of soymilk, pH value always decreases. pH value increases significantly from 0-hour to two-hour boiling time. After two hours of boiling, it becomes relatively steady. Conductivity always decreases when water is added to the filtrate. After one hour of boiling, conductivity will become relatively steady. There is no data to support the hypothesis.
109 1109 Soaked Up Chemistry J The researcher s purpose of the experiment was to find out between these four diapers Diaper 1, 2, 3, and 4. The researcher tested which one of these diapers could hold the most waste . In the process, the researcher poured grape juice onto these four diapers. Then the researcher measured how much time it would take in order for the diapers to fill. The researcher used ten minutes in between each pouring in order for the waste to have time to soak into the diapers. The researcher used metric units in order to measure the liquid. After all of this, the researcher put all the data in a chart, the data was also recorded in a scatterplot. The researcher did three trials for good accuracy. Some sources of error could be that the researcher did not measure perfectly at the fifty-milliliter line. Another source of error could be that the diapers could not have all had exactly ten minutes in order for the waste to soak into each diaper. The researcher s hypothesis was correct because Diaper 1 held the most waste. In conclusion the researcher did the experiment correctly and found out which diaper held the most waste.
110 1110 Playing with Fire Chemistry J I wanted to determine if different types of wood burn at different rates. I started with a hypothesis that the birch wood will combust slower than the pine wood. My materials and procedures included the things that I needed to find my answer effectively like a Bunsen burner, fuel, two types of wood, etc and how to use them for my experiment. My results led me to my conclusion, which told me that my hypothesis was correct and that different types of wood do burn at different rates and I wouldn t change anything about how I went through with this project.
111 1111 Grape Juice Stains Chemistry J The purpose of the experiment was to determine the best way to remove grape juice stains from clothes using basic house hold ingredients. Grape juice stains are notoriously the most difficult stain to remove from fabric. People generally discard their clothes after accidently staining them with grape based stains such as juice or wine. The problem with grape juice stains is the opposite nature of the water and oil components. The soap and water mixture was correctly predicted to be the best solution to this problem. Due to acid staining, the lemon juice and vinegar mixtures were predicted to be the worst performers. The mixtures were ranked from one being the least effective to three being the most effective. The control group which was stained but not treated was ranked one. Ranked two and three were the vinegar and lemon juice mixtures, respectively. The soap and water mixture was ranked five and was the most effective. Stain removers must have the ability to deal with the water component and the oil component while having low acidity to prevent acid staining.
112 1112 Are the Labels Calo-Really True? Chemistry J This study wanted to find a better way of finding out what is truly healthy. So, we made a homemade calorimeter to see if the relative rank of our results from the selected foods independent variable would be the same as what can be found on food labels. We thought that if we used a calorimeter, then the calories ranked from a food label would not be precise. As a result of the experiment, we were able to find out the number of calories produced from a calorimeter. On a food label, the order from the most to least calorie-filled foods is a slice of deli ham 49 calories , a piece of croissant 41 calories , a strawberry 9 calories , and a piece of cauliflower 5 calories . However, according to our calorimeter, in the same order prior, the croissant had the most calories .84 cal g , followed by cauliflower .29 cal g , a slice of deli ham .24 cal g , and a strawberry .21 cal g . From this experiment, we learned that food labels may not be precise based off of a calorimeter. This can be utilized in real life for people trying to maintain healthy, nutritional diets.
113 1113 Amount of Carbonation in Soda Chemistry J The reasoning for this experiment was to determine which soda out of a select few had the highest amount of carbonation. The hypothesis was If the more popular sodas have a higher level of carbonation, then that would show the the general public prefer higher carbonated soda because that is what they buy. In this process, five different sodas were measured for their level of carbonation. They were left for a total of 24 hours to fully let all of the gas escape. After that all final levels were recorded, and market share information was located and recorded. Then final charts were made.In conclusion, the hypothesis was wrong. The most popular soda was neither the highest or lowest level of carbonation but the most middle level. So determining that the general public doesn t prefer more or less carbonation, but more of and average middle ground. This information could help benefit the sales of other less popular soda brands, by changing their levels of carbonation, which may result in better sales.
114 1114 How Different Electrolytic Solutions Affect the Ability to Sustain Electrolysis Chemistry J This experiment seeks to identify which of several metal salt solutions allows electrolysis to occur with less electrical energy input. It is hypothesized that using a cobalt salt solution will lower the necessary energy required due to the catalytic effect of cobalt electroplating. This research seeks a more efficient process for generating hydrogen from renewable electricity generation methods such as solar and wind. A constant current of 100mA was passed across electrodes suspended in solutions containing various metal salts. According to Ohm s Law V IR , voltage is directly proportional to resistance. Voltage measurements across the electrodes were taken for each metal salt. Higher voltage indicates that more power is needed to produce a given amount of hydrogen. Lower voltage indicates more efficient electrolysis. Each electrolyte was tested in solution. Then, the catalytic effect of any electroplating was tested in a clean buffer solution.The cobalt salt achieved a catalytic effect due to the electroplating of the cathode. The copper salt was most efficient while still in solution. However, metal in solution would eventually be depleted and would build up on the electrode, increasing resistance. Through electroplating, the cobalt solution achieved a catalytic effect increasing the efficiency of electrolysis without the constant maintenance of using metal salts in solution. The resulting data could be used to achieve more efficient electrolysis, a means of producing clean hydrogen fuel that would be available in the absence of wind or sunlight.
115 1115 The Effect of Thickening Agents on Frosting Firmness Chemistry J Have you ever decorated a cake only to find your frosting dripping before it s time to eat it Cake decorating is fun but if you must make frosting from scratch it can drip easily, especially if exposed to heat, and frustrate you. This project attempts to make frosting with better consistency for a lasting decoration. The hypothesis is that cornstarch will help thicken frosting and make pipping stiffer. Five thickening agents with different properties were chosen cornstarch, arrow root, xanthin gum, gelatin and pectin. A simple recipe was used to make six samples of frosting. Half a teaspoon of each agent was added to each sample except one, the control. Samples were pipped onto a vertical board and observed for dripping while increasing the temperature of the environment. Trial 1, the control dripped the least 23cm , xanthan gum 26cm , pectin 31cm , arrow root, corn starch and gelatin 41cm. Trial 2, the pectin dripped the least 18cm , xanthan gum 41cm , gelatin and arrow root 42cm , control and corn starch 44cm . Trial 3, they all dripped 0.5cm except pectin 18cm . On average pectin dripped the least 22.3cm and corn starch the most 28.5cm . Pectin is the best at making frosting stiff, however it s sour and changes the flavor of the frosting significantly enough to not recommend it as a thickening agent. The second best option is xanthan gum which is also not ideal because it changes the texture. My hypothesis was wrong, corn starch was not a good thickening agent at all.
116 1116 Natural vs. Synthetic Chemistry J Antacids are drugs used to help neutralize the stomach s acidity. They are used when the pH of the hydrochloric acid or gastric juices are too low on the pH scale. This experiment was directed to see if some antacids are harmful to the human body since the FDA does not check or approve over the counter drugs. The hypothesis was that if the natural and synthetic antacids TUMS, Alka-Seltzer, Pepcid, Rolaids, and Picot are compared then the synthetic antacids will have a better neutralizing ability because they have chemical ingredients that are alkali based.To test these procedures used were to first test what the pH of the natural or synthetic antacid. Then the stomach mixture used was to replicate the pH of the stomach. The stomach mixture was then poured into the substance and the pH was taken to see how much the substance neutralized the stomach.In conclusion, the chemical antacids were too potent for the stomach and made the hydrochloric acid an unhealthy pH. This means that the pH of the stomach after the usage of chemical antacids was over the healthy pH from 3-4. Also, the chemical antacids have many harmful side effects on the body that over time can cause serious damage like an acid rebound. Acid rebound is where the stomach secretes more hydrochloric acid every time you eat.
117 1117 Eutrophi-cleaning: A Study of Non-Traditional Eco-Friendly Cleaners Chemistry J Eutrophication is the process by which dead, or hypoxic, zones are created by algae and aquatic plant blooms rapidly growing and dying causing mollusks and other decomposers to use the available oxygen to decompose. When the oxygen content becomes less than 2-3 mg per liter, it s considered a hypoxic zone. Restaurant and homeowners use commercially available cleaners that contain nitrates and phosphates, which stimulate growth of algae and aquatic plants leading to eutrophication, to clean oil stains off concrete around their property. This motivated this comparison study to find a non-traditional, yet eco-friendly alternative to the eutrophication-contributing chemicals currently used. Concrete tiles were stained with spent restaurant cooking oil. A scale was created to get quantitative results when looking at the tiles after the cleaners were applied. After the 2 days elapsed, eco-friendly cleaners sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, kitty litter, and lithothamnium calcareum were applied. These cleaners were left on the tiles for two days then tiles were washed off and observed again. After the results were averaged together, it was found that sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and lithothamnium calcareum did the best at eliminating the oil stains from the tiles. The hypothesis was that sodium carbonate would effectively remove the oil stain from the tile. Although it was correct, lithothamnium calcareum did it better than sodium carbonate. In conclusion, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and lithothamnium calcareum are good eco-friendly alternative cleaners.
118 1118 The test for the best! Chemistry J This research was designed to determine which type of paint - oil, acrylic, or watercolor - dried fastest. This is important to know because students and artists need to know which paint to use in case they are in a hurry or need a paint to dry fast. In order to test, one layer of each type was place on a canvas and the time that was required to dry was recorded. This was repeated five times for each paint type.The oil paint dried the slowest, while the watercolor dried the fastest. This is due to the density of the paints and the arrangement of their molecules. In the future, artists should know that if they are creating painting with multiple layers, watercolor paint will be the most resourceful because it dries the fastest.
119 1119 Does the addition of sweeteners effect the cooling rate of coffee? Chemistry J Coffee drinkers enjoy a good hot cup of coffee. Research has shown that 70% of coffee drinkers add sugar or sweetener to their coffee. Newton s Law of Cooling states that the rate of heat loss by an object is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the object and its surroundings. The purpose of this experiment was to test to see if adding sweeteners will affect the cooling rate of coffee.My hypothesis was that the addition of sweeteners will affect the cooling rate of coffee since heat is lost to dissolve sugar up to saturation which may cause a decrease in the temperature of the coffee. My control variable was coffee with no sugar added. I tested three different zero caloric sweeteners Equal, Splenda, and Stevia to see if the addition of these would affect cooling. In conclusion, Stevia had a slight effect on the cooling rate of coffee.
120 1120 Does Water Temperature Affect Stain Remover? Chemistry J For my project I will be doing does water temperature affect stain remover. I am trying to see what water temperature works best when using stain remover , that is also my purpose. I tested this question by using three subjects. wine, tomato paste and grass. Then, I washed it in cold, warm, and hot water. I hope this will solve what water temp solves the stain. My conclusions varied based on the stain type. The wine washed off easier with the cold water, the tomato paste with the warm water, and there was no significant difference between cold and warm water with the grass.
121 1121 Incandescent Flames Chemistry J I wanted to find out if it was possible to manipulate the color of fire. I knew that when something burned and released gases mixed with the oxygen, it created combustion that gave off heat and light. During my background research I found out that some fuels do give off different colors, but I still wanted to see for myself how bright the colors were. During my first trial of experiments, I found out that I needed a flammable fuel because salt isn t flammable by itself. My second trial of experiments had a flammable liquid and the experiments showed color. My third trial was a repeat of the first to see if any of the colors or brightness of the fire changed. My conclusion is that it is possible to change the color of fire. When you change the fuel you could change fire, depending on how the fuel s gases react with the oxygen in the air.
122 1122 Is Your Gold Legitimate Chemistry J The Is Your Gold Legitimate investigation is meant to test the components of gold and how they act with the chemicals in the liquid foundation. The project was a chemical test of gold vs liquid foundation, with results of real, legitimate gold leaving a black mark on the skin. Liquid foundation was applied to the skin and then the piece of gold was dragged across that spot on the skin. The skin was then checked for any traces of a black mark. it was determined that real, legitimate gold does leave black marks on the skin while faux gold does not. It was also shown that white gold leaves a black trace on skin, but not as pronounced due to its chemical make-up. if the project is repeated in the future it should also test the different carrots karats in gold jewelry. No changes to the material, methods, numbers of procedures were made that were different from the original research plan.
123 1123 Chapped Lips No More! Chemistry J This project was set out to find which lip balm would keep the researchers lips moisturized the longest. Lip balms was chosen because the researcher wanted to know all the different lip balm ingredients and the benefits. 4 lip balms were used. 2 popular ones and 2 non popular ones. Each lip balm was tested at the same time of 2 hours. The same amount was applied of .1 ounce. Each hour the researcher documented the findings. Also the researcher would take a picture of the researchers lips every hour. In conclusion the #4 lip balm kept the researchers lips the most moisturized. Lips don t have oil glands in them, like other body parts. Which means that they are more prone to dry out and become chapped. Lack of moisture also worsens your lips, either weather indicated or lack of self-care, which is why lips become chapped. But using lip balm is not the only way to dispose of chapped lips. It s just one of the most common ways to get a nice smooth skin again. But sometimes some lip balms don t help your lips, instead, they make them more chapped. This lip balm project can be used in the real world. Due to many people using lip balms such as #1, #2 etc. When those aren t even helping them. Now the researcher can show scientific proof to prove that they should use the #4 lip balm.
124 1124 Is it Safe to Burn Chemistry J The goal of my experiment was to determine the best pair of pajamas out of the selection that I had To achieve my goal I tested multiple brands of children s pajamas for flame resistance . I tested by setting each sample on fire and timing the time to ignite and to extinguish then measuring the damage done to each sample. My data showed that while all pairs were flame resistantto some degree others preformed better than others when compared to the control variable of non-fire proof pajamas which would burn completely. I also found that seams and waistbands were able to catch on fire easily as they were not made of the flame resistant materials like the pajamas themselves.My conclusion is that pajamas from Carters both new and used preformed better than the rest of samples.
125 1125 will an alloy and a pure metal expand to its original size after being shrunk with dry ice and acetone Chemistry J After measuring the brass, I placed each in the acetone. I measured the weight of the dry ice and dropped it into the acetone while the metal where in it. There were 6 containers 3 with brass and 3 with copper. Then they were left to sit for 3 hours, because i needed the acetone to freeze. The I took them out to measure each one then I wrote down each. then I left them to expand. After the expanding I took them out and measured each one again. The copper when shrunk got longer and the weight was distributed causing it to be 1 1 6 in long and 7 16 in by 7 16 in. The brass did not get longer from 1 in, but it did change from 1 2 in by 1 2 in to 7 16 in by 7 16 in. After letting the metals expand, they went back to their original size.
126 1126 Oil Types in Soaps and Their Cleaning Capabilities Chemistry J Modern cosmetic industry uses mainly plant based oils in soap manufacturing, yet animal fat was the traditional ingredient of soaps since ancient Mesopotamia. This project looks at which type of fat produces soap with better cleaning capacity. Lard, crisco vegetable oil and coconut oil were melted in three separate pots and mixed with homemade lye in equal proportions. The mixtures were poured into molds and cured for ten days to produce soap. Three swatches of white cotton fabric were soiled with graphite, soaked in water and rubbed with each soap. The fabric was subsequently rinsed and dried. The shades of staines were tested with colorimeter. My hypothesis was that lard would produce the best cleaning soap. The experimental results supported my hypothesis by showing that lard soap performed with superiority to the two other soaps made with plant based oil.
127 1127 Microplastic Extraction In Action Chemistry J Since the early 1900s, plastics have been slowly replacing other more expensive materials. Glass bottles were and are currently being replaced with cheaper plastics. These plastic materials are made from nurdles. Nurdles are a type of microplastic used in manufacturing plastics. Microplastics are small plastic pieces or shards that are five millimeters or smaller in size. Nurdles are transported all across the world by rail, truck, and ships and melted into molds to make objects from toys to beauty products. Nurdles sometimes can spill, causing pollution and affecting local animals as well. Other research has concluded that some municipal waste microplastics can be removed from water using a ferrofluid. Can this be extended to nurdles The hypothesis for the experiment was two-fold. It proposed a ferrofluid, a mixture of iron oxide, oil, and water, would be able to extract nurdles suspended in water. It also proposed that size would not effect the extraction of the nurdles. Along with water and ingredients for the ferrofluid, sample nurdles and a magnet was used to extract nurdles in the experiment. The experiment resulted in the smallest nurdle sample group having the highest extraction rate, but no definite conclusions on the involvement of size could be drawn. This is due to the absence of a trend in the data relating to size and extraction. The experiment concluded ferrofluids can be used to extract nurdles from water, and size might not be a major factor in the results. This is Microplastic Extraction in Action.
128 1128 Heat Resistance and Water Proofing of Cooking Gloves Chemistry J My project will give important information on what materials are best for household cooking gloves by conducting water proofing and heat resistance tests.I used Nomex and two types each of cotton, kevlar, and silicone. I used a digital food scale to measure how much water reflected off of the materials. I used an infrared thermometer to measure the surface temperatures of the different materials after being placed on a hot tray.For the heat resistance test when the materials were dry, thick cotton was by far the best insulator. Both silicones were the worst. After soaking the materials in water, Nomex ended up being the best insulator. Even though no water was able to soak into either of the silicone materials, they were still the worst insulators.For the water proofing test, silicone was by far the best. That being said, thick cotton also reflected one hundred percent of the water poured on it. But T-shirt cotton was the least water proof. Nomex and Kevlar also let water through.Thick cotton came first after all of these tests, Nomex second, and the silicones last. If you are working with only heat, thick cotton is the best option. Although cotton can soak up water. Silicone is best for working with water, but it was not heat resistant. So, some type of combination would be needed. You could use silicone and thick cotton, or even Nomex, since if Nomex gets wet, it will still work as a pretty good insulator.
129 1129 Acrylic Paint Coverage Chemistry J This study was done to help professionals and amateur painters, searching for effective acrylic paint brands. Acrylic paints are widely used as a house paint and as an art medium - they dry quickly, apply on a wide range of media and can be diluted with water, changing its thickness. Many companies produce acrylic paints of various quality and consistency. This research demonstrates which paint brand covers the most surface area per unit of weight. In the experiment, three different brands of acrylic paint were spread out onto separate sheets of graph paper using a thick brush. Five grams of each paint brand were used, and each test was repeated three times for accuracy. Coverage areas were established by counting the amount of painted squares, and then converted to square centimeters. Results were averaged per brand and presented on to the bar graph to visually display the data.
130 1130 Electroltye Spheres - Hydration of the Future Chemistry J AbstractWhat is the effect of using molecular gastronomy on edible chemicals and electrolytes to transform them into spheres for easy access to eat This study used molecular gastronomy and tested the different amounts of gelling agents Sodium Alginate that drops into the calcium chloride to make edible spheres a more efficient way to energize your body. The goal was to find the right membrane thickness, so it doesn t pop in the open but easily in the mouth. I mixed an electrolyte powder and water with four different amount of sodium alginate mixture. After, I used a spoon to drop the mixture into calcium chloride mixed with water to make the spheres. The chemical reaction between the sodium alginate and the calcium chloride made a jelly-like membrane around the electrolyte drink. I tested the spheres by measuring the weight before and after being popped to find the weight of the membrane to see how thick the membrane was . I used a Pasco force tester, and measured how much force it took to pop each sphere. The results showed that the bowl with the amount of 1g of sodium alginate had the best membrane thickness. The data shows that the membrane weighed an average of 1.9g and therefore, left room for much liquid inside. Also, it wasn t too thin because the average amount of force it took was 1.037, so it wouldn t burst or fall apart. The results of this study indicate that this could be the hydration of the future.
131 1131 Viscosity Philosophy Chemistry J We did this project because we thought about things we learned about in the past so we thought that this could be an interesting project. We wondered if the temperature of a liquid would effect its viscosity and in the end we found out it did for most liquids, all of them made our hypothesis true except for the corn syrup, it s viscosity was simular the whole time. We used a variety of liquids from milk to coke. In order to measure the viscosity we used a scale evaporated water being 0, water being 5, and ice being 10. Our data was kind of kind of all over the place and a little hard to explain.But thinking about the viscosity, we thought it was obvious when the liquid gets frozen, its viscosity would increase. We were more interested in the boiling temperature, to see if the viscosity would decrease. We thought this would happen because as we have learned from past Magic School Bus episodes solids molecules are more tensed and structure compared to a liquid s molecules, so we thought when adding heat, it would make the molecules less tensed and less like a solid s structure. It was interesting to see when the corn syrup and milk were heated. The corn syrup at 1st was more liquid-like when it was in the pot, but when the heat was gone, it became rock solid, and the milk just bubbled up. Though this wasn t our first choice, it was really fun.
132 1132 Baiting Them Flies Chemistry J We decided to create fly traps because there were a lot of flies flying around our backyards.So then we experimented with two traps and wrote down our results. Which bait will make the best fruit fly trap The apple cider vinegar bait was the most useful. Me and my partner were correct when we said if you combined apple cider vinegar, honey, and dish soap. with the ending results we proved that our hypothesis was correct with the apple cider vinegar bait being the successor.
139 1139 A Coding Adventure with GameMaker Computer Sciences J In this project, I performed a coding adventure on GameMaker. With this, I decided to test the power of the only language that can be used inside of GameMaker, which is GML Game Maker Language . I used GML to make a mini-game titled Sinner, and my biology project.I started with my mini-game, which is just a top down shooter with a simple game mechanic Kill to heal. I planned it to be simple and enjoyable where you would advance through rooms protecting a soul from all the sins in the world. It turned out being chaotic, and extreme, but the energy, feel, and flow of the game sums up for it. Coding for it was painstaking, and it took a lot of time. At times I felt as if it was just going to turn out as a failure, but in the end I managed to make a good product.For my biology project, I made a tiny natural selection simulator where tiny micro organisms would eat food and attempt to survive. I made it so you can change several variables on the environment, and the traits of each generation of each micro organism would react each time. It wasn t really difficult to make but it took a lot of time as I had to research a lot about natural selection. The product gave me a good grade for my biology project, and my biology teacher intends to use it for a future lesson, so it was pretty good.
140 1140 The Effect of Different Programs on Hacking Prevention Computer Sciences J Hacking is a systematic process in attempt to detect defenseless factors of an digital device. Steps towards the hacking process are foot printing, scanning, enumeration, penetration, advance and covering tracks. There are various methods to prevent such an occurrence. There different programs, software and methods available to prevent hacking. This experiment was designed to test the problem What is the effect of different programs on hacking prevention It was hypothesized that a Firewall would prevent hacking much more efficiently than other programs used. To test this, there where 5 programs tested, these programs specifically have known to prevent hacking. There where 10 trials tested for each program being tested and a total of 50 trials overall. Of those tested Firewall tested superior than the rest. It tested 0 penetrations into the electronic, this means that it prevented hacking in all trials.
141 1141 Server Communication & DOM Manipulation Computer Sciences J It is a demonstration of how servers communicate and use your data. An end user submits some data, and then the server processes it. That information is then appended to a .JSON database file. The user can then view all data from the database. This shows server communications because the data is not sent to the user s browser until their browser requests it. Once the server receives the request, it can send the requested data back to the browser to be displayed in the DOM.
142 1142 What materials will block a wi-fi signal? Computer Sciences J In this experiment, I tried to find what materials will block a WiFi signal. This project is to find if there are any materials that could block a WiFi signal, and to prevent getting a slower WiFi signal in the future. My hypothesis was the denser the material, the worse the signal would be. I tested the signal strength of my WiFi router when covered by different materials wood, plastic, metal, cardboard, styrofoam, and glass. I tested the router strength before putting the material over it one time, then after placing the material over the router, I recorded the dBm once every minute five times. I did the same on each material. The results moderately supported my hypothesis because metal blocked the signal in a great quantity. The signal wasn t blocked in a great quantity, but showed change. This project proved that most materials don t block a WiFi signal, but some dense materials will slightly decrease the signal strength.
143 1143 3d printing a master piece Computer Sciences J In this project the scientist tested the stickiness of the 3D print bed. The question was, what is the effect of different materials on the stickiness of the print bed The hypothesis was if different materials are used to test the stickiness of the print bed, then glue will help the print stick to the bed the most. The hypothesis was reached after some research was done. The first step of this project was to evenly coat the print bed in each of your coverings. Then you can start printing your blocks. After it was done printing, the scientist needed a box and 2 rulers. The scientist then separated the rulers enough that the height of each end of the block could be measured. To collect the data, they pressed on one side of the print then recorded the measurement on each end. Each print was measured in all the categories. The data showed that the painter s tape overall did the best, it held the prints on the bed wall printing, but it also was easy to get off the bed. The worst was the hair spray because it would slide of the plate. The hypothesis was partially correct because the glue would make the print stick, but it was hard to remove from the print bed. the scientist would suggest using painters tape Some real-world uses include helping people who run makerspaces or enjoy 3d printing since painter s tape is widely available.
144 1144 Raspberry Pi Recognition Computer Sciences J The purpose of this project is to find an alternative to expensive home security systems that constantly send many unnecessary notifications of self movement. The engineering goal for this project is to create a cost effective home security camera that integrates facial recognition with motion detection to send proper notifications when the face is not recognized. The face recognition uses biometrics, such as the distance between the eyes, to find the differences in different faces and locate unknown faces or intruders. In the project, a python-based algoritm has been created to code the home serveillance camera to detect motion and different faces. They first send a simple email to themselves from the Raspberry Pi. Then they coded the Raspberry Pi in Python to send an email notification when the webcam detects motion. All this was put together to create the security camera. The project is testing out the algorithm continueously and tweaking the algorithm every time until the algorithm is correct.In conclusion, the cost effective home serveillance system was created, however the researchers were unable to integrate facial recognition into the security camera. The main engineering goal was met, yet the facial recognition was not used because the camera could not capture a face when a person walked by. This alternative security camera will give people a simple and affordable home surveillance system and with the development of an app in the near future, can be used to monitor someone or something with live feed.
145 1145 Diagno 10 Computer Sciences J Introduction This is a science fair project on using Machine Learning to help medical lab testers come to an accurate diagnose. The Problem Statement Lab tests take too long, they need to be sped up by helping the lab testers do their jobs better. Applied Solution Use Machine Learning to do part of the lab testers job for them. Procedures With TensorFlow CPU, because most computers don t have CUDA GPUs use a Image recognition model and train it for varying diseases two were used as proof of concept . And Give it 250 train images and let it train itself then, give it the test images and see the predictions for yourself. Results The training took 10 minutes and the model trained to about 70% average using the TensorFlow CPU model. Conclusions.This was deemed too inaccurate to completely do the lab tester s tasks but, the model can assist them in making their diagnoses. But with some more technology advancements maybe in the next major release of TensorFlow the model could do the job much better.
146 1146 Rasberry Pi Computer Sciences J We came to the conclusion that Raspberry Pi is a very in expensive and efficient piece of technology. However, many people are not aware of the Raspberry Pi and its capabilities functions it performs.
147 1147 3D Printing Computer Sciences J 3D printers are an incredible technical marvel, and can be used for a number of things. They can be used to create models of bigger structures, create artificial body parts, and recently they ve been used to create food.3D printers now normally print using a type of plastic that goes through the printer nozzle and melts in order to shape. The 3D printer extrudes the plastic and uses it like a building block in order to replicate a model someone created, this is done before the printer heats up.It seems simple on the surface, but you need to take a look at each part of the 3D printer to see how it truly functions.The parts of a 3D printer consists of the Controller Board, the Filament, the Frame, The Print Bed, and the Print Head. While there are more parts to 3D printers, these are arguably the most useful parts. The Controller Board acts as the brain of the 3D printer. It tells it how to move and how to act whenever it receives an input. The filament acts as the material that the printer uses to actually print. Filaments can be out of many materials, but the most common type of filament is the plastic that was mentioned earlier, or PLA.
148 1148 The effect of household materials on a WIFI signal Computer Sciences J The purpose of this project is to help find a solution to decrease wifi blockage in thecommunity. In many homes around the world wifi blockage is a major factor that caneffect a persons day and their lifestyle.
149 1149 Can You Beat It Computer Sciences J AI is something used in human s everyday life. If a game has ever been played against a computer, AI was used. AI is used all the time. But how does it happen Does it just pop up when a certain word is typed Well, something sorta like that. It is created by a programmer. But how does one create that code. If using JavaScript can a code be created that can beat another code in the game Tic Tac Toe. The hypothesis is, if tested against other Tic Tac Toe apps then the AI program will either win or tie the game in Tic Tac Toe.To test this hypothesis, pull up the two programs in different tabs. After that is completed choose a difficulty. Then play the two programs against each other. One of the programs either will win or lose. Record that in the data chart. Do this process 100 times and edit the program as you go. After the first 100 trials do another 100 trials but don t make any changes.After the project is completed you should have data. The data collected in project just finished is in program 1 the program created won 24 out of 50 games. In program 2 the program won 25 out of 50 games.To sum this all up the hypothesis stated was correct. A program can be created that can beat other programs in the game Tic Tac Toe. After 200 tests of data a working program was created.
150 1150 CPU Overclock Computer Sciences J For my project I was trying to determine how the temperature of a phone CPU affects its clock speed. My hypothesis was that the CPU would have the highest clock speed at room temperature. To test my hypothesis, I wanted to cool down or heat up my phone with different temperatures of water in a plastic bag, and then measure the CPU speed using a specialized app. My experiment showed that the heated up phone CPU had the highest clock speed, and the cooled down CPU had the lowest clock speed. My conclusion is that a phone CPU at high temperature is the fastest. In the real world, this can affect how important CPU cooling is, and cause people to have different priorities. In addition, it would show phone companies how to make a faster phone.
151 1151 Echolocater Computer Sciences J The intention of this science project is to examine the sound that is best suitable for alerting a visually impaired person with equipment that is user friendly and cost effective. Having a device that alerts a visually impaired person will help them navigate in crowded and compact places. To test the sound that is best for alerting a visually impaired person, two volunteers were chosen to be blindfolded and different Hertz measurement of sound where inputs and the distance deviated from the target object was measured. The result of this was that, higher hertz gave higher deviation from the object and this was because the person became more alter with higher hertz.
152 1152 Asthma Alert Computer Sciences J Over 25 million people have asthma in the US alone. Out of these 25 million, 14 million have asthma attacks, over 3,000 people die due to an asthma attack. Also, the cost of maintaining a good inhaler, as well as going to the doctor many times, costs more than 3,000 dollars for a single person. This also causes many people to have to miss school or work due to medical appointments. This objective of this project was to see if using an app that can detect the heart rate of the user, it will be able to determine if the user will have an asthma attack. This will be able to reduce the amount of asthma-related deaths by 75%. The app receives data from the heart rate monitor or ECG. If that data is wrong then the app the neural network that is in the app will not be able to train off accurate data. To test for accurate data incoming, the app and the heart rate watch both connected and gave an output. After, a certain amount of minutes the heart rate on both instruments was calculated. After changes to the algorithm, the same thing was repeated to see if the data collected was correct. The data collected showed that after changes the instruments did connect to each other at almost 100% accuracy. The app is applicable almost everywhere, like hospitals, doctors, and to the user themself. This app can save lives all over the globe for asthma patients.
153 1153 Relation of Memory and CPU Frequency Computer Sciences J Relationship between maximum CPU core clock speed and maximum RAM clock speedThe discovery of new methods to optimize computer performance is valuable and important. This experiment explores the idea that memory and CPU clock speed affect each other and if this potential relationship impacts performance.This experiment was conducted using Athlon ii 2x B26 CPUs and 1600mhz memory. The experiment was run by changing memory clock speed and then overclocking the CPU as much as possible at a given voltage. The maximum CPU overclock reduced significantly as memory clock speed increased.If a program relies little on memory clock speed and significantly on CPU clock speed, it may be beneficial, depending on CPU architecture, to downclock memory in order to achieve a higher CPU overclock at the same voltage. Testing different CPU architectures and brands of CPUs would improve the scope of the project.
157 1157 Tracking the Moon's Orbital Motion at Home Earth & Space Sciences J Despite their education, many children wrongly assume that the Moon s orbit is a perfect circle. This science project not only shows them that the lunar orbit is an ellipse, it gives them an experience that increases their knowledge about astronomy and math. The question was, Because the Moon appears larger when it s closer to the earth and smaller when it s farther, is it possible to prove that the Moon s orbit is an ellipse by using a regular camera found at home to observe The hypothesis was that, if the Moon s apparent size can be measured accurately, then this method can be used to prove that the Moon s orbit is an ellipse, and it can be used to measure the Moon s orbital period, the ratio of the perigee distance to the apogee distance, and eccentricity. The project was to photograph the Moon every few nights for about four months. Then, measure and record its apparent diameter in the photo. The data was then used to create a smooth line graph and calculate the Moon s orbital period, the ratio of the perigee distance to the apogee distance, and eccentricity. The final calculated results were relatively accurate compared to the known measurements. Therefore, the hypothesis was correct. This project can be achieved by any middle schooler without professional equipment, and it can inspire them to create their own experiments.
158 1158 Global Warming Earth & Space Sciences J My project is about hurricanes and climate. I will be working on some notes and questions about the topic. I will also create a poster once I am done with the questions and notes. Once that is done, we will do a model tchat includes the topic. I would work on this until we are done.I will especially work on this on Christmas break. I will also remind my mom to work on the project with me. I will do our best best to successfully complete the project.
159 1159 Can Magnetic Thread Shield Us From Cosmic rays Earth & Space Sciences J Cosmic rays are highly charged particles traveling close to the speed of light. As rays pass through the atmosphere, rays become smaller fragments and less harmful. Upper atmospheric jobs have increased rates of exposure to rays causing central nervous damage, cancers, DNA, and retina damage. Cosmic rays pose a danger for astronauts traveling to mars because rays are stronger in space and on Mars surface. Cosmic Rays are always traveling in a line, unless it hits a particle, or magnets are present. This experiment tested if fabric sewn with different amounts of magnetic wire will cause a change in direction or for the rays to appear less frequently. 100% black-cotton-fabric was cut into 6x6 squares, and stitched with equal spacing, in a hashtag, using 7inch magnetic wire with a total of 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 wires on each set of 10 squares. A cloud-chamber allows rays to be seen with the naked eye. Alcohol was poured onto felt in the bottom of the aquarium flipped upside down on a metal lid lying on dry ice surrounded by cut-out foamular base. Place one square in the chamber wait 10 minutes. The halogen light was placed 24 inches away and the video camera was placed so the chamber fit in the frame. Record for 15 minutes, replace the square, and add more alcohol into the chamber after 4 trials. This project needs a different fabric to be conclusive. The new fabric, needed for more testing, should be loosely woven, and hydrophobic.
163 1163 Solar Energy Production Comparison Energy & Transportation J Currently, the world is using fossil fuel energy resources as its primary source of energy. We are expected to run out of fossil fuels by the year 2050, and usage of these energy resources is also contributing to the negative effects of climate change, affecting every individual on the planet. This makes it all the more important to find an efficient, alternative energy source. The objective of this experiment is to study the effects of increased sunlight and meteorological conditions on solar panels, and varying solar cell s efficiencies, to determine the optimal conditions and solar cell variation required to achieve the greatest solar energy production. The hypotheses formulated predicted that increased sunlight would positively affect the panels energy production, that lower than average precipitation and temperatures below 15 degrees Celsius would result in the highest energy production, and that out of the monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar cell variations, the monocrystalline would be the most efficient. To test these hypotheses, the Solar Orienting Device was built. The device utilizes a television mount and a plywood base to enable the panel to rotate 350 degrees daily. This allows the panel to be exposed to more sunlight throughout the day, which results in increased energy production. The data collected from these panels proves all of these hypotheses correct. The experimental panel produced an average of 7 watts, 0.21 milliamps, and 1.3 more volts than the other panels averages. The data gathered will help develop efficient solar technologies to benefit communities and ecosystems globally.
164 1164 Solar cells Energy & Transportation J The project was one of the challenging.I went through so many procedure.Then I started to experiment i realized it would have been best for me to experiment with diffrerent sizes of solar cells to see if it made a difference.during the procedure the usb would over heat alot more but we made it work .I made this project to get my dad a portable charger it was nice and is very importent to me because i took my time and patience making and experimenting with it and i want to inspire other people in the world of engineering.I believe that more engineers we have the more robotics and other cool inventions will come to life.
165 1165 Generating solar energy through recycling Energy & Transportation J The purpose of this project is to help provide a resourceful way for 3rd world countries and the homeless to have an efficient system that is portable and recyclable to warm up their meals. In many third world countries they have a higher percentage rate of suffering from a variety of problems, the most common problem is the lack of adequate food healthy food, which leads to starvation and malnutrition. Nearly half the world s population burns wood to cook their food, this creates a widespread health problem due to smoke inhalation and death. There are a variety of other issues that could be address in order to alleviate this problem. Through research conducted a solar oven could be a low-cost, ecologically friendly technology that can provide an efficient way to collect heat to cook the food. A solar oven is a solar cooker device which uses the energy of direct sunlight to heat, cook or pasteurize drinks and other food materials. Based on the data collected, the hypothesis was accepted. As the results indicated, the solar oven had a faster reaction time. The process of using a recycled solar oven was able to produce more heat to melt the chocolate in 2 hours as well as the marshmallows to soften in 5 hours. Therefore, the solar oven was able to melt the food at a reasonable rate.
166 1166 Sun Vs. Wind Energy & Transportation J My project was ment to be about two reneable energys, solar power, and wind power. I was comparing them by using a cellphone that was at 10% charge. When seeing the results lined up with each other, I could see that my hypothese was wrong. Solar power was faster than wind power so every trial. While wind was only slower by appomently a hour each time, solar power was still faster when charging a cell phone, proving my hyphothese was wrong, it is very good to know which one is faster. This knowlage is important becasuse we use so much energy that can not be reused or remade in our life time. If we use renewable energys like, solar or wind, we may be able to cut back on fossil fuels.
167 1167 Knock Knock It’s Energy Energy & Transportation J Our hypothesis is that if we were to burn different 17.78cmx13.97cm select five, subfloor, and plywood, then plywood would produce the most energy because it was the lightest in color.Using woods like subfloor, select five, and plywood shows the different types of wood, mixture, hardwood, and softwood. They all wetted with the same flammable liquid, same lighter, person, used the same thermometer and container. The wood was burned one after the other, but the water and the thermometer were left out to go back to the original temperature that it started with, then repeat by putting the beaker filled with water on top of the container and measure the temperature. The temperature that was collected was degrees celsius. Based on the data that was collected, it turns out that select five wood produced the most energy while the subfloor wood produced the least energy. Overall, select five wood was the best because it was a type of hardwood and hardwood was well known for firewood. If using wood could be an effective alternative option for renewable energy it would help people that don t have the money to purchase coal they could use wood. In the end, select five done well, but burning wood really just depends on the environment and the weather.
168 1168 Sports Science: Aluminum vs. Wood Energy & Transportation J Professional baseball players are constantly searching for ways to improve their batting averages. This experiment will determine which material is better to use aluminum or wood. Measurements will be taken for how far the ball is hit, how fast the ball travels, as well as the location of the landing spot of the ball in order to determine which material is better to use. In order to control for some of the variables, indoor batting cages and a baseball tee were used.From this data, people can learn the differences in the two bats, and apply concepts of energy transfer to other sports and real-world scenarios. The results of this research experiment proved that my hypothesis was correct the aluminum bat hit further and faster than the wooden bat. The location landed was very similar among the two bats. Aluminum bats have a smaller mass than wooden bats, which makes them easier to swing, producing a faster swing, which allows for more energy to be transferred to the ball. As a result, the ball travels faster and further.
169 1169 Defeat the Heat 2 Energy & Transportation J Solar Panels are very important for the future on this planet. Previous research showed that concentrating sunlight on a solar panel with a fresnel lens worked extremely well to boost the energy output. But the panel would overheat. Another years project focused on finding cooling methods for a solar panel being overheated by a fresnel lens. Now, this year s project is focusing on the best water depth to keep a panel cool and keep a boosted energy output. In the end, 2cm worked the best to keep the panel cool and 2nd best to keep a good energy output. .5 cm worked the best to get the best energy output and 2nd best to keep the panel cool. Over all, it didn t seem that water depth made to big of a difference. But, if the project was tested over a longer period of time results would probably change. Looking at the data, there is no doubt how much water cooling helps with the energy output.
170 1170 V.A.W.T.s Energy & Transportation J V.A.W.T.s This project is about Vertical Axis Wind Turbines with the purpose of later developing a new turbine with maximum convenience. The researcher s problem was What is the effect of different V.A.W.T.s on how much energy is collected The Hypothesis was the Savonius turbine would work best in collecting energy. The researcher thought this would be the result because of the Savonius s blade shape and status in being the most original design. The researcher thought that the Savonius turbine being the most original design would have an effect because in the researcher s former project on hydroelectric turbines the most original design there, was the undershot waterwheel which worked best. The researcher conducted this experiment by first building the Darrieus, Savonius, and H-Rotor VAWTs then testing them by attaching them to the multimeter and motor to collect data for 30 trials per turbine, 1-minute long each. The researcher also observed the behavior and overall performance of the turbines while conducting the experiment.The researcher s data shows basically that the Savonius turbine collected the most energy and the H-Rotor and Darrieus produced relatively the same amounts though mostly the Darrieus s amounts surpassed the H-Rotor s by a bit. The researcher s hypothesis was correct. One real world use for this project is the researcher could eventually develop a new turbine. If you wish to collect large amounts of energy the researcher recommends you use the Savonius turbine.
171 1171 hydrogen production Energy & Transportation J The question that was being tested in this project was Does the heat of seawater affect the amount of hydrogen produced through electrolysis The hypothesis to this experiment was If hot seawater was going through the process of electrolysis, then it will result in higher production of hydrogen, because the particles in hot water move faster. There were a total of 27 runs with this project. Each run went on for 5 minuets and then the data was recorded. The hot water, which was at 129 deg F, ended up producing more hydrogen. The room temperature, which was 69 deg F, produced the second highest amount and the cold water, which was 41 deg F, ended up producing the least amount of hydrogen. The hot water produced an average of 0.05 at 15 volts, 0.11 at 30 volts and 0.15 at 45 volts. The room temperature produced an average of 0.03 at 15 volts, 0.07 at 30 volts and 0.10 at 45 volts. Finally, the cold water produced an average of 0.02 at 15 volts, 0.04 at 30 volts and 0.05 at 45 volts. in conclusion, the hypothesis was proven correct. Ocean water is abundant, and ranges in temperature from below freezing in deep ocean areas to around 400oC near hydrothermal vents. Finding ways to harness energy in cleaner ways could lead to sustainability and recovery from some of the past damage to Earth.
172 1172 Sunny Side Up Energy & Transportation J Ever since the human race discovered fossil fuels, we ve been using them for whether it s powering our houses or to start up a fire. The human race has used fossil fuels ever since they were discovered and it may seem that it s all okay until you actually look at the consequences. Pollution is one of these many . The reason I am doing this experiment is to help make solar energy more efficient by testing different angles and seeing which is the one that absorbs the most solar energy. My hypothesis is that if the angle of the solar panel on the model car is changed to 0, 30, 60, or 90 degrees, then the model car will move faster because a different angle will expose it to different amounts of sunlight. In order to do this project you must first build the car. You could buy a model car set or you could make your own. Then you see how long it takes to go 1 meter with the angles of 0, 30, 60, and 90. You will need all the materials used for building the car, a meter stick or a speedometer , pen pencil and paper, and a stopwatch. When I tested it out the car moved the slowest at 0 degrees, went the fastest at 60 degrees, and tied for second were 30 and 90 degrees. My hypothesis ended up being correct. I think you could do more or different angles but to make it more accurate.
173 1173 Solar Solstice Energy & Transportation J The study we are doing is focusing on how solar panels help the earth and how renewable energy can save us from global warming or climate change. The study of this was based off the solar panel powered rover so in order to do it we made to make sure the surface was smooth so the testing ground didn t affect the experiment. The study lasted about 2 weeks of one week consisting on building the rover then we split that week into 2 days investigating and planning then 4 days doing our trials then lastly 1 day finishing it by printing all the papers out and gluing or taping it to the tri-fold. In this experiment their was a trend of the rover starting to move then stopping for about 1 second before it began to move again. After looking at surface then rover we realized the cogs and gears were a little bit off so we redesigned the rover to make it as efficient as possible. In summary, this study has not filled an knowledge gap but it has improved the knowledge so it can help the world with less global warming and less climate change.
174 1174 Bio Balloons Energy & Transportation J Bio Balloons By Hallie Hogue The problem that the researcher will be testing is what is the effect of different types of organic materials on how much biogas each organic material will produce or fill up a balloon The researcher s hypothesis is if different types of organic materials are used, then tomatoes would make the most biogas or fill up the balloon the most. The researcher chose apples, corn, oranges, grapes and tomatoes. Each organic material was pureed in a kitchen blender so the organic materials could fit in a bottle. The control for this experiment was just 8 bottles filled with water. The balloons were then taped on the bottles with electric tape and were taped tightly. It took 4 days for bottles to start filling up with biogas. By day 8, no more biogas was created, although the project was continued to make sure that no more biogas would be created. The researcher s hypothesis was incorrect. Apples made the most biogas. Then corn, grapes and oranges. Tomatoes and the control made no biogas at all. These organic materials can be used to make biogas to produce electricity or biofuel for transportation. Using biogas can reduce U.S. green house gas emissions because 23% of U.S. methane emission comes from landfill food. The researcher recommends to use apples to make biogas for people who want to make electricity or biofuel out of biogas.
175 1175 A Car Buyer's Guide for Environmentally Friendly Cars Energy & Transportation J Objectives and Goals The objective of our science fair project is to find that depending on where in the United States you live, what kind of car would be the best for the environment, and what kind of car would be the most harmful.Methods and Materials We discussed with many different professionals in the field including an expert in hybrid vehicles, working at Toyota, as well as a professional who spent much of his education focusing on the life cycle of a car. Results We found that it is most common that where there is a greener energy source, electric vehicles are better for the environment due to the amount of energy they need to run. Hybrids are better for the environment with worse energy sources.
176 1176 Wind Turbines Will Blow Your Mind Energy & Transportation J Our environment changes a lot. Wind speed is something most wind farms have to worry about too little wind and the turbines won t move, too much wind and the blades can get damaged. The majority of wind turbines have wind direction sensors so the turbine can turn its shaft and rotate towards the wind. They can also control their blade pitch. But, a force that they are powerless to control is wind speed. I decided to base my project after the inevitable question, what angle is best for handling different wind speeds I accomplished this question by testing various angles on a turbine with different wind speeds. First, I had to build the turbine using the Vernier KidWind Turbine Kit. Next, I had to 3D-print the blades incorporating an airfoil. For testing, I would set the blades at my designated angle, then test high, medium, and low fan speeds.In conclusion, it was discovered that my hypothesis, that a 45 blade pitch with medium fan speed would be the most efficient, was incorrect. When the airfoil was facing outward the turbine generated more voltage. The turbine generated a maximum of 3.11 volts with a blade pitch of 175 at high fan speed.
177 1177 Can Different Organic Compounds make Electricity? Energy & Transportation J Everyday approximately 82% of the world s fossil fuels are used mainly fuel for transportation . So much technology has been created and advanced, more fossil fuels will be used up. The research done is to find other by substituting organic compounds for fossil fuels. The organic compounds used were banana peels, newspapers, coffee grounds, and egg shells. The hypothesis tested is to see if banana peels added with loamy soil and water will produce the most volts of electricity. Each organic compound is added into loamy soil and water , it will be left out for a week. After the end of each week a reading will be taken with a meter to measure the amounts of volts produced. The results showed that the data from the banana peels were significantly lower than the newspaper data. The hypothesis that banana peels would produce the most volts of electricity was not supported by the newspapers did support it.
178 1178 Hydrogen: Fuel of The Future Energy & Transportation J As a society we use fossil fuels, which results in high greenhouse gas emissions. As we try to wean ourselves off fossil fuels, a difficulty that emerged is lack of a practical way to store energy from wind and solar farms. Burning hydrogen from electrolysis of water as a fuel source is one way to combat this storage problem. Hydrogen can be a way to store wind and solar energy. If we use hydrogen as stored energy from wind and solar farms our carbon footprint can be significantly reduced. The purpose of this project is to make separation of water into hydrogen and oxygen more efficient using a cobalt catalyst. When the catalyst is cobalt nitrate, the energy required for electrolysis can be reduced. For the project I built a series circuit using four nine-volt batteries to provide a constant current flow. I made a buffer solution using mono potassium phosphate, sodium phosphate dibasic and distilled water, and made a support from styrofoam to hold the nickel electrodes suspended in the solution. I hooked the circuit up to the electrodes to flow an electric current through the buffer solution from the anode + to the cathode - . Hydrogen bubbles formed on the anode and oxygen bubbles formed on the cathode. There were more bubbles on the anode than on the cathode. I found that the catalyst increased the efficiency from 81% to 95%. Since the efficiency is proportional to the power required, the power required was reduced by 14%.
179 1179 Potassium Power! Energy & Transportation J In order to make renewable energy more reliable you need a way to store energy for later use. In my previous project Renewable Energy Abound Store It Underground! , I was able to show that soil mixed with saltwater can store electricity better than saltwater alone. An area of future experiment I identified in my previous project was What is in the soil that made it a better electrolyte than just water This project expands on the previous project by answering that question and determining if that substance by itself would make a better electrolyte. Based on the research for this project I determined that soil has high levels of Potassium. This project then looked at using a Potassium based mixture to see if it would be a better electrolyte. The Potassium based electrolyte was tested by adding the electrolyte to a battery cell and measuring the voltage. My hypothesis was that using a Potassium based mixture would produce a higher voltage then a soil and saltwater mixture. The experimental results supported my hypothesis, showing that a Potassium based mixture actually does make a better electrolyte.
180 1180 The Power of Algae Energy & Transportation J There is a new form of alternative energy that is produced from biomaterial that could potentially replace petroleum biofuels.A popular biomass that is used to generate biodiesel energy by means of lipids in oil extracted is algae, but can algae be used to generate direct voltage as well The rationale of this experiment is to test to see if algae can generate electricity. This experiment is to also test if the amount of electricity produced by the algae if it does indeed produce electricity this way could be increased by boiling the organic matter for a small period of time. My hypothesis states If I boil macroalgae for a small period of time less than 10 minutes , then the boiled macroalgae will produce more electricity in comparison to the algae that was not boiled. The results I gathered supported my hypothesis. Boiling the macroalgae, or biomass greatly improved the number of volts measures. Similar results were also observed by other researchers in other investigations concerning the increase in electrical power produced by the biomass as a result of boiling the biomass for a period. The data also proved that macroalgae can provide electricity directly but must be a large mass for enough electricity to be harvested. Macroalgae is useful as a biomass being used for biodiesel to produce energy but I now add to what we know by showing the Chaetomorpha macroalgae can produce direct electricity that can power home appliances and other electrical machines.
181 1181 Windmill Project Energy & Transportation J The main issue was when we had to charge the phone. The phone being such a powerful energy source it requires the same amount of energy put back into it. At low wind speed the amount of energy was insufficient. However when we increased the speed it took less time seconds to start charging the phone. We started with gathering up our materials, which led us to seeing that the motor could have a solar port and wind turbines to it. After that we had plugged in solar wires to the opposite end of the motor. Then we took a USB cable and attached it to the end of one of the solar ports. Once it was built we used a hair dryer to blow wind at it and waited for how much time it would take to start charging the phone. When we had tried to count the seconds to make the windmill to charge the phone on high speed, we tried twice and it took 2 seconds for each while for the low speed it took us 6 seconds on the first try and on the second it took it 4 seconds. To be exact the windmill is a great source of energy since it only takes about a fan or a strong source of wind power to be able to make a renewable source of energy.
182 1182 Developing an Application to Calculate the Efficiency of Household Solar Energy Based on Geographical Factors Energy & Transportation J My project was building an application to calculate the efficiency of household solar energy based on Geographical factors. This project was aimed to help people decide if they should install solar systems at their homes based on various geographical factors. To do my project, I needed a computer and various programs. For my results, I found that areas with more daylight time would have more efficiency if they installed a solar system and areas with less would not thrive as much with a solar system. My project, since it can educate people about renewable energy, could convince people to install a solar system and save money over the years instead of using fossil fuels and paying much more. I believe I did not meet my design criteria just because, I could have done so much more and much better, but I did not. I still constructed my project in the same way other than that.
183 1183 Refreshing Energy & Transportation J Welcome to my Project about how useful a homemade water filter is in keeping water s pH level under control. I was inspired to make this project because back in 2011, my family and I didn t have a clean source of water for us to use or drink. It was real hard trying to live off another generous family who took us in and let us live in their ho use until we could make a living and support our selves. After remembering this tragic event, I was determined to make something that could help others who also undergo my past problems. The result of that was this project. A way to make such an expensive thing cheap and affordable and be useful for everyone. My Question is Does the amount of sand in a homemade water filter affect the level of pH in water. I chose sand instead of the other elements in my homemade water filter because I wanted to know could one element affect the entire thing
184 1184 Impact of Temperature on Solar Panel Generation at Constant Light Intensity Energy & Transportation J This project investigated the impact of solar panel temperature on solar power generation and the project used an indoor setup where the solar panel exposed to a constant light intensity from high illumination light bulbs and measured the power generation at different solar panel temperatures. The research papers said that the solar power generation is adversely affected by increased temperature due to the increase in reverse saturation current which act against the solar current flow.The solar panel was exposed to the high intensity light and the power generated from the solar panel was measured using the voltmeter and ammeter. The light intensity on the solar panel was kept at a fixed distance between the light bulbs and the panel. The temperature was varied using the heat from the light bulbs. The data recorded are the temperature of the solar panel oF , voltage V and current mA generated by the solar panel. The voltage and current flow were collected for the temperatures at 50oF, 60oF, 70oF, 80oF and 90oF. Ten trials were conducted for each panel temperature.Average Data Temperature50oF 60oF 70oF 80oF 90oF Solar Power, mW1095 1070 1013 962 931The data analysis clearly shows that the solar power dropped with increase in the solar panel temperature, which well aligned with the hypothesis. The project provides valuable information to consider while developing solar projects like considering the natural wind cooling to reduce the solar panel temperature during the solar panel installation.
185 1185 Electromagnetic Radiation: Are You Safe? Energy & Transportation J The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the iPhone 6, iPhone 11, Samsung S8, Samsung J7, Samsung Convoy, and Samsung Juke would emit different levels of electromagnetic EM radiation. Today, harmful effects of this radiation are possibly a major health concern. Therefore, I hypothesized that older phone models Samsung Juke 2007 and iPhone 6 2014 would emit the greatest EM radiation, because manufacturers, potentially, did not prioritize protection against radiation as they do now. To conduct the experiment, record EM radiation from all sides and different distances between the phone and meter. Results showed the Samsung Juke emitted greater radiation than any other phone. The Juke emitted 98% more EM than the iPhone 6, 94% more than the iPhone 11, 96% more than the Samsung S8, 91% more than the Samsung J7, and 15% more radiation than the Samsung Convoy. In conclusion, the iPhone 6 emitted the least amount of electromagnetism and the Samsung Juke emitted the most. Americans have reported side effects from electromagnetism, anything from cancer to headaches. So far, there is no evidence to prove that electromagnetic radiation has caused these side effects but there s enough evidence to infer that it does have a negative effect. For the meter to reach a zero reading all Wi-Fi, TV s, and even printers had to be turned off. This proves how much electromagnetic radiation exposure is merely in the air. Regardless of cell phone radiation the harmful effects from EM could occur.
186 1186 Better Energy? Energy & Transportation J I am doing my project because I want to see a change in the world. People always talk about how the world is such a bad place but they never do anything to change that. If there is a reliable renewable energy source there would be much less waste and harm in the world. I started my research by looking up how reliable the solar panels and wind turbines were on their own. I then looked at how the solar panels could be harmed or harmful to the environment around. Next I looked into the same thing for the wind turbine. I soon found out that birds and animals are often hurt by wind turbines because of the blades, and fires were started by solar panels. I found out that if there were two renewable energy sources built into one model device then there would be a low chance of the power going out. The energy source was stable and if it were much bigger then, it could have a huge impact on the way energy could be produced. My results are very crucial to my experiment because I found out that the energy sources could be connected to generate great amounts of electricity with little to no fail. If people were to adopt this for their energy source, the world would be such a better place.
187 1187 Home Energy Savings Energy & Transportation J Americans spend around $2,200 annually on home electricity bills. Recent studies reveal that more than 50% of the energy used in a home is wasted. This translates to over $1000 per year in savings for each home. The purpose of this project is to measure the energy usage of key equipment in a home and to calculate the energy cost savings from implementing different energy saving schemes. Measuring energy consumption using a Digital Power Monitor Meter helps determine the cost savings from these energy saving schemes. The energy consumption of 20 devices appliances was studied. The cost savings from the ten different energy saving schemes studied totals $925 per year. Some key results include LED bulbs are more energy efficient compared to CFL and Incandescent bulbs, switching off devices when not in use yields substantial savings, washing clothes with hot versus cold water does not yield any savings, washing clothes with full load takes as much energy as a half load, and replacing an old device with a new one does not necessarily lead to cost savings. These results have significant implications for Consumers e.g., choosing energy efficient devices appliances and Governments e.g., banning the sale of incandescent bulbs .
188 1188 Hydro Fuel the study of hydrogen Fuel Cells Energy & Transportation J A problem known worldwide is the increased use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuel usage creates greenhouse gases, contributing to Global Warming. With fuel cells there is minimal exhaust, which is in the form of water vapor, and a small amount of warm air. This experiment was designed to test water types on the speed that a hydrogen fuel cell car will travel. Water was poured into the refueling station to charge the H-racer hydrogen fuel cell car.The water type was changed every 10 trials change water according to the experimental design . Record the time the car travels 10 feet and calculate for the speed. The real world connection is it would not work that well because bottled water was the fastest. In order to power a real car you would need a lot of bottles of water to go any length of distance and it would cost a lot of money. The research hypothesis that if distilled water is used then the car will travel faster was not supported by the results.
189 1189 Wind or Sun? Energy & Transportation J For the start of my project I researched the materials needed to make the solar panel and the wind turbine, then I searched for a location to test the project. After that we went to the store and collected the materials needed to make the project, while we were at he store we made a change to the research plan and added a new material. For the next two days we built the solar panel and wind turbine, when we started building the turbine we started by attaching the fan blade to the electric motor, then I attached two wires to the electric motor, after that I took a Pvc pipe and put the wire through it and super glued the electric motor to the top, next I took the second Pvc pipe and connected the first Pvc pipe to it and attached the second one to a wood base, finally I attached a wire terminal to the wires. The next day we took the project to our testing spot and tested the solar panel and the wind turbine I took four test for thirty minutes each and the results came back with solar power winning. I believe if bigger fan blades were used then wind power might do better.
193 1193 The Dynamics of Wings and Flaps Engineering: Aerospace J This project was created to show how wings and flaps allow and affect flight. The hypothesis states that the airfoil creates enough lift to maintain a constant altitude. Then the flaps would change the shape of the airfoil, therefore increasing or decreasing altitude. This hypothesis was proven correct by the experiment conducted. The experiment needed to show how wings functioned when in flight, yet air cannot be seen. So, in replacement, a visible gas such as CO2 vapor from dry ice would be used. The vapor dissipates easily, so the experiment needed to be in an enclosed area. For the vapor to remain in a visible flow, a wind tunnel was created to guide it and keep it from dissipating. The model of the plane for the experiment had to function like a life-size aircraft, with a working engine, flaps, and airfoil. The constructed model would have an airfoil just like a real airplane to show the airflow around the wing. The dry ice was placed in a large bowl of warm water to increase the amount of vapor released and positioned in front of the model. A fan would sit behind the model to pull the vapor over the model. This was to prevent dissipation for if the vapor were to go through the fan, it would not be effective. This process proved to be a success, and efficiently revealed how air travels around a wing and how flaps affect the flow.
194 1194 Just Wing It Engineering: Aerospace J Just Wing ItThe Scientist of this project always loved aviation, so they decided to do a project including how the camber of an airplane wing can affect the distance a plane travels. The problem of this project is Does the distance a plane travels depend on the wings design and his hypothesis would be If 3 different wing designs are put to a flight distance test ,then the plane wing with the least amount of camber will fly the furthest distance . He thought this because he knew that the more camber on a air plane the more drag there is slowing the plane down. The scientist constructed a plane launching catapult that would shoot the plane across a field. The scientist built a fuselage and 3 different wings with different camber in each. For each plane he conducted 20 trials and measured the distance of each trial.The data showed that the plane with the least amount of camber did the best because the number was higher than the other 2 wings tested. The best plane wing flew a total of 15.7000298 meters and the worst flew 13.2299164 meters. This meant that there was more drag pushing against the wing than the other wings tested.The hypothesis was correct because the plane with the least amount of camber out flew the other wing designs. This project can t prove that wing camber is the only reason for flight speed, but it does help show that it is a key factor.
195 1195 Morphing Airfoils Engineering: Aerospace J The goal of this experiment is to see if morphing wings are more aerodynamic than regular wings. A morphing wing is one that can twist or flex in order to control the airplane. This was how the original airplanes flew. The Wright Flyer was controlled by pulleys and strings that would twist the wood of the wings. Planes were like this for about a decade, but then the technology for hinged control surfaces came about, which enabled planes to do many more things, so flexing wings stopped being used. Now, however, morphing wings may be more aerodynamic and thus fuel efficient than regular wings with hinged control surfaces. This is what I am testing. I will compare the airflow over a regular airplane wing with that of a morphing one to see which is less turbulent. My hypothesis is that if a plane has morphing wings, then it will be faster and more fuel efficient. If the airflow is smoother over the morphing wing than the regular wing, then I will know this is true.
196 1196 What effect does the throat of the nozzle have on a rockets flight performance? Engineering: Aerospace J This project focuses on the importance of a rockets nozzle size. A rocket nozzle is the bottom component that allows fuel to be exhausted, it controls the rate of flow, pressure, and thrust. This experiment tested four different nozzle sizes,4, 7, 10, and 13 millimeters, to see which is most effective when flown on water rockets. The tested hypothesis was that the largest nozzle would produce the most thrust, but a smaller nozzle would have a better flight.To design nozzles a 3D printer was fully constructed. The nozzles were designed on 3D printing software and printed for highest quality. First the nozzles were tested for thrust by building a structure for stationary flight with a load cell to record thrust. The second set of testing was for flight performance and rockets were flown with a constructed launcher. To interpret results video editing programs were used to see when thrust levels changed and tracking video analysis was used to track distance of rockets during flight.When analyzing results observations were made that the larger the nozzle, the more thrust from stationary testing. The flight tests had even stronger correlation, as each size increased so did the rockets altitude by 4 meters. The 13mm nozzle the largest had the best performances in both categories. This meant my hypothesis was correct about the largest nozzle producing the most thrust. However it was incorrect because the 13mm also had the best flight. In conclusion, the more thrust produced the better flight.
197 1197 Wind Speed and Drag on Airplanes Engineering: Aerospace J Air Resistance also known as Drag is a force that opposes aircraft. But doesn t Wind Speed also sometimes go against aircraft Could Drag and Wind Speed combine to make a stronger force In this experiment I will determine if Wind Speed and Drag join forces and cause airplanes of different materials, and different designs to not fly as far.
198 1198 You Lift Me Up: All Wings Are Not Created Equal Engineering: Aerospace J In earlier science fairs the researcher evaluated paper airplanes to find out which designs flew best. She also used a basic wind tunnel to evaluate kite designs to see which ones could lift off at the lowest wind speed. This year the researcher created wing sections with different airfoil shapes to see which could lift off at the lowest wind speed. The problem for this project is Of five different simple airfoils which wing model will have the lowest lift off speed The hypothesis is If several simple airfoil models are tested many times at in a wind tunnel, then the Blackbird airfoil will lift at the lowest wind speed. The scientist constructed five 12 wing sections from balsa wood and tissue paper. The scientist used a 24 x 24 low speed wind tunnel to test the constructed wing sections. They were placed on the test stand, tested and recorded for their initial lift-off speed for ten trials for each design. The averages for each wing section are 5.57 m s for the Clark Y airfoil, 5.22 m s for the Blackbird airfoil, 4.35 m s for the Propeller airfoil, 4.60 m s for the Symmetric airfoil, and 6.80 m s for the Turbine airfoil. The scientist s hypothesis was wrong because the Propeller blade lifted off at the lowest speed. The scientist recommends this airfoil if you want to lift off at slower speeds. Some areas for future testing are more independent variables and using a larger wind tunnel.
199 1199 Paper Airplane Designs Engineering: Aerospace J Science Fair Report During this experiment we learned how to make different types of paper airplanes and how far they will fly. We did three types of paper airplanes and predicted that the least complex paper airplane will be the one that will go the furthest but from our results the more complex paper airplane went the furthest.We tested them and measured the distance for each one three times in two days.We measure the distance of the airplanes with a tape measure. We record the dates of when we were doing the steps in our log book.Somethings we would do differently is add more dates and also try to see if any factors affect how far a paper airplane fly s.
200 1200 Rubber band helicopter Engineering: Aerospace J What is my science fair question How does the amount of rubber bands used affect how the helicopter fly s For my science fair project i will be using a table to collect how long will the rubber band helicopter stay in the air.And to do that i will be using my phone stop watch.I will be testing four amounts of rubber bands on the helicopter and each amount of rubber band helicopter will have four rounds to see which round it stayed in the air longer.And taking that information I will compare it and see which one has stayed in the air the longest.The number one question i will ask myself is.How far did it stay in the air for My science fair project will not include a survey,or a scale,and a rating system.I have learned if not put together correctlyit will just mess up the wholeexperiment.
203 1203 Casein Cutlery: A study of strength in biodegradable polymers for everyday use Engineering: Chemical J This project could have a positive impact on the environment. Milk plastic and Starch polymers can be made from simple household ingredients that are probably already in the pantry and refrigerator. Because it is a fork it should be able to perform the simple tasks that a regular plastic fork can do but have the added benefit of being biodegradable. I learned that if used carefully, this fork is could be a viable option to replace plastic forks. It dissolves eventually if submerged in water, but we discovered it takes more than 10 minutes and 50 degrees Celsius, which will be plenty to eat a meal because it will be room temperature by then. It was easy to make and it could withstand at least 20 grams of weight.
204 1204 Does storage temperature affect batteries Engineering: Chemical J This project is meant to find out if batteries stored in cold temperature they will last longer Alkaline batteries have been out since the 1960s it rapidly became popular with designers opening a large field for electronic consumers. Alkaline batteries are the most common household batteries even though there are many different types of batteries like Nickel-Metal Hydride Lead-Acid,Cadmium,Nickel and even Lithium-ion. The researcher thought that batteries exposed to colder temperatures will last longer vs. batteries exposed to room temperature storageNext the procedures1. Store three batteries in the freezer for 24 hours. 2. Store three batteries at room temp for 24 hours. 3. Measure temp of the six batteries. 4. Measure the starting voltage for all six batteries. 5. Install batteries in flashlights and turn on for 12 hours. 6. Remove batteries and re-measure voltage. The answer to the question is yes. Storage temperature did affect the batteries life and efficiency. The batteries stored in the freezer would not have a longer life than the room temp batteries. Therefore if you want longer lasting batteries don t store them at freezing temperatures.In conclusion the belief my great grandma taught me of storing batteries in the freezer will make the batteries last longer is not correct. My research shows that this is not true. Battery life was better after storing them at room temperature.
205 1205 What metal is the most resistant to corrosion. Engineering: Chemical J The purpose of my problem is to see which metal is least and most resistant to corrosion. This can help you know what metal to use for structures. I believe that stainless steel will be the most resistant to corrosion. The metals I have are Stainless steel, Steel, Cast Iron, Copper, and Aluminum. Each night I would spray a mist of water onto the metals. Each week I would take a picture. The results were that copper was barely touched by corrosion while Cast Iron and Steel have a lot of corrosion. The winners were stainless steel and aluminum. In conclusion I was part right with my hypothesis stainless stain and Aluminum were the least resistant to corrosion.
206 1206 PURi- The Water Purification Process Engineering: Chemical J Limited access to clean, drinkable water is a widespread problem that affects 785 million people. This causes members of a family, especially women and children, to miss out on crucial events, such as school, because they are collecting dirty water. The scientists want to make water more accessible so that people can spend their time doing more important things than collecting water, like supporting their family. PURi- The Water Purification Process, measures the quality of the water using TDS, EC, and pH. Then, ferric sulfate, a flocculant, and calcium hypochlorite, a coagulant, are added into the water to separate the sediment from the water. The user presses a button to start the purification process. A red light will be illuminated for five minutes, representing the current quality of the water. The servo motor will spin its attachment that will stir the contents of the water to mix the chemicals, and then let it rest for the sediment to settle for ten minutes as the yellow light is illuminated. After ten minutes, the green light is illuminated for fifteen minutes, as the UV light radiation disinfects the water, removing germs and bacteria. Finally, after the buzzer sound, the water will filtered at release. This prototype records the water quality values of the water on the app, inputted by the user. The app then geocodes the location of the water source with a description of its quality on a map. Users can then locate clean water sources and purify based on quality.
207 1207 How Strong can Bioplastics Really Be? Engineering: Chemical J Plastic is a material that almost everyone can t live without, but its effects on the environment are long-lasting and leave permanent damage on our ecosystems. Each year, millions of tons of plastic waste enter the ocean. Once in the ocean, plastic can cause harm to sea life and can even re-enter people s food supply when fish eat it. Bioplastics are a possible solution to this problem. They are made from vegetable starches which are a renewable resource. They are also biodegradable, meaning that they break down into natural biproducts in a short period of time.For bioplastics to be a good alternative to plastic, they need to have similar properties such as strength, durability, and flexibility. The purpose of this experiment was test three different vegetable starches to see which one makes the strongest bioplastic. The vegetable starches tested in this experiment are corn, rice and potato. Bioplastics made from each vegetable starch were tested for ultimate tensile strength by adding weight to samples until they failed. The results from these tests show that bioplastic made from corn starch was stronger than the other two bioplastics. These findings support the research hypothesis.
208 1208 The Effects of Chemically Lightening Your Hair Engineering: Chemical J The Effects Of Chemically Lightening Your HairMy project is about what bleaching your hair does to it. This is an important topic because bleach is a common hair material. A lot of people use it often whether they re graying, bored with their own hair, or anything else. Because of this I decided to show people what it really does. My experiment is to test the effects of bleaching hair by using three swatches of hair one with no dye, one with a low amount of dye, and one with a high amount of dye and putting them in a humid climate. I put each of them separate homemade hygrometers made with wood, a nail, and a coin to measure movement in the humidity. I observed the changes.In my experiment I realized that though bleaching your hair might make it look cool, it dries out your hair and makes it weaken and fray in humidity. I learned that if you want to lighten your hair bleach is far from the way to go. In my research I found that dyes that are closer to your hair color cause less damage. So, if you want to bleach your hair try something a little more natural than straight up chemical bleach.
209 1209 Coding Synthetic DNA Engineering: Chemical J In this project, I tried to research about the genetics of autism and down syndrome and decided to code DNA using artificial intelligence and tried to match my coded DNA and the DNA of an autistic person. I hoped to help the autistic people that had a motivation to be in a better place but couldn t because of their disabilities. With this project I will be able to help so many people in the world ad impact international health majorly.
210 1210 H2O Soda Bottle Rocket Engineering: Chemical J While making this project I learned the basics of rocket engineering. I figured out how to use water and air pressure to propel a rocket over hundreds of feet. While doing this I learnt the struggles of trying to make a perfect rocket design that could work for people trying to do a project like mine. I had a great time with my project. I would love to do projects like this for school again.
211 1211 Nickel Paper Batteries: Trust or Bust? Engineering: Chemical J This project is an extension of the last year research. In Fall 2018, the research determined that, under certain circumstances and using a special design, paper batteries can last as long as alkaline batteries. This year s project was created to explore a new design nickel coating vs. nanotube ink . The research focus was centered on output power this time, to determine which amount of nickel conductive coating produces the highest voltage as measured in millivolts direct current . If the amount of nickel conductive coating increases the voltage of a paper battery, then the paper battery with the largest amount of nickel conductive coating should produce the highest total output power. Five batches of paper batteries were used, with 10 batteries in each batch, for a total of 50 measurements. The batteries in the first batch only had one layer brush of nickel conductive coating. The second batch of batteries had 2 brushes, third - 3, fourth - 4 brushes, and finally the fifth batch had 5 brushes of conductive coating. The hypothesis was confirmed. The amount of nickel conductive coating increased the voltage of paper batteries. The batteries with the most coating layers 5 brushes batch 5 produced the highest voltage overall 865 millivolts direct current total. When compared to the previous research project nanotube ink paper batteries , this year s research revealed that nickel conductive batteries benefitted from an improved design. Due to their special coating, the nickel conductive batteries generated more electricity than the nanotube ink paper batteries.
212 1212 Future Fuel Engineering: Chemical J NASA is designing a robot to collect hydrogen on mars to be used as a fuel source for returning rockets. First, the robot will collect ice from the surface then it will melt the ice into water for electrolysis to be preformed to create the hydrogen. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if it was possible to create a similar robot that can collect hydrogen through electrolysis. The hypothesis is that if a large amount of ice is collected then a large amount of hydrogen will be collected then a large amount of hydrogen will be collected as a fuel source. In order to make sure the electrolysis would work properly, first that component had to be built. Through trial and error an electrolysis machine was built to collect hydrogen. The total amount of hydrogen that should have been collected should be about 60% of the ice. Then a heat source was created to melt the ice using nichrome wire and 9 volt batteries. The total amount of hydrogen was calculated for the amount of ice used. This proved the hypothesis correct.
216 1216 Energy Storage Solutions For E-Cars Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J The idea of this project was to test four different types of electrical energy storage devices that could be used to power electric cars for combined travel time. The four devices were a normal capacitor, a super capacitor, a hybrid capacitor and the lithium battery. The exact problem for this experiment was what is the effect of different types of electrical energy storage devices. It was hypothesized that the super capacitor would perform the best and this was proven correct by this experiment. For each test the device was charged charge time measured and then installed into a remote-controlled car. Following that the travel time was measured after the car ran its maximum time. Following that the mean charge time, travel time, and combined travel time for each device was calculated. each device was tested fifteen times. The mean combined travel time of the super capacitor was .729 72.9% . The range was determined. The Hybrid capacitor had most consistent combined travel time. Normal capacitor charged and discharged very quickly as expected. The Lithium battery did all right. Even though as of now capacitors cannot meet the needs to be used to power electric cars without the help of batteries, they have a lot of potential to be a superior alternative to the lithium batteries commonly used to power electric cars. Especially since lithium batteries take a long time to charge if electric cars are really to have a shot at replacing fuel-powered cars, they re going to have to charge fast.
217 1217 Nozzle Design For Effective High Volume Atomization Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J AbstractAtomization of Liquids is used in many applications to produce a spray mist out of a liquid. This project investigates atomization at very high flow liquid levels, like 1000 times higher than spraying paint or perfume using a simple spray-can mechanism. The hypothesis was that a nozzle shooting two liquid jets directly at each other could produce a better atomization higher % of the water atomized than a standard nozzle that uses a spray orifice or a standard Venturi nozzle that mixes air into the stream. To compare the three different atomization nozzles the same piston pump was used at a rate of 69 GPM gallons per minute . The most common nozzle had just 14 spray orifice holes to produce a spray mist and atomized about 39.25 GPM. The venturi nozzle had air inlets from the side right into the spray orifice and atomized about 42.54 GPM. The nozzle Jet-Smash Nozzle was designed to shoot two jets right against each other for optimized liquid atomization and atomized about 58.885 GPM. During the testing the amount of liquid volume that was not atomized was measured because the amount of atomized liquid escaped as a mist into the air. At 69 GPM the hypothesis was confirmed and the atomizing power of the Jet-Smash Nozzle proved to be superior to the other two regular nozzles. An improved nozzle design like this could improve chemical processes or fire extinguishing industrial deluge systems that use high volume liquid mist to control hazardous chemical fires.
218 1218 Will It Hold? Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J The main objective of my project was to solve a problem that has affected Texas for years. I built the three most common bridges in Texas, and tested their capability to support weight. I found that of all three, the arch was the least expensive, and most effective. I believe that my solution could be used to fix the problem of bridge deficiency in Texas
219 1219 Wired Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J Wired is an experiment to determine the best conductive wire to use in houses. If a wire has a high voltage, low heat and lights up the light bulb, then it will be determined to be the best conductor.The experiment began with setting up the wires to a power source and letting it run for 30 seconds. Next, the heat, voltage and lit light bulb were recorded in the science journal. This experiment was done for five different metal wires.Based on this experiment, copper had the highest voltage, the lowest heat and lit the light bulb. Silver was the second-best wire.In conclusion, Copper is the best conductive wire to use in houses. In future experiments, use a regular 12-volt dry cell battery and shorter leads.
220 1220 Maximizing the Energy Output of Solar Panels Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J I hypothesize that when I adjust the solar panels angle throughout the day to align with the sun, I will be able to receive a higher voltage output hourly. To show my hypothesis to be correct, I had conducted the following experiment in two different ways, manually and robotically moving the panels at a certain angle, to see at what angle is the ultimate angle during that hour. I had measured the voltage output of my original solar panel at six different angles and compared it to the data I collected from the mini solar panels phase 2 for manual positioning. After that, I created a robotic structure and programmed it to adjust the angle for me automatically. After setting my mini solar panels onto the lego robotic structure, I measured the voltage output at each angle during that hour, for robotic positioning. With this information, I had compared the results to the manual positioning to figure out what was the ultimate angle for each hour. Based on the data I collected I found out by hourly adjusting the Solar Panels angles, it has maximized the voltage output throughout the day.
221 1221 SafeBike: An Innovation in Bike Safety Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J As global warming grows as a problem for humanity we need to find different sources of renewable energy to help stop it. In building a simple circuit we can make a bike dynamo-a generator normally attached to a bike wheel-charge batteries. The main focus of our project was to create a robust, efficient circuit for this project. We used cheap materials to keep the price low so we could prove that this technology doesn t have to cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Our model did produce energy at a good rate. When the crank was turned at 120rpm for 10 minutes it charged our batteries by 1 volt. This is significant because a bike would turn the dynamo at a much higher rate of 5,378rpm. Since we can recharge batteries, something that can be used to power anything that runs on electricity with enough voltage, we have proven that renewable energy can be cheap, effective, and self produced. That being said, we can apply dynamos to multiple aspects of our lives, and use them to generate energy, something we require to live comfortably and safely.
222 1222 The Breaking Point Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J The Breaking PointThe project was selected to predict the future of the amount of force certain dimensions of wood could withstand before breaking. The problem of the experiment is Is the correlation between the width of a piece of wood and the force required to break it positive or negative and how strong is the correlation between them The experiment was carried out with pieces of wood varying in different widths from 3cm to 5.88cm. Weights were then added to the center of the wood until the wood broke. Results showed that there was a strong positive correlation in the width of the wood and the force required to break it. This information can be used to predict how much force it would require to break pieces of wood with certain dimensions, therefore allowing architects to predict what dimensions would be best for building with.
223 1223 Shake it up Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J For my project , I was trying to figure out what structure was best at withstanding an earthquake.My hypothesis was if I shake the trapezoidal structure the longest then it will be the strongest structure to withstand an earthquake. To test the experiment I built Three houses with different structures one with a square structure flat roof ,a triangular structure and a trapezoidal pyramid structure . Also i had to make a shake table to shake the houses whichever houses that takes the longest to destroy shake was the best structure at withstanding an earthquake. My experiment showed that the Trapezoidal pyramid structure was the strongest to withstand an earthquake because it took the longest to fall apart. The triangular structures was the second strongest structure and the square structure was the weakest structure because it took the least time to fall apart. People can use this information in real life because architectural engineers are trying to build houses on earthquake zones and they need the best structures that can resist earthquakes because earthquakes can be really destructive causing ground shaking , landslides, tsunamis, and liquefaction when the soil behaves like a liquid due to the stress an earthquake applies to the soil .
224 1224 King of the Rollers Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J In this experiment, I designed and constructed a roller for water that would transport water efficiently. My purpose for this idea was to create something affordable, yet durable for families who use buckets that were damaged to carry water from a natural resource to their homes. If I was able to make something that would be durable, it could help many lives of families. I used materials that had different physical properties. My inference was the PVC pipe Model #3 would have the least amount of water leakage and the Magic Model Clay Model #1 would have the most amount of water leakage. In order to test what material would have the least amount of water leakage, I had to put all three models to an equal series of events. This includes rolling the models over concrete, sand, and dirt. Finally, I would put my weight on the model hands to see if any material would crack or fall apart. My results were as expected. The PVC pipe held up the best with just minimum scratches. The Model Magic Clay held up the worse because the material became soft and broke apart easily. The plastic bottle held up well, but because it was thin, the scratches then turned into holes. I learned that creating a project which would be used over long periods of time is difficult to replicate. Anything that has a sturdy exterior would hold up the best over time, compared to a weaker exterior.
225 1225 Foundations Matter Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J Would changing the structure of a house change how the house withstands in an earthquake The procedure starts with building the three house structures.ThenBuild a shake table that simulates an earthquakePlace brick and mortar house on the marbles in the shake trayActivate simulation for ten seconds then see what happensGather your dataRepeat the same process above with the wooden structure and steel frame structureRecord your data. Which house is able to withstand an earthquake better based on the information that was collected The data in the project will be collected simulating an earthquake and observing how different housing material responds to earthquakes. According to the observations, the student will record the data in the chart. Based on the results of the experiments, will then determine which housing foundation built are most resilient in an earthquake.My hypothesis was incorrect, two of the houses fell and only the steel frame structure stood. I expected all to stand pretty well but really only one house did.The quality of the two houses that fell were destroyed and had nothing left of them.The quantity shows that both fell before the ten seconds was up. An error occured when I didn t have something to secure the house down to the box it would have made a good foundation Royal Icing the houses down so the have some support. I have learned that a steel frame house is the best material to withstand an earthquake.
226 1226 Fluidized Bed Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J The purpose of the researchers experiment is to show how grain silos work and how they use them to make the grain flow smoothly. the Researcher also learned that this is a good way to show why you should avoid bubble in the water if you are on a boat. in photos you can see that when the air is turned off, the plastic sits atop the sand or water for the analogy but when you turn the air on, the plastic starts to sink. in real life this is because the boat plus the water has a lower average density than the water underneath it. when you add air the air lowers the density of the water, and even your boat is perfectly fine, it will just sink.The summery of my experiment is that the sand and air are actually just like water. the heavier objects like the wrench sink, and the lighter ones float. The project was success, and it worked as expected an everything went to plan.The summery of the data is that the more air you added, the lower the density of sand would go, therefore making the wrench sink more as the psi got higher.In conclusion, the project costed $80 to build, the most expensive item being the sand. it took 8 hours to build and was not very difficult.
227 1227 Green Energy Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J We set up an artificial road made out of colored foam boards and paper, artificial agriculture, straws, and cars. Then we constructed and placed turbines on the side of the road, which can produce electricity. The turbines were made from motors, pieces of markers, thread holders, cut up pens, and wires. We will then place those wires inside straws to power makeshift light posts with LEDs. We will use a blower to act like air turbulence. From there the blower will spin the generator s axle. This will cause an electric current to power the LED s. If this was able to become a reality than we could better optimize our power use by reusing and harvesting excess energy.This kinetic energy is called air turbulence, which can be harvested using vertical turbines. Like any normal turbine, it will produce electricity that we can use for our needs. Overall, we want to find out different ways to optimize how we use our energy.
228 1228 A Wearable, Wireless Metronome Controlled by a Music Conductor's Baton Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J Dance to the beat of your own drum. An amazing quote, but when listening to an entire band it sounds better when they play together. Last year the school band went to a competition. As beginner musicians it was difficult to watch the music and the conductor to keep with the beat, especially with tempo changes. To fix this problem, more experienced musicians came to help by tapping the beat on the musicians shoulders to match the beat of the conductor s tempo.To replace tapping on the shoulder, this invention vibrates according to the conductor s movements. One device is worn on the conductor s arm, which detects an adjustable change of motion, and a signal is sent to another device for it to vibrate with the beat. The musician can wear this device on their arm, in a pocket, or even on their shoulder, similar to the band competition.This device could also assist the visually or hearing impaired. Now they can feel the beat in a vibration, helping them to stay in tempo.To test if interference would affect the connection of the devices, a wall of eleven metal music stands were set up between the devices and tested to see if it would lose connection, it did not. At 165 meters, the devices lost connection, this was surprisingly far and there were no errors until the maximum distance was reached.Overall, the design for the devices was successful and worked as planned.
229 1229 electric avenue Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J My project is about finding an environmentally friendly and affordable source of electricity. There are three groups being tested microbial fuel cells, solar panels, and coal. Microbial fuel cells work from bacteria that can be found in dirt releasing electrons. I tested the MFC by creating a MFC and plugging it into a multimeter and ing my results in voltages. I tested solar panels by plugging them into a multimeter and getting my results in voltages. For coal, I called an electricity company and figured out how much coal went into generating one watt of coal at different times during the month. I put the results through a series of calculations so that they would be in the same units. While microbial fuel cells are environmentally friendly, they were very expensive and it did not produce a lot of electricity making it not the most reliable option. Solar panels work by something called the photoelectric effect which is where an electric current formed from light. The solar panels were environmentally friendly and pretty cost-effective and as time goes on, solar panels continue to become more inexpensive and efficient enough for domestic use. Coal goes through several steps before it can be turned into electricity. These steps pollute the air contributing to greenhouse gasses making it an unreasonable source of electricity for the future, although it is the most inexpensive option which is why it is so widely used across the globe. This leaves solar panels as the best option.
230 1230 Wind & Solar 2.0 Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J I wanted to do wind turbines as my project cause wind is a way cheaper energy source than coal or oil. People can get free energy just by building a wind turbine in your property, but of course the government doesn t want us to do that. Coal, oil, and natural gas are all non renewable resources while wind is a renewable resource, or in other words it can be replaced. Results were that the wind turbine without solar panels created a measurement of 47.6, 47.4, 44.3, 43.6, and 43 mv. The solar panels measured a voltage of 7.75, 7.73, 7.71, 7.69, and 7.67 mv. The wind turbine with the solar panels measured the highest with 68.5, 67.4, 66.7, 66.6, and 65.4 mv. In conclusion a wind turbine containing solar panels can create more energy than a normal wind turbine. More energy can be created if we add solar panels to our wind turbines. We would create more free energy than oil, coal, and natural gas. After all those things are non renewable but wind and solar energy are renewable.
231 1231 Veggie Power Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J The purpose of this whole project was so that we could hopefully reduce metal waste by using a more environmentally friendly option to use instead. This is because resources are slowly running out on this planet, so we need to find a renewable source to replace things. Our hypothesis was that if the vegetables were potatoes, then the amount of light given by the lightbulb is more than if the vegetables were tomatoes, onions, corn, or carrots. As stated earlier, for this experiment, we had used 5 different vegetables. The vegetables that were selected were potatoes, tomatoes, onions, corn, and carrots. For the trials, the results seemed very sporadic and were not very consistent. The only vegetable that seemed to have consistency when testing was the potatoes which ending up having the highest average. Following the potatoes in the average were the tomatoes, then the onions, the corn, and finally, the carrots. From the data we ve collected, this means that our original hypothesis was correct because it stated that the potatoes would be the best. Now that we have done this experiment, we have learned that using potatoes would be the best vegetable if you had to use it for a conductor. This is very useful info as it could possibly help humanity reduce metal waste and could potentially have us stop using metal for this type of task in general.
232 1232 Hydraulic Arm Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J This project was about making a model of a cardboard arm to demonstrate how it helps humans move objects from one place to another.First, we cut out the shapes we needed for the arm using an x-acto knife. Then we insert the bamboo sticks on the holes of the strip and stack the strips together. This will be the upper arm of the equipment . We insert two syringes in the middle of the two strips and add super glue on the two holes , where the bamboo sticks are inserted. Then we grabbed the two small strips and stack one side of the small strip the long strip. We made sure that we inserted it into the hole that is farther from the edge. We inserted the thin clear hose in the inner holes and bend them outward so that they wouldn t come out then we twisted each into their respective holes in the syringe. We then bent 2 small pieces of cardboard around a ruler to give us the end of the gripper. We mixed 3 colors with water each in a glass, and filled the 3 controllers. Then we cut our tubing into four equal parts. Then we attached the end to the controller and we squeezed the syringe until water started coming out at the other end.The time was a result of the weight which was a factor of the arm s ability to pick up items.
233 1233 Solar Panels in Motion Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J Solar panels are an effective way to power a house cheaply, but they take anywhere between seven and twenty years to benefit from. The experiment was created to see if a solar panel that moved in the direction of the sun would gather more voltage and power than a stationary solar panel. It was expected that a solar panel that follows the sun will collect more energy than a panel that faces one direction.For this experiment, a solar panel was attached to a box with a photo light resistor at the top of each side of the box. The box with the solar panel was connected to a servo motor. The servo motor was connected to an Arduino, and the Arduino was programmed to move the motor to the photo light resistor with less resistance. If needed, it would shift in increments of 5 to follow the sun. There were three testing trials, and in each trial, the movable solar panel gathered more power overall than the stationary solar panel. The first trial there was a 49.9% increase, the second trial there was a 70.5% increase, and third trial had a 42% increase of power from the movable solar panel. The results support the hypothesis. The moveable solar panel on average gathered 54% more power than the stationary solar panel. Since there was a significant increase in the percentage of power from the moveable solar panel during testing, the movable panel gathers power more effectively from the sun.
234 1234 LED VS INCANDESCENT Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J The project went well it answered my question and my hypothesis very well with good results.It also has a very good social relevance with what light bulb would be the most energy efficient to save money on your home so you wouldn t have to waste money on wasted energy. What else I liked was the fact that the project didn t require to many steps so it was a very fast and good project to do.
235 1235 exploring bridges Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J I am investigating the basic physics of bridges. I want to prove that some bridge designs are stronger than others. Will it be the beam or truss bridge I think that the truss bridge will be the strongest because it has the best foundation. This is because of the triangle shaped foundation. The truss bridge is made of materials that are connected together at angles where adding pressure causes the joints to compress and push against each other. The pressure on the joints is lessened as the weight decreases. If the connections are set at the right angle the bridge can hold much more weight than other bridges. The beam bridge is the simplest bridge design. It s only a single beam that spans a distance between two fixed points. Unlike the truss bridge, the beam bridge does not have materials that connect at angles to absorb the weight on it. The greater the distance, the sturdier the material must be. Exploring bridges is important to make sure engineers are building the safest bridges. People use bridges daily, to travel over roads, water, canyons and train tracks across the world. If the bridges are not safe they will collapse and people will die. Bridges are also educational and fun to study, as you learn about Newton Laws of Motion. Engineers must also consider the distance, materials, size, and shape for a safe bridge design. As per my experiment results after three tests, the truss bridge is the strongest.
236 1236 House made of what? Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J So my project was basically about trying to solve world problems such as plastic waste, floods and saving wildlife deforestation . In recent years floods have started to become very popular and left many families homeless. Plastic waste has become bigger that animals get harmed killed. Also deforestation is happening and leaving animals without home. I wanted to figure out if plastic could make a better house that wood, and it did. It was able resist floods more than the house made of wood. And we could use used plastic bottles to make houses and don t have to cut down trees.
237 1237 The Voltage Field Of A Tesla Coil. Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J The purpose of the experiment The Voltage Field of a Tesla Coil , is to determine the amount of light given off by a fluorescent bulb at varying distances. With the Tesla Coil on, the fluorescent bulb was positioned close to the arc spray or plasma coming off by the Tesla Coil. The light given off by the fluorescent bulb was then measured with a light meter. The fluorescent bulb was then moved away from the Tesla Coil and the light given off was measured at regular intervals and recorded. The experiment was the repeated two more times. The graph of the light meter readings versus the distance from the Tesla Coil showed that the lighted emitted by the fluorescent bulb declined at a steep angle and then slowly leveled off after that. This shows that the further the fluorescent bulb is from the Tesla Coil, the dimmer the light emitted will be.
238 1238 Shocking Fruits Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J People are looking for alternative energy sources to produce electricity other than with fossil fuels. Harnessing electricity from citrus fruits can be just the right thing, because fruits are renewable resources. Even if we do try this method, which citrus fruits would produce the most electricity In this project we will be creating circuits using four of each fruit. Then connecting the circuit to the multimeter, which will show us the amount of voltage or electricity produced. My hypothesis was that if you test the voltage produced by the circuits of the three citrus fruits, then the lemons would produce the most electricity. But the results proved my hypothesis incorrect, instead the oranges produced the most electricity, limes second most, and lemons produced the least. I also learnt that just because something is more sour, doesn t mean it produces the most electricity.
239 1239 Torsion Powered Catapult Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J Torsion Powered Catapult aims to answer the question of thickness of ropes, and how it affects the power stored to be released. This has already helped in the field of vehicles in the form of suspension springs that store tension . The catapult is here to act as a miniature study of how rope thickness will affect the power, which can translate into how springs work with vehicles. Inspiration from this experiment was derived from the ancient world, and why they were phased out for trebuchets, and why they were typically used in sieges.
240 1240 School Safety Film: Worth the Investment? Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J Recently there has been a spike in school shootings, in the Parkland HS shooting reports said that the shooter was delayed by weather protection film. I decided I wanted to see if film would actually stop or delay a bullet, and if so which amounts or layers of film would protect the glass the best. I tested unprotected glass, glass protected by 15 mil of film on the threat side with 8 mil on the safe side, and glass protected with 18 mil of film on the threat side with an unprotected safe side. A professional safe shooter shot three times at each type of glass, except the unprotected glass because the glass had already completely shattered, fallen out of the frame and couldn t handle another bullet. After shooting at the two types of protected glass, I determined that the glass protected with 18 mil of film on the threat side was the most effective, as it didn t allow any bullets to pass. From that I determined that safety film, if used with the proper arrangement and application, was is worth the investment.
241 1241 Conductors of Heat Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J My project is about conductors of heat. My experiment was determining which metal is the best conductor of heat between cooper, brass, and steel. The reason I choose this project is because I have always been interested in how technology works and conduction is a huge part of it and the easiest part for me to understand.My hypothesis was that copper would be the best as my research had shown it was the most comanly used and met all the standersof being a good conductor. My procedure was, first I boiled a pitcher of water and chilled another pitcher of water for ten minutes. While the water was being prepared label I 3 styrofoam cups hot and the other 3 cold. Then with the help of my dad we bended 3 metal rods made of either copper, steel, or brass
242 1242 "Ripe or not?" circuit Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil J AbstractThe objective of this science project is to build a circuit and write a piece of code that can detect whether a tomato is ripe or unripe. Using the Ripe or Not circuit will allow one to determine which tomatoes are unripe, almost ripe, or ripe in a field full of millions of tomatoes. The hypothesis stated that if a green light is beamed on the surface of a tomato, the light reflected from its surface will affect the resistance of the photoresistor depending on whether the tomato is unripe green or ripe red or a shade of red . In order to test the hypothesis a machine with the circuit had to be constructed and multiple tomatoes at various stages of ripening had to be placed inside and tested. The number between 0 and 1023 that was formed by looking at the residual voltage is measured and recorded. Then, the number is applied to one of three ranges written in the code in Arduino. During the project, the setting of the experimentation was constant as well as the code and the circuit. At the end of the project, a working circuit was built that was able to detect what stage of ripening a tomato is at along with an accurate code being written. The machine enables grocers, farmers, and civilians to pick, put out, or buy the best-of-the-best tomatoes.
248 1248 Hurricane Debris Effect on Windows Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J Protecting your home can be costly and timely, many homeowners that reside in a potential hurricane path do not have the funds and abilities to protect their homes with the best materials on the market. This project can help fixed income homeowners find the most cost-effective way to successfully protect their home during a storm. If expensive custom plywood is usually used to protect windows during a storm, then foam insulation boards should be able to protect the glass because insulation boards are thick and used in constructing homes. They are a cost-effective and light weight equivalent to expensive pre-cut plywood.With the experiment, a pitching machine and a baseball were used to represent hurricane force winds and debris. The ball was then shot at 60 MPH at a piece of glass with a different material on it everytime. I had four different materials cardboard, foam insulation, duck tape, and a ceiling tile. I then calculated the average of glass breakage and put that into a bar graph.The overall experiment went as planned and a material was found that was 100% successful. The foam insulation board managed to stop the ball going 60 MPH, from doing any damage to the glass, just as the initial hypothesis had planned. This experiment supported the idea that thicker and larger materials are going to hold up better under pressure. This also showed that an insulation foam board could one day be used to protect the safety of families in situations like this.
249 1249 Mitigating Floods with Plant-Based Concrete Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J In the past decade, the cement industry has produced more than four billion metric tons of concrete, contributing eight percent of the world s carbon emissions. A promising alternative is plant-based concrete, such as hemp, straw, and pinewood shavings combined with lime binder and water. While research on plant-based concretes and their environmental benefits exist, little has been reported about their absorptive properties. I wanted to test if highly-porous plant-based concretes could, in fact, absorb water to prevent flooding. I hypothesized that if hempcrete, pinecrete, strawcrete, and standard concrete are submerged into a pool of water, simulating a flood, then the hempcrete would absorb the most water. I made three bricks of each concrete, measured their mass, and poured 1000 milliliters of water on them in a tub. I then measured their mass and the volume of water absorbed after 15 minutes and 6 hours. I calculated the absorption percent the amount of water absorbed based on each brick s mass , as every brick varied widely in mass. Based solely on the volume of water, hempcrete absorbed the most, supporting my hypothesis. However, when using the absorption percent based on mass , strawcrete absorbed the most and hempcrete was second. Either way, all three types of plant-based concrete absorbed much more water than standard concrete, supporting the idea that plant-based concretes could reduce flooding. Future research into the adoption of plant-based concrete roads could greatly impact flooding in vulnerable regions like Houston and play a big part in improving the environment.
250 1250 Efficacy of CDs As A Radiant Barrier Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J Every summer, people pay more and more to keep their attics cool as it gets hotter each year. To prevent your attic from getting hotter and to save money, choose a radiant barrier. This test checked if CDs could be recycled and reused as an efficient radiant barrier, helping save both the world and money.The hypothesis was that the CDs would successfully reflect heat and work as an efficient radiant barrier.In the control experiment, two miniature attics were placed out in a backyard on a sunny day with a temperature sensor inside each. Optimal location and direction of the two miniature attics was found in several control experiments along the way. After conducting the control experiments, CDs were attached along all the walls in one attics, leaving the other empty. After several tests, Cds were taken out of the attic and replaced with commercial radiant barriers. In these final tests, the other attic was again left empty.The control experiments showed that attic #2 was likely getting more sunlight than attic 1 because attic 2 was hotter. With the CDs in attic 2, the results adjusted for bias showed that attic 2 was at a lower temperature versus attic 1, which meant the CDs worked. The commercial radiant barriers didn t work as well as the CDs, but still made a difference in the temperature of attic 2.Measured differences were small, but based on these experiments, the hypothesis was correct. CDs can work as a radiant barrier.
251 1251 WalkSmart: A Low-Cost Device Using Ultrasonic Sensor Technology to Aid Self-Navigation for the Blind and Visually Impaired Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J Often, the blind and visually impaired experience difficulty with self-navigation and need to rely on walking canes or other people, whether it be in their own homes or in unfamiliar places. To solve this, I created a portable and low-cost 20 dollars device that uses an HC-SR04, a sensor that emits ultrasonic waves that echo back after bouncing off objects. I used an active buzzer to alert the user by making a beeping sound if an object is within 90 cm from them. The components are connected to an Arduino Uno, the microprocessor of the device. I also used a DHT-22 temperature and humidity sensor to compensate for the effect of temperature and humidity on the speed of sound, dropping the percent error from 1.62% to 0.61%. In addition, I used an HM-10 Bluetooth module, connected to the user s phone, to ensure the device can run without WiFi or the device it was programmed on. In my device testing, the average percent error for a 30 cm distance from the sensor to the object was 0.93%, for 60 cm, the average percent error was 0.62%, for 90 cm, the average percent error was 0.36%, for 120 cm, the average percent error was 0.43%, and for 150 cm, the average percent error was 0.59%. Overall, the average percent error was 0.61%, and in all trials, the buzzer was 100% accurate. In conclusion, the device was successful in detecting obstacles and has potential to revolutionize millions of lives by simplifying daily tasks.
252 1252 Which Way Will The Utensils Crumble? Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J Earth and the people on it are drowning in plastic. This number is only said to increase making homemade utensils a perfect solution to replace plastic ones. Creating this alternative can possibly lessen the waste in landfills and the pollution surrounding. Using all-purpose flour and water is a great way to make these homemade utensils. They last for a reasonable amount of time and taste just like bread. While using millet flour the utensils won t last nearly as long and do add a certain weird taste to your food. Creating your own utensils isn t as hard as you would think it is. It takes only about 30 minutes for them to bake and 15 to create them and prep your area. If you created your own utensils instead of buying plastic ones from the store you would be helping in lessening the waste in our landfills and all types of plastic pollution around us. In conclusion using all-purpose flour would be a practical, easy and great way to help out the environment by lessening the pollution that constantly surrounds us.
253 1253 The Most Egg-cellent Carton Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J AbstractThe purpose of this experiment is to determine which egg carton could support the most weight on the top and the most pressure on the sides. If the Styrofoam, Paper Pulp and PET Plastic egg cartons are subjected to the same weights and pressure tests to determine durability, then the PET Plastic egg carton would support the egg better because the sides of the eggs, where they are weakest, are surrounded by stronger material.In this experiment, incremental weights were placed top of all three egg cartons and observations were documented in a notebook following the placement of each weight. This was repeated until the carton collapsed and the eggs are broken. Three trials were conducted for each test. The same steps were conducted using a trigger clamp for the pressure test. All observations were recorded during the process.In conclusion, the PET Plastic egg carton had the best results during the weight test and 2nd best during the pressure test, collapsing at around 89 lbs. and caving in at 6 trigger presses. The hypothesis has been supported. This information will be useful for future applications in fields such as agriculture and engineering for egg transport and storage as well as consumers. Future experiments would be to redesign and test the shape of the egg carton to prevent breakage.
254 1254 The Artificial Turf Wars Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J The Artificial Turf Wars Soccer is the scientist s favorite sport. He dislikes that the turf makes his feet uncomfortable which affects his play. This problem is a big problem in the soccer world. The problem the scientist is testing is Does different colored filler affect the temperature of artificial turf The scientist thinks that this will help the turf not be as hot. His hypothesis If different colored fillers are tested under heat lamps, then the white filler will have the lowest temperature because it repels the most light. He thinks that white filler will have lower temperature turf.The scientist cut an artificial turf piece into 5 smaller pieces. Then he measured colored filler out and put filler into the turf pieces. He tested them for 5 hours under heat lamps. Finally, he used the laser thermometer to measure every hour. The data collected was the temperature of turf and filler under a heat lamp each over 5 hours. Yellow filler had an average of 8.1 C and was the best color. Black filler was the worst filler with an average of 8.92 C. All the other colors of filler fell into that range of temperature. The scientist learned that yellow filler does not retain heat as much as other colors. Also, black filler is the worst filler to use. The application of this project is that if you were making a field out of artificial turf, yellow colored filler would be the best color to use.
255 1255 Notable Fluctuational Enhancements in 3D Composed Guidance Prothesis Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J The aim of this project is to implement a low cost light weight prosthetic hand that can execute fundamental functions like grasp objects with the acid of neurological signals. The prosthetic hand has a grip force of 4 to 5 pounds and can be capable of grabbing items like the motions executed by a genuine hand. This hand is intended to be given to people who are financially insecure and want to replace a missing limb with something both functional and reliable for daily tasks. This prosthetic hand allows the user the capabilities that a $1000 prosthetic hand con not offer. My project results showed that the measurements of the proposed hand were met. Some difficulties and changes that were made necessary were on the programming of the Arduino Nano. With the costumization of the program and the servo motor range, it was difficult to calibrate the prosthetic every time. To overcome the problem, a separate program was developed from the original program to measure muscle mass and strength of neuro signals. With the new program hand can be calibrated accurately, and reaction time is in sync.
256 1256 Epoxy Flooring Resistance Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J Epoxy coatings are found in many places such as laboratories and schools. The safety of everyone around is the utmost priority. If certain chemicals are exposed to some types of epoxy coatings they can react and cause cracks on the original flooring or cause certain chemical reactions that are dangerous to those around it. If different types of epoxy coatings are exposed to bleach and yellow mustard over a certain period of time then, they will lose gloss and there will be a colored spot where the chemicals were placed.For this experiment different types of epoxy coatings were exposed to different chemical substances in 1 day, 1 week and 3 week trials. The chemicals were placed in a cotton ball and a water bottle cap covered the cotton ball to prevent the chemicals from evaporating during the trials.Bleach and yellow mustard caused some epoxy samples to have spotting and loss of gloss while other samples did not have any changes.The most damage was done during the 1 day trial. The sample most affected was Sample 1 because before the trials started the coating already became a yellowish color and during the trials bleach and yellow mustard caused colored spots and loss of gloss. The sample that was the least affected was Sample 7 because it only had one colored spot from yellow mustard during the 3 weeks trial.
257 1257 Keeping My Cool Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J Insulators work by slowing conductive heat flow. Having a good insulator is important because its energy efficient, because it keeps cold air cold, and warm air warm. Without a good insulator houses would need to add more heat to keep it warm which will waste a lot of energy to get that heat supply. It also desired temperature in your house all year round, without a worry that winter will be freezing or that summer would be too hot. Some common insulators are, Polystyrene and plastic foam. These are good insulators because they have small air bubbles that are trapped inside and that doesn t allow heat to flow through. A poor insulator is something allows heat to flow through and object, some examples are most metals like aluminium, copper, silver, gold and ect.Insulators are found in many different places such as homes, businesses and even coolers, to keep temperatures just right. Heat can only be transferred from one object to another, and all matter contains heat energy. Heat or thermal energy is transferred due to the difference in temperature in two object to even it out.My hypothesis was correct because the foam pouches had an average of 2.2 C over a period of 4 hours the least temperature out of the other 4 insulator. There were 5 insulator in total and one with no insulation. All of the data matched up to my results.
258 1258 Cap or no Cap Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J As a competitive swimmer you are always wanting to be the best you can be, and always trying to improve so that you can be faster. Many people believe that drag The resistance the body encounters as it moves through the water slows you down. An example of drag is your hair being exposed or down while swimming and easy fix to this is wearing a swim cap. There are many materials that swim caps can be made of, but for this project I used silicone, latex, and cloth to the test to see if the material of your swim cap can potentially affect how fast you swim. Before having each swimmer swim with the various materials of swim caps, I had them swim 50 yards without any swim cap on to get their initial time to see if in the long run, swim caps improve your swimming performance. Over the course of several days I had each swimmer swim with each material swim cap. I then recorded their times that they swam with the swim cap on. At the end of my project my findings were that the material of the swim cap does in fact affect how fast you swim.
259 1259 Will weight placement on a pendulum-putter affect accuracy? Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J In 2018, about 107 million people played, watched, or read about golf. It is estimated that worldwide 60 million people play golf. Putting is a pivotal part of golf and involves accuracy. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if weight placement on a pendulum-putter affects putting accuracy and which position of weight placement produces the most accurate putts. The hypothesis states that if weight is placed in the middle of the putter, then the ball will go the straightest, because the ball is closest to the center of mass of the club. In the experiment, the scientist uses a putter attached to a custom pendulum. The scientist then performs 50 putts using the pendulum-putter construction with weights in predetermined locations along the putter, measuring the distance in millimeters of final ball position from centerline. The experiment attempts to establish a correlation between the distance of the final ball position from the centerline and the weight placement along the back of the putter.In conclusion, the best results were yielded from having the weights in the center of the putter. The average deviation of final ball position from the centerline for the weights positioned in the middle of the putter was 28.82 millimeters. The results support the hypothesis that if weight is placed in the middle of the putter, then the ball will go the straightest. The future applications for this experiment can help golfers improve their scores in golf and save money on putters.
260 1260 Moldy Mess Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J For my project, I was trying to identify, Which type of food coverage prevents the fruit from appearance of mold My hypothesis was, If the fruit is covered by plastic wrap, then the fruit, will mold the least compared to the other food coverages. To test my hypothesis, I tested 4 different materials which were plastic containers, wraps, bags, and green bags to help the halves of apples mold the least. I waited for the mold to set in the apples for 1 week and a half. Afterwards, the apples were measured again and the results were that plastic containers kept the apples most protected, while green bags protected the apples the least. In conclusion, my hypothesis was incorrect and plastic containers protected the apples the most. This relates to real life because it would help save money by storing the fruits longer while the fruits would still being in a good condition.
261 1261 Reality in fishing line Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J It all started with an idea and in which that idea was to help humanity in a common sport and past time but in reality instead of just helping humanity I decided to also help marine animal life.For this reason I have a problem that needs a solution and in which the problem is that the marine is getting more affected than humans because when our fishing line snaps the hook gets stuck in rthe fish and it will affect the animal for the rest of its life and eventually kill it.Thats where I come in I wanted to find a solution to this problem for a good a nd noble cause.After that, I started to envestigate how could I make this problem have a solution and then I came to me.What if by combining two different fishing lines we are able to change the fate of of marine life drasticly.Then I am now testing my theory and I hope I can change the world.
262 1262 Bio-Power Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J Temperature difference exists nearly everywhere in both natural and man-made environments. On a cold day, we dress warmly to reduce the body heat lost this temperature gradient can be harvested and put to useful work or stored. A study of the first law of thermodynamics, that the total energy of an isolated system in constant, energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can neither be created nor destroyed. The miniature energy harvester is still in their infancy. This project reviews the options for human energy harvesting in order to determine power availability for harvester-powered body sensors.Results show the amount of bio thermal energy produced at rest with palm temperature of 87.5F with a pulse rate of 101, after physical activity, with palm temperature of 95F and pulse rate of 140 and using a different cold plate heatsink, aluminum plate, and copper plate . These include the Seebeck effect, where a junction of dissimilar metals produces an electric current when exposed to a temperature gradient. The thermoelectric generator generates only a few millivolts based on palm temperature. Energy harvester steps up such ultra-low input voltage such that the voltage to light an LED bulb or trickle charge supercapacitor. If we can produce electricity based on temperature difference, then we can harvest bioelectric energy, because human bodies have a board range of thermal energy based on age and activity. Bio-power energy harvesting needs a study of nano semiconductor materials to power biosensors to generate power without any battery lifetime.
263 1263 Biodegradable Plastic Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J This project contains something that most people don t think about. Eco-friendly products. Bio-plastic is an eco-friendly, plastic that degrades within 3-6 months instead of millions of years it takes regular plastic to degrade. The most important factor in bioplastic is that it breaks down within months. If you were to put regular plastic in your garden and expect it to be gone within days, you would be mistaken. Now if you were to put bio-plastic in your garden and come back in 6-10 days you would see a significant change in the size of the plastic. The organic oils and matter in the bioplastic react to the natural chemicals in the soil that break down the plastic without releasing any harmful chemicals regular plastic would release if burned, melted, or left out in the street.
264 1264 Which Water bottle is Best? Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J The question being tested was Which Type Of Water Bottle Retains The Most Heat along with the hypothesis If liquid is contained in the more expensive water bottle then it will contain its heat more longer. The reason why finding the right bottle for this experiment is because a common problem in society is that people tend to leave their hot drinks for example coffee just anywhere in public or in society normally because the drink is not to liking anymore. So finding and using a right bottle for this situation could be beneficial to society to reduce pollution. The procedures used to do this project were to first label the water bottles for example like bottle A, Bottle B, Bottle C, or bottle D whatever bottles are provided just make sure to label them to tell them apart. Second step is to measure 532 ml of water and then boil it to 37 degrees Celsius. Carefully pour water into the bottle, close cap immediately and record temperatures for the first 3 hours then next 6 hours to see how much heat it retained. Repeat steps 3 more times for the remaining bottles provided. Bottle C had the most change followed by the bottle A, Bottle B bottle then the least change of temperature happened with Bottle D The results did connect to the hypotheis since the most expensive bottle, D retained its heat the longest while Bottle D the cheapest bottle retained the least heat.
265 1265 Block the Burn Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering J Cars get extremely hot in the summer months due to radiant energy from the sun. There are several reflective products on the market that could help with this but is there a way to make a more efficient product After doing research on the best materials for blocking radiant energy, felt, foam, neoprene, and leather were the materials selected. The material that blocked the most radiant energy would be attached to a sun reflector seeing if it would do a better or worse job at keeping the car cool.To test the four materials, boxes were made with plexiglass representing windows and one of the materials was attached to each plexiglass. The boxes were placed under direct sunlight and the internal temperatures were checked and recorded every 5 minutes for 2 hours. The test was repeated two more times.The results showed that leather kept the box the coolest. The highest temperature it got to was 81.7 degrees Fahrenheit. Foam was the second-best material and was about 1 degree Fahrenheit warmer than leather throughout the testing.The disadvantage of leather is that it s expensive, and to make more profit a company might want to use a cheaper alternative such as foam. This project can benefit people by making it more tolerable to get in your car when it is hot outside. This could also help with air pollution, because people won t feel the need to start their car before they need to drive it.
273 1273 Oil Pollution Environmental Sciences J The purpose of this project is to show a variety of different oil pollution removal methods, so that I can determine the most effective way to remove oil pollution from water. My ideas for conducting this experiment is to gather cups of water to represent the ocean, add oil and remove it in different methods.
274 1274 Collecting Liquid Water from Water Vapor Environmental Sciences J Many people worldwide have a shortage of water, whether due to drought, natural disasters, or contaminated water. An estimated three to four million people die each year due to water related issues. My idea is to create a device that collects water vapor from the air and condenses it into safe, drinkable liquid water. I created a design draft of my device. It included a solar panel that would power a water pump with cooling tubes to condense water vapor. It was made up of two chambers one for condensing water vapor, and one for collecting and filtering the water. It is designed to be completely self- contained and not need any electricity.I designed an experiment around it to prove whether or not it would work. I used ice to represent the cooling tubes and cellophane to represent the condensing surface.From my experimentation, I learned that I needed to modify the cooling tubes to be on top of the device rather than inside, and the water vapor will collect inside the device. I changed my design and build a model out of cardboard to physically represent my device without making a working model. I concluded that if this device was set into action, it could provide a viable water source for many people. It could save lives in many water- deprived countries.
275 1275 How will Ocean Acidification Affect Crustaceans and other Calcifying Organisms? Environmental Sciences J The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate and test the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms. The hypothesis states if mussel shells are placed into jars with different pH levels, then the shells with the lowest pH level will deteriorate the most because highly acidic water deteriorates the shell faster and decreases repairability. Ocean acidification is the increase of ocean acidity due to rising carbon dioxide levels,which can cause catastrophic effects on the environment and humanity. The experiment involved creating nine jars of three different pH levels 8.1, 7.7, 7.5 for the mussels to be distributed evenly into. All mussels were then weighted and re-weighed after the forty-five day period. Throughout the experiment process, observations were taken periodically of alterations in the mussel shell s appearance, until a final evaluation of all results were produced. In conclusion, the hypothesis was neither supported or unsupported as the neutral pH category had the highest weight variances while the 7.5 pH category had the most striking appearance changes, with tan-brown stripes developing on the shell. This information will be extremely worthwhile in the future as it can be applied to inform the public of the devastation of ocean acidification and its destructive effects on organisms. If preventive measures are not taken, in a mere gap of one hundred years, calcifying organisms will be near extinct, and the subsequent effects on the food chain and other variables will lead to mass extinctions, famine, etc.
276 1276 The Most Efficient Means of Recycling Glass Bottles Environmental Sciences J Objectives Goals My main objective or goal I had when I went into this project was, what is the most efficient means of recycling glass bottles I found out that the answer was not as black and white as I may have initially thought, and I couldn t draw a simple conclusion.Methods and Materials My procedure was relatively simple, I would try to reuse, recycle, and crush glass bottles every week to see which is the most efficient. I used a journal, sand, cement, water, glass bottles, bottle crushers, mortar, and bricks.Results Contrary to my hypothesis, I could not confidently make a conclusion on what was the most efficient means of recycling glass bottles. Different solutions work for different types of people. Recycling may work for most people, but bottle crushing is arguably the best for the environment. I say arguably because the crushed glass could be used in roads which contribute to greater amount of driving and less public transport. This is a greater detriment to our environment, and continues to hurt our population.Conclusions I conclude that the most efficient means of recycling glass bottles is either recycling the glass bottles, or crushing them. It depends on the person s situation. If someone must drive ten or so miles to the nearest recycling center to recycle glass bottles, the emissions would also come into play. It is hard to take into account all different variables when recycling glass bottles, but we can say it is either recycling or crushing.
277 1277 Reducing Waste By Composting Environmental Sciences J If I collect organic waste to make compost, it will then reduce the amount of trash my family makes and, also benefit nature. This is related to the reason I chose this project, as I want to reduce trash and create awareness in others on different ways to reduce trash. Composting is a way to reduce trash from reaching landfills. Already, there are so many landfills and if we don t stop that future generations will basically live amongst landfills.28% of trash in landfills are made from organic waste. Instead of throwing all that organic waste away in landfills, we can use it to make compost. My family makes fresh food every single day and we throw all the scraps in the trash. There are many people who make fresh food every day and throw all the food scraps away. If everyone composted, we could get approximately 28% of trash out of landfills. If there is less trash that means less methane which means less global warming. Methane is a greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gases cause global warming. There are 3,091 landfills in the U.S. If we try to reuse, reduce and recycle some of the things we throw away there will be less landfills. One major way is composting which is beneficial to nature and mankind. I was able to reduce the amount of our household trash by approximately 22%by using the organic waste for compost. I learned that you need more time than 3 weeks for making compost.
278 1278 Microplastics: A Macro Problem Environmental Sciences J Microplastics A Macro Problem Approximately 12 million tonnes of plastic are released into the ocean per year, and 90% of that plastic is microscopic. These tiny pieces of plastic are called microplastics, and they are destroying our environment. Microplastics are defined as pieces of plastic 5mm in size. Microplastics on average are 0.45mm long and 0.012mm in diameter. A large portion of microplastics 35% are produced and released into the environment by the textile industry, ranging in length from 0.003mm to 5mm. Neither the textile industry nor the wastewater treatment plants have a way to combat this growing threat. The properties of the microplastics are the reasons for this issue. Most microplastics have nearly the same density as water, so the catchment systems at the wastewater treatment plants don t trap the particles, as they neither float nor sink. The most obvious solution to this problem would be a filter. However, at what porosity and where in the wastewater treatment cycle would a filter prevent microplastics from entering the environment. This experiment tested the different porosities that could be used in the wastewater treatment cycle 1.2mm, 0.4mm, and 0.15mm. This experiment also tested through research the most efficient location to install a filter.It was found that the most effective filter porosity was 0.15mm, as compared to filters of 1.2mm and 0.4mm, and installing it in a washing machine exit pipe was more efficient than installing it in a wastewater treatment plant.
279 1279 Hazardous Household Chemicals Environmental Sciences J The purpose of this experiment is to determine which household product is most toxic to plants. The hypothesis states, If Ivory Dish Soap, Raid Bug Barrier, Windex Window Cleaner, Pine-Sol Multi-Purpose Cleaner, and Clorox Bleach are given to garden cress, then the Windex Window Cleaner will cause the greatest percentage of plants to become unhealthy because the ammonium hydroxide will alter the pH of the soil, making it too acidic for cress. In addition, the 2-hexoxyethanol detergent will break the surface tension of the water, causing it to eventually evaporate instead of being absorbed into the cress. In the experiment, the researcher grew garden cress. After 8 days, the plants were equally divided into 5 groups that would each receive one household product, and 1 control group. Each container was watered with 4 parts water to 1 part household product, totalling 50 milliliters. The experiment measured the average percentage of healthy plants per group after 5 days of receiving the product every other day. Healthy, for this experiment, is the appearance of the control group. In conclusion, Clorox Bleach is most toxic to cress, with an average of 14.4%, 9.8%, and 13% healthy in trials 1, 2, and 3 respectively. For comparison, the plants receiving Windex Window Cleaner were, on average, 43.4%, 34.4%, and 31.6% healthy. This data disproves the hypothesis. This information is useful to fields such as botany, agriculture, and environmental science as this experiment identifies the toxicity of household products to plants.
280 1280 Liquidator Vs Exterminator- Growth Advantage Provided by Grass and Weed Killer Concentrates Environmental Sciences J The scientific question that I m trying to answer is Which type of grass and weed killer concentrate will provide the greatest growth advantage to the hybrid plants competing with the wild-type weeds This experiment was performed because of the fundamental reason that farmers and common home gardeners ceaselessly encounter wild-type weeds when they are attempting to grow desirable crops or plants for their farms or gardens and the best thing that they have discovered are these herbicides. Because wild-type weeds constantly steal nutrients from the soil, water, sunlight and even murder the neighboring plants with their toxic chemicals through a process known as allopathy, I wanted to see which of these herbicides would be the most advantageous so that people would not spend their money the wrong way. I allowed the plants to compete for a month and then applied the three concentrates to see which hybrid pansy would be aided the most by a specific concentrate. My five trials let me know that Ortho had a growth advantage of 5.29 inches, Spectracide had 5.08 inches and Roundup had 5.13 inches. This led me to conclude that my hypothesis was supported by my data because of the rule of thumb and Ortho containing more of a highly effective ingredient known as Fluazifop-P-Butyl. The value of this project is that I allowed farmers and home gardeners to know which would work best for them and for these herbicide companies to research more about ingredients or adjuvants to make these concentrates better.
281 1281 Warm And Toasty Environmental Sciences J Insulation is used to keep homes cool in the summer and warm in the winter. It is best to know which insulation is most effective when choosing one for your house. The hypothesis is that cotton insulation is the best insulator for keeping homes warm. This project looks at 3 different types of insulators and which insulates best by measuring the drop in temperature of water when the container is insulated. The beaker of water was insulated in three separate shoe boxes, each filled with either cotton insulation, fiberglass insulation or foam insulation. The temperature of the water dependent variable was taken at the beginning of the experiment and again 20 minutes later independent variable . The beaker of water that dropped the least in temperature showed the best insulation. The results showed that the foam insulator was the best, as it had the least amount of temperature drop. This proved the hypothesis to be incorrect, as the hypothesis was that cotton insulation was the best. In conclusion, foam insulation is the best for keeping temperatures warmest. While cotton and fiberglass insulation are both reliable insulators for home usage, foam is the best. Future experiments would be needed to determine the best insulator for cold temperatures.
282 1282 Food Waste Not Need Not Environmental Sciences J My hypothesis is if you measure the average food waste of 11 different sized families you will waste 480-1280 ounces in 4 weeks per personAnd that could feed 3 people every day for 4 weeks
283 1283 Storm Surge Defense Environmental Sciences J My Hypothesis was that if the seawall had design E,R , seawall with curved wall that is deflecting water back to the sea, with a Rock apron, then the seawall would have the least milliliters in the container on the other side.Some things I learned was that some of the seawalls with a design that had a 90 degrees angle reduced more water compared to the designs with 45 degrees angles. The Rock apron reduced the waves by a small amount 5-15% but still reduced waves by a good amount. The Curved wall that deflected waves back into the sea reduced the most water due to the fact that it reflected the water back into the ocean. The Seawall made of rocks did surprisingly well due to the fact that it had pockets between the rocks which made the water be trapped in the crevices which reduce energy of the wave in turn, reducing the wave. My hypothesis was true but there was some surprising seawalls that exceeded my expectations. Basically if the seawall can redirect the wave s energy away from itself, then it did pretty well deflecting water. The seawall that reduced the energy in the water the most, did pretty well too.
284 1284 Gasping for Air: Assessing the Impact of Rising CO2 Levels on Plant Growth Environmental Sciences J Carbon dioxide CO2 is an essential component of photosynthesis. However, CO2 is cited as a major contributor to climate change. Photosynthesis is the process in which plants take water, air, and light and convert it to energy for growth and reproduction. Oxygen is a byproduct of photosynthesis which is critical for human respiration.Research has shown that excessive CO2 could also have a negative impact on plant growth. If rising atmospheric CO2 levels have a negative impact on plant growth, then the primary source of oxygen for humans is reduced.This project exposed three groups of sunflower plants to varying CO2 levels though the use of CO2 enrichment bags and measured the differences in growth and plant structure development. Each test group was placed in an individual grow tent the vents for the control were left open to allow for free air exchange. The vents for test group 1 2 were closed to better maintain the concentration of CO2. All the plants were watered on the same day and received the same amount and duration of light.The CO2 enriched groups had a greater variability in total plant height between the specimens than the control group. Test 2 shoots were 28% heavier than the control group. The root weights of test 2 were 20% heavier than the control group. Test 1 and test 2 internode length were 13% and 21% longer, respectively, compared to the control group. These differences signal the potentially negative impact of CO2 on plant growth.
285 1285 Better Bioleather from a Kombucha Colony Environmental Sciences J A kombucha culture isn t simply something used to make fermented tea. It can become something much more versatile bioleather. The purpose of this experiment is to attempt to determine the strongest bioleather using several different types of sweetener. The goal was to determine the most durable out of dextrose with maltodextrin sweetener, honey, sucrose, erythritol sweetener, and stevia leaf extract sweetener when used as a food source for a symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast fermenting in kombucha tea. To do this, five batches of kombucha were made and fermented for two weeks. Each, having been made with a different sweetener and dried to a leathery quality, was tested in strength using a hanging scale and varied weight that increased until the bioleather could no longer withstand it. The entire process was repeated three times, for three trials. The results proved the hypothesis incorrect, and that on average, the sugar-based bioleather withstood the most weight. The results from the experiment are in agreement with what is currently known about kombucha culture colonies. Though using artificial fuel sources for the fermentation of the bioleather was not as successful as was hoped, several new avenues of research were opened on the topic of bioleather. The production of bioleather could reduce leather processing pollution and save the lives of a large amount of livestock. The goal of the project was to explore another way to better the environment and our society s impact and to inspire others to do so.
286 1286 Will it Leak Environmental Sciences J Plastic cups are used a lot in modern day. What if I could make a replacement for plastic cups I thought to myself. My project consists of making paper that could hold water, grass paper and leaf paper. I needed to see how much water was leaked over a period of time. I predicted that the grass paper would hold water better with less leaks because of how there was more fiber in grass. My results showed that my hypothesis was correct, the grass paper had less water leaked. My experiment showed that paper made of grass is better at holding water than leaf paper, and with further advancements it could possibly replace plastic cups.
287 1287 Developing an Automated Trash Can for Improved Single-Stream Recycling Environmental Sciences J In the United States, over 68% of recyclables are misclassified at the source, sending over 130 million tons of recyclables to landfills where they are not able to be recycled, causing extensive environmental damage. To address this, the purpose of this project was to engineer a trash can that could automatically sort trash from recyclables in an easy-to-use, intelligent can.To classify the images, an image-based machine learning model was trained with the Keras framework and written in Python. To train the model, a dataset of 6,000 images was used which was divided into 6 categories of cardboard, plastic, metals, glass, paper, and trash. These images were trained in Google Colaboratory using transfer learning from the existing InceptionV3 model trained on 1.2 million images.After training, the model classified images that it was not familiar with, and reached a validation accuracy of 94%, indicating a relatively high accuracy over a conventional sorter. Using OpenCV, the model was deployed on a cheap Raspberry Pi processor connected to a camera and a servo motor which was connected to a platform . When a waste item was dropped on the board, it would be classified and flipped into the correct compartment by the motor.This project will help in the waste management industry and reduce the number of misclassifications of recyclables, benefiting the environment.
288 1288 Gazes at pHases Environmental Sciences J For my project, I was trying to determine whether or not the pH level of a liquid effected its evaporation rate. My hypothesis was that if the liquid was more acidic, then it would have a higher evaporation rate. To test my hypothesis, I first took a reading of the pH levels of water, seawater, orange juice, and milk. Then, I heated each liquid for about 1800 seconds at 35 degrees Celcius to find the evaporation rate. After I conducted my experiment, I found that the most acidic liquid, which was orange juice, did have the highest evaporation rate, while the least acidic liquid, which was water, had the lowest evaporation rate. However, the second most acidic liquid, which was milk, was third in evaporation rate, while the third most acidic liquid, which was seawater, was second in evaporation rate. In conclusion, I found out that pH levels does play a role in the evaporation rate of a liquid as the more acidic liquids had a higher evaporation rate. These results can be beneficial to us in the real world since we can use this information to help predict which oceans may evaporate the fastest, which will affect our ecosystems and weather patterns.
289 1289 Using Calcium Oxide to Capture Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Environmental Sciences J How can we use calcium oxide in a way to benefit the planet and all life on it My science project uses calcium oxide CaO to capture atmospheric carbon dioxide CO2 . Since calcium oxide needs water to react with carbon dioxide to produce limestone, I ran some experiments to test if calcium chloride can help increase the efficiency of the reaction. I kept the calcium oxide constant and varied the amount of calcium chloride. After allowing the reaction to proceed for a fix amount of time 6 days , I measured how much calcium carbonate CaCO3 had been produced. I found that the more calcium chloride available at the beginning, the more calcium carbonate was produced. The result was not linear indicating that the limited amount of calcium oxide was being used faster. This would help the real world by taking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and reversing the effects of global warming.
290 1290 can it clean two Environmental Sciences J One of the ways activated charcoal works is that it attracts or glue the contaminate to it and as the activated charcoal can not be digested not diluted it is taken away with the containments attached to it and that is why people eat or drink activated charcoal This project has a deeper meaning to be me because I am from Nigeria, Africa and we do not always have water so sometimes we have to drink dirty water. We also always have charcoal and activate charcoal so I wanted to find out if with the help of activated charcoal can we have better water and can it clean both the chlorine and the dirt or substance in the water. My independent variable was contaminants. They all had the same amount of chlorine in them and I put the same amount of activated charcoal in them, I left them for 72 hours. I returned and check the amount of chlorine in all, the chlorine had gone down largely and in relation to the independent variable in each of them they went down or separated from the water but not to the futile end and had a chance but the food coloring did not go as expected but at the end, I was able to figure out that the activated charcoal does work and reduce both substances. I think that this project can be turned into something greater. the result of my work does not depend on if it cleared fully t
291 1291 The Effect of Algae on Water Quality Environmental Sciences J Algae is a type of phytoplankton that is found all over the world and has been used for many industrial and medical purposes. Many common pollutants hold nutrients that can promote algae growth. In using the nutrients, the algae can remove impurities from the water. This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that if more live Chlorella Vulgaris was added to the water, then the water quality would improve. This experiment tested different amounts of live algae and powder algae to find which water s quality improved the most in 14 days. The powdered algae were added to 5 containers each containing liter of wastewater in increments of 10g, 15g, 20g, 25g, and 30g. The live algae were added to another 5 containers that also contain liter of wastewater each in increments of 20mL, 30mL, 40mL, 50mL, and 60 mL. After 14 days, the water was tested for phosphates, nitrates, and coliform bacteria. The results showed that both the powdered and live algae can decrease the amount of phosphates and nitrites in wastewater. Only 60mL of live algae was able to remove any coliform bacteria. Through this experiment the effectiveness of algae as a way to filter water was tested. The research hypothesis that if more live algae was added to the water, then the water quality would increase was supported by the data and proven correct.
292 1292 Purifying Water Environmental Sciences J For my project I wanted to determine which method would be the best to purify water. My hypothesis was that boiling the water would be the best to purify water over filtering it or distilling it. To test my hypothesis, I collected water that needed to be purified and applied each method of purifying and measured the pH level of the final water after testing. My experiment shows that boiling water had the best pH level while distilling had the worst pH level showing too much acidity. Filtering method shows in between both boiling and distilling. My conclusion is that boiling water was the best method to purify water. People can use this information in the real world, especially when camping or out on a hike and need water. Knowing that boiling purifies water the best, it will help in a dangerous situation especially due to the harmful diseases that come out of unpurified water.
293 1293 Ammonia In Rainwater Environmental Sciences J I was inspired to do this project because when I did research, I saw that one of the biggest worldwide problems right now is clean water and sanitation. This project should help find a way to purify water when needed and how much bleach should be used. What I learned from this project is that bleach can in fact be used to purify dirty water if it is absolutely necessary.
294 1294 GRASS CAPACITY Environmental Sciences J The purpose of my project is to see which type of grass between zoyisa , wild ,and long grass will be able to hold more weight if turned into paper the project also helps the environment, because cutting down trees is one of the factor for climate change ,and if we cut the tree and let it rot or burn the tree will release chemicals and toxin carbon monoxide , which are not good for human to breath. The grass paper can also help by reducing the amount of tree cut down to make paper.
295 1295 How Much Do Straws Biodegrade? Environmental Sciences J Plastic straws are normally made of a plastic which means they are one use plastics. There are alternatives to these one-use plastics. These can include paper straws, wheat straws, plant-based straws, corn starch-based straws, and many more. The straws just listed were the ones to get tested in this experiment. This experiment was designed to test the amount each would biodegrade. Ten of each type of straw were tested. They were left in cups of dirt for 4 weeks with each cup having six trout worms in them. Every two days each cup was watered with one fourth of a cup of water. The straws were then measured for the percent of mass lost. None of the straws lost mass but gained mass. This was because the straws soaked up water and should have been dried out. But on the paper straws and wheat straws you could see that they were biodegrading.
296 1296 Which substrate erodes the least? Environmental Sciences J The purpose of this experiment was to see which substrate eroded the least by water. By choosing the right substrate many problems caused by erosion can be reduced. A rectangular piece of metal mesh was glued to a painters tray at the bottom of the slope. This was done to 3 other trays. Then 1200 cm3 of sand, pea gravel, and soil was put on the slope. 6 Japanese silver grass were put on the slope then the amount of soil needed was placed in. 500ml of water was then poured over each tray. The water and substrate at the bottom was then collected and strained. Then the substrate was dried and measured. This was done 13 times then the results for each trial were averaged to find which substrate erodes the least. Sand averaged 13.18 cm3, pea gravel averaged 2.09 cm3, soil averaged 1.14 cm3, and soil with plants averaged 1.07 cm3. Soil with plants ended up eroding the least as it averaged the smallest amount of erosion. The roots helped hold the soil in place as the water ran through.
297 1297 The Anatomy of Water Filtration Environmental Sciences J For my science fair project I am finding the best way to filter dirty water. Which filter can get rid of the most dirt I think that the activated carbon will clean out most of the dirt and get rid of the discoloration. I am going to measure exactly one cup of dirty water and each material. Then, I am going to put the sand, carbon, pebbles, and lava rock in a strainer to clean them, then roll the materials in a clean paper towel and pour the water over it to filter. lastly, i am going to record my results.
298 1298 H2O Environmental Sciences J My science fair project was to figure out which affordable filter material could help purify water the best. Through my experiment I saw that the activated carbon removed a lot more impurities than the other filters. This project was to see how I could help other people from using the expensive filters. The hardest part was trying to get all the remnents out from the beaker and into the measuring tool. I had alot of fun and learned alot while doing this project
299 1299 Killer Sunscreen: The Effect of Oxybenzone on Ceratophyllum Environmental Sciences J Most common sunscreen includes a chemical called oxybenzone that has been found to harm coral. An estimated 6,000 tons of sunscreen is released into the ocean each year. One possible solution is coral-safe sunscreen, which uses zinc oxide, a mineral. This alternative is not water-soluble, so it doesn t pose a threat to coral, but most aren t regulated by the government.The project was designed to test if the coral-safe sunscreen is really coral-safe. The hypothesis was, if Ceratophyllum is exposed to oxybenzone, the health of the plant will be worse than the plants without oxybenzone.The experiment was conducted by putting one Ceratophyllum plant in a bucket with 2 quarts of water and a certain amount of sunscreen which ranged from half a milliliter to 2 milliliters. Then the number of dead stems in each plant was recorded for 2 weeks.The results showed that oxybenzone does decrease the health of Ceratophyllum, so the hypothesis was proven correct. Coral-Safe sunscreen appeared to improve the health of the Ceratophyllum compared to the control. Thus, the project was conclusive. In the oxybenzone sunscreen, as more sunscreen was added, the worse the health of the plant was. In the coral-safe sunscreen, the more that was added the better the health of the Ceratophyllum got. Overall, the coral-safe sunscreen performed better than the oxybenzone sunscreen.
300 1300 Dissolved Oxygen vs. Temperature Environmental Sciences J Over 15% of the food we eat comes from the ocean. We depend on this food to live with a catastrophic event that left a lot of our food supply gone. In July of 2019, there was a mass number of salmon killed due to a mysterious force of nature. As a part of their life cycle, salmon start in freshwater then stay in saltwater for a while.In their journey to re-spawn they have to make a journey back to freshwater in the exact area they were born. Since some samlon s birthplace is close to the surface of the water, I wanted to see if hot water had more oxygen than cold water. Therefore I had came up with the idea to figure if hot water had more dissolved oxygen than cold water.
301 1301 Water Collecting Competition Environmental Sciences J This science project will be exploring how the positioning of a solar water distilling device can affect how much water can be evaporated then collected. One water distilling device will be positioned diagonally and the other will be positioned straight.
302 1302 How Urbanization effects Soil Erosion and Flooding Environmental Sciences J The amount of flooding that we have begun to start experiencing intrigued me. I chose to further explore the effects of urbanization on soil erosion and flooding. Is the process of urbanization the factor that is contributing and causing the problem of flooding. I hypothesized that if soil possessed plant life then it would erode at a slower rate and that the roots would aid in retaining soil as well as the absorption of water to prevent flooding. For my experiment, I tested different types of soil compositions to represent stages of the urbanization process with runoff collection containers. Then I introduce water to each soil sample after that I collected the soil and water runoff and measured it repeating the process over 3 weeks. A represented urbanized land absent of topsoil, B represented deforestation with topsoil, C and D represented landscape in its natural state with plant life. During the experiment soil erosion along with water runoff was observed analyzed. Through research and my experiment, I learned that while soil erosion is a natural process, it can also be manipulated by mankind and essential we are a factor in causing flooding.
303 1303 Hemp it Up Environmental Sciences J AbstractBuilding Materials Against Natural DisastersAmeena Khan Natural disasters are prominent in many areas such as the Philippines, China, Japan and Bangladesh. Wildfires, floods, and earthquakes are some of the fatal natural disasters that occur in these regions. These natural disasters cause many problems such as food shortages, population decrease, poverty, economic distress, and most of all, homelessness. Hemp based products such as hemp-board which is what is used in my testing hempcrete, etc. is proven to be more sustainable than other building products such as wood, and even metal. Another reason hemp based products are better than other common construction materials is because it grows faster. For example, when trees are cut down, it could take 25-30 years to grow back to its full size, therefore not being very reliable. However, hemp takes about 60 days after planting to fully grow. Hemp products are also better for the environment because hempcrete board because it lowers the amount of construction waste. Hemp can be harvested up to twice a year, and only one acre of hemp can produce 4 times the amount of material than an acre of trees. Hemp is also biodegradable meaning that it can be decomposed by bacteria and other living organisms , therefore, decreasing the amount of construction waste. Today, we are rapidly polluting our natural resources, and limiting our access to them. I think that it is important to find better ways to use what we have and we should be able to preserve our resources.
304 1304 Detection of Perfluorooctanoic Acid by Handheld Raman Spectrometer Environmental Sciences J The objective of this science fair project is to detect perfluorooctanoic acid PFOA by a handheld Raman spectrometer. PFOA could be harmful to human health and, therefore, has been considered an emerging environmental contaminant. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to identify molecules by using a laser to test their vibrational energy. Because PFOA is present at low concentrations, gold nanoparticles were used to enhance their Raman signal. This improved sensitivity detection platform is known as surface-enhanced Raman scattering SERS . The hypothesis was that if the concentration of PFOA increased in a concentration, then the SERS signal would increase. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized, and different PFOA concentrations in water were prepared for this experiment. Serial dilution was used to make standard PFOA calibration solutions, ranging from 5 ppm ug mL to as low as one ppb ng mL . Each concentration was measured for SERS, and 730 cm-1 peak height was used to construct the calibration curve. PFOA signal could be detected with the addition of sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid at a one ppb level. However, PFOA peak height did not have a linear correlation with the concentration. This inconsistency was likely due to the gold nanoparticle density and the laser s scanning area of the solution. The data suggest SERS can be utilized as a field detection for PFOA. This analytical platform is sensitive and can be used to detect other chemicals of concern in the environment.
305 1305 redesigning a hurricane chart Environmental Sciences J My project is about how changing the design of a hurricane cone chart would affect the way that people view the chart and know if they will be affected. This project is important because many people misinterpret the chart because of its design. This is a real problem and misinterpreting the chart has real consequences. If people were at the center of the cone they would think that they are in more dangerous than people further out of the cone. My project could help in communicating where the hurricane might hit. How I did this, was by redesigning the chart and asking a survey to my volunteers. From the survey, I noticed that chart 4, the one with the categories listed, was the one that most volunteers got correct.
306 1306 Biodegradable Plastic Environmental Sciences J The purpose of this experiment is to test which starch in Plastarch will cause the biodegradable plastic to decompose the fastest due to the large amount of regular plastic produced and the time it takes to decompose. In the United States, we produce over 300 million tons of plastic each year and that means the amount of non-renewable resources required Coal, Petroleum, Crude Oil, etc. is a large amount, too. We asked What can decrease the amount of non-renewable resources used and save the Earth time from decomposing this abundance of plastic . We predicted that If we add tapioca starch to the Plastarch, then it will decompose the quickest . To create the Plastarch, we mixed together glycerin, vinegar, water, and starch, heated it, then let it dry and putted it in the models. The time range was from November 26, 2019 to January 7, 2020 which is 6 weeks or 42 days. The results were that the Tapioca based Plastarch decomposed the quickest, then the Corn Plastarch, and last the Potato Plastarch. Our hypothesis was supported by this experiment due to background knowledge of Tapioca starch being able to decompose immediately. Also, we had mostly well controlled variables to contribute to our hypothesis.
307 1307 Water Pollution and Its Effects Environmental Sciences J This experiment was conducted to broaden the understanding of the effects of various aquatic pollutants. According to, Water-borne diseases account for the deaths of 3,575,000 people a year. To further show the severity of pollution, a hypothesis was formed if various pollutants are added to plants and water, then over 15 days the water quality and plants are expected to be most affected by fertilizers because it can easily affect the pH levels of water and can lead to the rapid growing and dying of microscopic organisms, lowering the DO levels and harming the plant in the process. The experiment tested the effects of 7 common pollutants found in the environment pesticide, engine oil, herbicide, detergent, paint, fertilizer, and food waste. Three trials were conducted for each pollutant with an anacharis plant and water. The experiment was conducted over 15 days with measurements of pH and DO levels taken daily alongside visual changes. In conclusion, the hypothesis proved false, with the most harmful pollutant being herbicide with a final average DO of 0.77mg L and pH of 3.77pH, while the fertilizer had a final DO average of 0.53mg L and pH average of 4.56pH. After herbicide was food waste, followed by fertilizer, paint, detergent, pesticide, and engine oil. Although the hypothesis proved false, the data showed that all pollutants were harmful to the aquatic environment. With the collected data, people can prioritize cleanup efforts and prevent more pollutants from being released.
308 1308 Cleaning up my street Environmental Sciences J If we continue to pollute our oceans and rivers, by 2050 there will be more plastic in the ocean than fish. I devised a plan to create a device that could allow me to clean up my ditch with ease. My original design was somewhat simple, I would get some sort of net and stake it to the edges of my ditch in order for it to pick up any trash that flows through it. I was confident in my prototype until a colleague pointed out a fatal flaw in my invention. How would my net affect any wildlife that inhabited my ditch With this in mind, I set out to create a new version, a net that would be long enough to pick up any trash that flows through my ditch, but it would leave an area below that didn t have any net in order for wildlife to swim through without being affected. With that adjustment, my product was finally finished.
309 1309 water quality Environmental Sciences J I wanted to know which water is safer because I want to make sure people are not getting sick from drinking the kind of water they have in the fountain.
310 1310 Which Milk Bioplastic Is the Most Durable? Environmental Sciences J The purpose of this experiment is to determine the most durable milk bioplastic through the process of polymerization and fermentation. The bioplastic is a flexible-like material that will be formulated through long-chain molecules that can be used like plastic. If different formulated milk bioplastic s durability is being tested, then the milk bioplastic formulated using vinegar would be the most durable because it holds the highest citric acid level. The experiment is about formulating the best bioplastic out of milk using different kinds of citric acids. The different citric acids are will include orange, lemon, lime and vinegar which all hold high amounts of citrus. After formulating each bioplastic through the process of polymerization, I tested the durability of the plastic samples by placing weights on the bioplastics.Through testing the durability of the bioplastics, the vinegar bioplastic held 1012 grams, the lime bioplastic held 1424 grams, the lemon bioplastic held 3175 grams, the control plastic held 4392 grams, and the orange bioplastic held 4520 grams. The experiment proves that the orange bioplastic made the most durable bioplastic since the formula made it very flexible and plastic-like. In today s society plastic is scattering all over the planet and is negatively impacting the environment. Milk bioplastic is an alternative to petroleum-based plastic because milk bioplastic is made from biopolymers or long-chain molecules. Finding the best citric acid can benefit the world by finding the most reliable bioplastic in today s society.
311 1311 Naturally Extracting Fluoride From Water Environmental Sciences J The purpose of this experiment is to determine the best way to cheaply filter fluoride out of water. The hypothesis sates that tulsi also known as holy basil will filter out more fluoride from the fluoride rinse than cilantro and tamarind because of its natural bio-absorbent properties.In this experiment, the scientist first filled a test tube with fluoride rinse and put 2 drops of the fluoride low range checker reagent into the water. This reagent reacts to the fluoride in the water by creating a colorless complex. The fluoride rinse had about 1 ppm of fluoride. The scientist then filled 3 test tubes with equal amounts of fluoride rinse. Then the scientist places tulsi leaves in one, cilantro leaves in another, and a tamarind seed in the third. After waiting 24 hours, the scientist put 2 drops of the reagent into the water. The resulting color was then used to estimate the amount of fluoride left in the water. This process was repeated 3 times. In conclusion, tulsi filtered out the most fluoride, bringing the amount of fluoride in the rinse down to an average of 0.42 ppm. The tamarind reduced the amount of fluoride to an average of 0.72 ppm, and the cilantro decreased the amount of fluoride to an average of 0.61 ppm. The hypothesis has been supported. This research will be useful for areas with an excess amount of fluoride in their groundwater to cheaply filter it out.
312 1312 Toxic Water Environmental Sciences J Toxic Water The purpose of this experiment was to see whether or not sediments found in common places, if washed into the ocean or other water sources, would cause harm to aquatic organisms that may be inhabitants of said water source. Furthermore, if the sediments were found harmful to aquatic organisms, then hopefully something can be done to prevent this harm and to protect aquatic organisms. The hypothesis is If sediments found in parking lots that get washed into water sources contain compounds that are harmful to aquatic organisms, then aquatic organisms that are not adapted to these harmful compounds will die. The experiment was conducted by Daphnia Magna being placed into separate containers. Sediment was collected from a parking lot and placed into the containers. Each container had a different sediment concentration. The Daphnia were monitored and results of viable Daphnia were recorded. The data showed that the higher concentration of the sediment the less likely the Daphnia were to survive. The lower the sediment concentration was the more likely the Daphnia were able to survive. In other words, the sediments create a toxic environment in which the Daphnia can not survive in for as long as they normally would be able to. The hypothesis was proven correct. The data showed that the more sediment was added to the water, the more toxic the water became. A future recommendation for this project would be to do this experiment on a bigger scale with possibly other aquatic organisms.
313 1313 Fresh Environmental Sciences J In my school, there s some classes connected to hallways that are exposed to the outside. Times when it rains and humidity rises, the floor becomes increasingly slippery and moist. One day, after coming out the classroom, I noticed a girl slipping and dropping all her possessions because of the slippery floor. So, I wanted to see which type of desiccant would be the most effective to help decrease if only a bit of humidity. I performed my experiment inside a pot. Boiling water and trapping it inside the pot with a lid is like humidity we get outside. I then put the desiccants inside a can because if I were to only drop them in the pot without a type of container, then it could melt due to the high temperature of the pot because of the boiling. My experiment ended with silica gel decreasing the level of humidity the most effectively. Silica gel is very easy to find because they re in a lot of everyday goods, such as shoe boxes and packaged food. Because they re in so many goods, we tend to throw them away without knowing the use of them. I also thought silica gel was useless before I did my project. Ever since doing my project, I now save my silica gel and place it in various places in my house whenever it s humid.
314 1314 How Safe is Your Water? Environmental Sciences J My project was about water quality. I tested water samples from 3 places. I tested my sink, my refrigerator, and a public water fountain. I tested for hardness, nitrates, nitrites, bacteria, iron, copper, alkalinity, chlorine, pH, lead, and pesticides. My procedure was taking the water sample, doing the test, jotting down the data, and disposing of it. My reason for choosing it was to know where to find the cleanest water. my conclusions show that the cleanest water source is the water filter in the refrigerator. The most unsafe water is from the public water fountain. The water that did not have the best or worst results was water from the sink.
315 1315 Bon Apple-tite Environmental Sciences J Kids mistake that you can eat food that was dropped under 5 seconds. In my experiment, I will be testing be the amount of bacterial on an apple slice collects within 5 seconds. I will collect the bacteria on an apple slice by dropping it into a petri dish that contains nutrient agar.
316 1316 Water Desalination. Environmental Sciences J This Project was picked because more than 25% of people on earth do not have clean water. There are many options to help those 25% of people, but the solution must be practical. Which leaves the personal water desalination device. Water desalination is a process that separates mineral components from water and makes the water drinkable. Water desalination devices can be made of many materials. This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that the desalination device made of copper will produce the most heat and the most amount of water at a lower saline level. 5 different water desalination devices made of copper, stainless steel, mild steel, aluminum, and zinc-plated aluminum, containing water with a starting salinity of 7 Brix were placed on a hot plates at 460.8 F. The amount of water generated by each device was recorded every 30 minutes for 330 minutes, then was averaged. Zinc-plated aluminum had the best score with an average of 31.25 ml of water produced every 30 minutes. The water collected from all devices had a salinity of 0 Brix. All 10 trials were only completed for the zinc-plated aluminum and aluminum devices because the other devices fell apart because of corrosion or sealant leaks.
317 1317 UV rays VS. sunblock Environmental Sciences J UV rays VS. sunblock Do you ever have those annoying dark spots on your skin Or maybe you always get sunburned easily due to your sensitive skin. Not only that but also the big risks of skin cancer when you are out in the sun for a long time. That is where the importance of sun protection comes in. You may wonder, what really is the best way to protect my skin Will a normal SPF with extra protection work better than a strong SPF Well, first put UV beads that react when in contact to the sun, in different clear plastic bags. Then, smear different levels of SPF on each of the different bags. You may also put clothing over it or somewhere in the shade and see the differences in the color of the beads. Low SPF like 15 or 30 had the strongest color because it didn t protect them against the strong UV rays. Medium SPF like 50 or 70 by themselves were slightly colored but they wouldn t do well during strong UV indexes during summer for example. To solve the real question, SPF 30 with extra clothing and shade was less tinted than SPF 100 with no protection. Meaning, sunscreen is just a sheer barrier against the sun and it is better to avoid being out too long and find some shade. Therefore, my hypothesis was supported and that concludes this project.
318 1318 Don't Wait To Flocculate Environmental Sciences J The purpose of my project was to investigate the role flocculation plays in water treatment. Flocculation when fine particles clump together and flocculants play a very important part. To answer my research question, I set up a procedure where I could observe the flocculation process of dirty water after adding aluminum sulfate, and measure it s turbidity at three different time points. I lined six jars up. Then, I mixed 5g of dirt into 1,000mL of tap water and poured 150mL of this into each of the jars. I stirred and transferred 3mL from each into cuvettes. Afterwards, I mixed alum into tap water and added increasing amounts of this into the jars, with #0 as a control. Next, I stirred the jars for two minutes, and I took samples from each. After another thirteen minutes, I took samples, then measured the turbidity of each with a Water Turbidity Meter and recorded the results. I averaged each trial s results. The averages at time point 0 were nearly the same and came within .4 units of each other, the lowest, 93.2, and the highest 93.6. At time point 2, the highest was 44.8 and descended to 28.6. Time point 15 s highest was 44.4 and descended to 5.8. The results of the experiment supported my hypothesis because the water in the jars with more alum had a lower turbidity at both the 2 and 15 time points.
319 1319 Manta Rays and Microplastics Environmental Sciences J Microplastics are tiny particles of plastic resulting from the disintegration of larger everyday plastics. In recent years, scientists have realized microplastics are everywhere and causing big concerns for the environment. Researchers have found that manta rays have a unique and efficient system for capturing food that uses cross-flow filtration. While manta rays are at risk of ingesting some of the microplastics, researchers have proposed that filter systems built based on unique feeding characteristics of the manta ray might be used to remove microplastics from the ocean. In this project, a filter design was developed and 3-D printed based on a manta ray filter rake to test the hypothesis that it can be used to capture particles representative of microplastics found in the environment. Plastic beads were sorted into 5 different size groups of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm. In a ten gallon fish tank, plastic beads were flowed over the filter using an aquarium pump. Observations were made as to whether the bead was retained by the filter or passed through it. For each particle size range, ten beads were tested as a single size trial and each size trial was repeated three additional times. The percentage of beads retained by the filter was calculated. The data collected demonstrated that a high percentage of the plastic particles could be collected in the filter apparatus and the percentage of particles retained could be improved as a function of the flow characteristics and consistency of test setup.
320 1320 The Effect of Sunscreen Pollution on Marine Algae Environmental Sciences J The purpose of me doing this science fair project is because of the ongoing problem of ocean pollution. Sunscreen plays a big factor in the killing of reefs. I wanted to see how much sunscreen would affect a sea plant. My hypothesis was if I put a 5% concentration of each sunscreen into different containers holding a Grape Caulerpa, then the container with the mineral sunscreen concentration will cause less damage to the sea plant than the chemical sunscreen because it doesn t contain harmful chemicals like oxybenzone and avobenzone. The controls will do the best because they contain no sunscreen. In my procedure, I placed 6.4 tablespoons of sunscreen into each 0.5 gallon container. This is a 5% concentration. Then, I waited two weeks, checking for discoloration every Monday. After two weeks, I measured the length of discoloration. Lastly, I recorded my data. My results showed that the controls were the most discolored, then the mineral sunscreen, followed by the chemical sunscreen. The average length of discoloration for the controls was 25 cm, 7.5 cm for the mineral sunscreen, and 6.6 cm for the chemical sunscreen. This experiment provided information that would be helpful to scientists who are trying to understand the effects of ocean pollution. Sunscreens may be beneficial to macroalgae, such as Grape Caulerpa, in small increments. This is because sunscreens contain nitrates and phosphates which are a food source for macroalgae.
321 1321 Wildfires Environmental Sciences J For my project, I wanted to know what substance between salt, sand, and baking soda was the most effective in reducing the duration time of wildfires. My hypothesis was If there was a wildfire, then salt would be the most effective in reducing the overall duration of the fire. To test my hypothesis, I lit a candle on fire to replicate the wildfire, although on a smaller scale. I poured sand on top of the candle and timed how long the fire lasted, repeating this process for both the salt and baking soda. As a result of the experiment, the fire with sand had the shortest duration time, following with baking soda, and salt which lasted the longest. My conclusion is that the properties within sand cause the wildfire to be put out faster than the other two materials. Using the results of my experiment, researchers may analyze and compare the properties of sand that causes the fire duration to be shorter than the other 2 solid materials. With this, scientists can search for another substance that also has those effective properties. Then, they can pour the detected substance on top of wildfires, possibly with the help of a helicopter. This will guide our community towards a future without an increase in deforestation and greenhouse gases.
322 1322 A New Generation of Water Purification Environmental Sciences J Abstract The two most commonly used water purification methods are Reverse Osmosis and Distillation. Although both of these have their disadvantages which are in polarly opposite fields, when combined the new method created has the perks of both of the previous methods. Reverse Osmosis is fast yet lacks purity and cost efficiency, on the other hand Distillation is very cost efficient and pure but is incredibly slow. My method that resolves these problems is the following four modules each consisting of one Reverse Osmosis system moving along a rail while purifying one cup of water at a time and giving its output to a Distillation set up. This is repeated 28 times and with average timings they should leave one minute for the clogged sediments in the Reverse Osmosis system to get cleaned. Then Distillation set ups will produce clean water and repeat. According to my data collected from my experiments and real-life purification methods, Reverse Osmosis plus Distillation method proves to clean water faster and at a similarly greater purity than Distillation alone and significantly cleaner yet slower than Reverse Osmosis alone. All in all, Reverse Osmosis plus Distillation combines two of the world s most used water purification methods in such a way that the advantages of both the systems are used to the best of their ability.
323 1323 Tsunamis Environmental Sciences J For my project I was trying to determine if the depth of the water affected the velocity of waves. My hypothesis was that the increasing depth, increases the velocity of the waves, produced. To test my hypothesis, I caused a tsunami of my own, in a bucket.I did this by dropping a block into a bucket of water, with different depths, creating and timing the wave. My experiment showed that the trails with the most depth had the fastest waves, the waves with more velocity. My conclusion, is that with the increase of depth the waves produced also increases with velocity. This is done in the ocean creates faster but shorter waves. People can use this information by applying it to the methods into stopping these waves from destroying the cities, and ruining lives.
324 1324 Tea Time Environmental Sciences J The purpose of this experiment was to know what our bodies are consuming in one cup of decaffeinated tea. The six times I tried my experiment it proved my hypothesis to be correct. My procedure sounded quite complex but it was actually very simple. The first thing I did was to boil water, then I poured it over my teas and let it steep for a minute. After that i put 2 ML. of the tea in a test tube and let it cool down. While it was cooling down I mixed 1 gram of tannic acid in 1 ML. of rubbing alcohol and 10 ML of water. After that, I used an eye dropper to put drops of the mixture into the teas until I saw the caffeine indicator. What I noticed on all of my tests were, the caffeine indicator stayed for A little over a minute then it disappeared or dissolved.
325 1325 Does Nanosilver effect pond life? Environmental Sciences J Does Nano-silver effect pond life The purpose of this project is to determine if nanaosilver particles are toxic to pond life using water fleas. A total of 10 water fleas were placed in three cups using 1 cup of pond water. Each cup was in measurements of 0,5,10 and, 25 Ug L of the nanosilver solution. The experiment was taken in an 8 hour time span. Each was cup was checked every 2 hours. The water fleas showed no effect to the nanosilver. The data analyzed and the conclusion that was drawn showed that nanosilver did not effect the water fleas. Each three trials failed to prove otherwise.
326 1326 Save the Oysters Environmental Sciences J Young oysters are called spat. They cling on to almost anything that is in the water. This project was designed to see what material that spat liked the best, the results concluded that instead of oyster shells having the most that river rocks did. one reason to do this project is that eighty-five percent of oyster reefs on earth have been lost, along with their population, oysters are in danger of dying out. Oysters are a very important species to our environment, and we need to keep them safe. This project was done with the help of Galveston bay foundation, they loaned some oyster shells and let the project be done on their land. This project was done by making a star shaped frame out of 3 8ths inch metal rods and used chicken wire to make baskets that fit the frame. Then put each material into a different part of the star and put it in the water. the project was checked very weekend and counted the spat for each material, there were nine checks. The results were that river rocks did the best with an average of 104, followed by limestone with 94.1. Oyster shells and concrete were the closest with concrete having an average 20.89 and oyster shells having an average of 20 and the lowest was aluminum with an average of 1.1. The conclusion is that river rocks are the best to use when trying to attract spat.
334 1334 The Mathematical Correlation of Human Skull Dimensions Throughout Evolution Mathematics J From the beginning of mankind our body has evolved and adapted to create, survive, and discover. We observe this evolution in bones and fossils of our ancestors, and especially in the shape of our skulls. My project goal is to show that there is a mathematical correlation between hominid skulls and that those formulas can be used to predict the shape of the human skull in 2 million years. Through analysis of ten species of hominid ancestor skulls, including present day Homo Sapiens, I found that there are noticeable changes in skull width and height proportions. I examined the width and height proportions of three samples of each species using the Goldie App software and the average for each of the three ratios was calculated. By making these proportions as the dependent variables and the estimated age for each species as the independent variables I used the least squares method to find a line of best fit. The slope as determined from the formula for the line shows how the skull proportions have changed from the time of Homo Rudolfensis to the present-day Homo Sapiens, a span of approximately 1.9 million years. The slope indicates that our skulls are becoming shorter and wider. In order to predict the shape of human skulls 2 million years from now I used the least squares fit equation and discovered that there will be approximately 13% increase in the width to length ratio from today s Homo Sapien skulls to skulls in 2 million years.
335 1335 The Effect Of Toothpicks On Pi Mathematics J A French philosopher stated that pi could be found by metal needles falling on a graph with parallel lines. This test was done to show the increase of toothpicks to the accuracy of pi. The belief is that with an increase of toothpicks the number would become closer to pi. The numbers of toothpicks tested were 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250. As the number of toothpicks increased the average become father away from pi. The number of toothpicks closest to pi was 50 toothpicks. The interesting thing is that all the numbers but a couple for that number of toothpicks fell into the same interval. Therefore, the hypothesis that was stated was incorrect.
336 1336 Golden Ratio & Beauty Mathematics J The golden ratio is a set numbers similar and related to the Fibonacci sequence. The set of numbers can be found in natural things in the world like plants, animals and even buildings. I used the golden ratio to help me find the beauty of a human face. The golden ratio is also known as the number 1.618. To find the ratio for a face, first find select a human face. With that human face the measurements the certain lengths and widths. For example, measure the length of the crown to the chin in the nearest hundredth centimeter. With these measurements divide in pairs, divide those pairs with 1.618 the golden ratio , times 100, find the difference to 100, add all together, divide sum by 7, divide by 1.618, and lastly subtract that quotient from 100. The final difference with going to be an exact ratio number for that face. According to my experiments, Carrie Underwood has a exact ratio of 86.05 for her face. This ratio can help understand the attractiveness of a human face. The ratio of the face will be between 70-90 depending on the face and how the symmetrical the face is. This experiment can take about 30 minutes or more per face. Photographers, photo editors and even plastic surgeons can use the information gained from this experiment.
337 1337 Using Machine Learning to Analyze the Affects of Hurricanes on Air Quality Mathematics J Every year 100,000 Americans die from air pollution. Air pollution is a serious threat and spreads in many ways, the most common of which, wind. A major way wind moves is through hurricanes. The hypothesis of this project was that if a dataset containing a large number of hurricanes and the factors of those hurricanes, namely wind pressure and maximum wind speed is analyzed using statistics and machine learning, then it will be possible to learn how hurricanes affect air quality, because the models will provide the relationships between the independent variables wind speed, wind pressure and the dependent variable, air quality. The data originally aquired to analyze was reduced down into only hurricanes that made landfall. Then information had to be added on the air quality in each location the month before and the month after each hurricane hit an area. The dataset was then run through Azure Machine Learning Studio s Two-Class Linear Regression algorithm. The model provided a variety of information on the two factors analyzed. The correlation coeffiecient which showed the relationship between each factor and change in air quality was a weak positive correlation for both factors with maximum wind speed at 0.012 and wind pressure at 0.002. The r squared which showed the percentage of change in air quality in air quality that could be explained by the factors was around 20% for both, meaning these two factors did not affect air quality very much. This research offers an answer to a highly debated question.
338 1338 Dice Weight and Probability Mathematics J The probability of something is the likelihood that it will occur. It is a number between 0 and 1 decimal written as a percentage. This project was designed to test the effect of different dice weights g on the probability of a high roll, which is 15-20.All 3 dice were weighed, and one was loaded. Each dice was dropped into a dice tower for 100 trials. Each number rolled was recorded and the dice s probabilities were calculated.The data shows that Dice 1 6g had a 32% probability, Dice 2 27 g had a 35% probability, and Dice 3 7g had a 20% probability.The hypothesis was that a heavier dice would roll lower but was not supported by the data, since Dice 2 27g rolled highest. If d20s are used regularly in RPG games, then this data helps by showing that metal dice dice that weigh more will probably roll higher.
339 1339 Metal v.s Wood Mathematics J The purpose of this experiment was to find out which type of baseball bat is better in 2 different categories, exit velocity and distance. The summary of this project is this. My father and I went to a place called D-Bats. It is a baseball hitting and pitching facility. We then rented a cage with a special machine, called a hit trax, which gave us the exit velocity and distance a ball would have travelled on a real baseball field. Then I placed a ball on a tee and then hit three times with each bat while my father recorded the data into a table. The metal bat had higher exit velocity as well as distance but the wooden bat barely lost. In conclusion, the metal baseball bat is statistically the better buy.
340 1340 Is Your Passcode Really Safe? Mathematics J The purpose of the experiment was to calculate what type of passcode is the safest. The longer it took to guess the passcode, the safer it is.People need a strong, protected passcode to protect their personal and financial information from hackers and thefts. If people did not have a strong passcode, then their account could be hacked, risking their personal information and safety. To conduct the experiment, the researchers had 10 participants write down easily obtainable information onto a sheet, and enter a passcode they would regularly use. Then, the 5 minute timer starts to see if they could guess it. They tracked the results and calculated the final average time it took to guess the passcodes. The averages are as follows personal information category -- 2 30, random category -- 4 03, and the overall average -- 3 17. Part of the conclusion is the hypothesis - which we predicted correctly. The researchers predicted that the more random the passcode is, the harder the account is to hack into. By conducting this experiment, the researchers learned the less personal information used in a passcode, the more protection it has from hackers and thefts.
341 1341 Stock market Watch Mathematics J The objective of this science project is to determine if using pure luck, judgment or a disciplined approach will generate the highest returns for a stock portfolio. By successfully determining the best approach an investor can better navigate the complexity of the stock market. The proposed hypothesis of this experiment is that an investor who employs a method of constant analysis when choosing stocks judgment , will generate the highest returns. To conduct the experiment, a mock portfolio was created for each of the three approach s, fixed, judgment, and random. Each portfolio received the same amount of seed money $1,000,000 , received the same amount of weekly investment $100,000 and had access to the same basket of 10 stocks. For the judgment approach, the weekly decision on how to invest in the different stocks was determined by analyzing headlines and the company s news. For the fixed approach, the decision on how to invest the weekly funds was made automatically by evenly splitting the funds amongst the 10 stocks. Finally, for the random approach, the decision to invest the weekly funds was determined by a random generator. After 18 weeks of simulations, the results indicate that the use of pure luck, or the random approach, generated the highest returns, while the judgment approach generated the lowest returns. Hence the original hypothesis was proven wrong. The study also shows that the stock market is highly variable and that before choosing the best approach an investor has to consider many factors.
347 1347 Acidic Antibodies Medicine & Health J For my project, I wanted to determine if the type of pill medication affected how long it took for them to dissolve in the stomach. My hypothesis was that between the Tylenol Regular Strength, the Tylenol Regular Strength Liquid Gels, and the Tylenol Rapid release pills, that the Rapid Release pills would be the fastest. To test my hypothesis I used lemon juice as a substitute for stomach acid and a spoon as a substitute for stomach movement. Then, I measured how long each pill type would take to dissolve. As seen in the data, the Tylenol Regular Strength pills took the least amount of time to dissolve, the Tylenol Rapid Release pills took the second-longest to dissolve, and the Tylenol Regular Strength Liquid Gels took the longest to dissolve. From this, I concluded that the Tylenol Regular Strength pills would be the best choice for a fast reacting pill and that the Tylenol Regular Strength Liquid Gels would be the worst. This information could be useful to pharmacists who want to develop a fast reacting pill or consumers who want the best medication that will treat them quickly.
348 1348 Hydraulic v.s Prosthetic Medicine & Health J For my project I wanted to know if I could add in hydraulics with prosthetics. I wanted to try and probably start a new thing that researchers can research and find more info about prosthetics and hydraulics and be a new face to the prosthetic industry. My Hypothesis was If the models have more of a grip it will perform more superior than the other.To test my hypothesis I built two models that will act like prosthetics. I will put them up to a few tests and see how well they could perform by attempting to hold different items, how many items it could hold at a time, and weight it held.After my experiment I found that model 1 held better than model 2 and model was not the best at gripping items.My Conclusion is that if anytype of prosthetics have a good grip and can grip things well it will perform really well in tests. Because the main purpose for an arm prosthetic is so it is able to hold things so that it will help them perform everyday activities.The way this can actually help the world is by bringing a new face to prosthetics and hydraulics and maybe change the way the build prosthetics. Maybe in a few years we can see disabled people rocking these we can say aqua prosthetics and just bring a new future to disabled people. This can also be affordable to anyone as I start to improve this more.
349 1349 The Effect of Vitamin C on Leukemia Cells Medicine & Health J Vitamin C is an essential nutrient which keeps our body healthy by supporting immune system. Can Vitamin C kills cancer cells Previous studies have shown that high-doses of Vitamin C can treat several cancers. Through this experiment, we wanted to see if Vitamin C could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia. Our research question was how does the amount of Vitamin C affect the growth of leukemia cells We hypothesized that treating leukemia cells with high-doses of Vitamin C will kill the cells. We treated leukemia cells with different amounts of Vitamin C for seven days. We found out that low-doses of Vitamin C slightly increased the growth of leukemia cells while high-doses Vitamin C significantly decreased cell growth. The findings are significant because it is information that can lead us onto a path into finding a better treatment for leukemia.
350 1350 PH Values of chemicals in e-cigarette Medicine & Health J I wanted to do this project to show my generation what e-liquids do to the lungs grapes . My question was is there a correlation between the Ph balance acidity level and the effect on the grapes when it pertains to the human lungs. I was interested by this topic because to this day it is a real problem it has been turned into a epidemic, many teens my age are dying and having serious long term effects. My experiment was tested for five days only and you can tell how bad e-liquids have on the lungs. Every three hours I added three droplets of the different nicotine amounts the reason that we did only three is because teens vape approximately 3 times every hour because the pod has three drops in it . I tested with three nicotine amounts 0 mg ml no nicotine , 3 mg ml 0.3% and 6 mg ml 0.6% those were my controles and I used two flavors peppermint and raspberry lemonade . My results show that the higher Ph balance goes to the 6 mg ml 0.6% has the higher acidity level and had the most effect on the human lungs the grapes . My hypothesis was correct because i said that the 6 mg ml would have the most acidity level that will then have a more serious long and short term effect on the human lungs grape . In conclusion vaping or smoking of any sort has real bad long term effects and are very dangerous for our generation.
351 1351 Acid Reflux Natural Remedies Medicine & Health J This project was to test natural remedies on acid reflux. Research was done to find suggested natural remedies on the Internet. A solution of hydrochloric acid was made to stimulate stomach acid. Natural remedies were apple cider, vinegar, baking soda, licorice, coconut water and ginger powder. Half and full doses of the suggested amounts from the Internet were used for each remedy. Powders were dissolved and solids were left overnight in the Hydrochloric acid solution. pH was tested before and after each remedy. Baking soda reduced the pH from 2 to 8 which was the best remedy and Apple cider vinegar only reduced it one or none so it was not the best.
352 1352 Think about your teeth Medicine & Health J The main idea of this project is to see if drinks affect teeth the way we think it does to our teeth. In the project I used Coke original flavor, Diet coke original flavor, and Gatorade lemon lime flavor. In the experiment I measured the eggs then I put the eggs in about a cup sized glass then I carefully poured the liquid. once done I put a timer for 24 hours or one day. After the 24 hours I carefully poured the liquid out I had to put my finger on the egg so it did not fall out. Then after I poured each liquid I put it in water to stop any reaction still going on on the egg. then measured and recorded again. There was minimal change to the size of the eggs but the color and texture changed tremendously. The Coke eggs were brown and sticky, the Diet Coke eggs were brown, and the Gatorade had an eerie yellow tint with sugar crystals on the exterior. Then when I open the eggs the yolk of the egg was a dark yellow for all drinks.
353 1353 Eating Bacteria: Probiotics At Work Medicine & Health J The reason for the research is to see if lactobacillus or bifidobacterium will grow more and faster. The reason that I researched was because I wanted to see what probiotic would be better for the human immune system. The problem was if lactobacillus or bifidobacterium will grow more and at a faster rate. My hypothesis is that lactobacillus will grow faster due to its higher abilities. Once I had the probiotics in hand, I began the project and the bacteria quickly. Through the growth process, I took pictures and counted the number of colonies. At the end of the experiment the results turned out that my hypothesis was correct and lactobacillus grows faster and more.
354 1354 The Skin on Moisturizers Medicine & Health J I choose this because I wanted to know why the different types of moisturizers would work best to keep the skin moist. The Jell-O is used to take the place of skin because they both use collagen which is taken from animal body parts. The Curel lotion worked best to keep the skin moist throughout the weeks. There were three petri dishes for each moisturizer. I put 50ml of Jell-O in each petri dish. Then I layer it with the different moisturizers. After that, I tested it for a period of time. My hypothesis was incorrect. My prediction was that the Aveeno moisturizer with the glycerin would keep the Jell-O moist. Instead, Curel with the glycerin and oil worked best overall. The Vaseline numbers were better for both height and weight, but the moisturizer worked so well that it started to mold from all the moisture. Lubriderm and Suave started to blend in with the Jell-O and turned colors while evaporating. Suave dried out faster because of the alcohol from the triethanolamine. Jell-O evaporated and also turned to mold because it only had moisture. Therefore, Curel was the best because it kept the moisture and didn t start to mold.
355 1355 Action Potential In Various Muscle Groups Before And After Stretching Medicine & Health J The purpose of this experiment is to find out is stretching not only prevents muscle injuries but also enhances performance, by measuring action potential before and after stretching through Backyard Brains Muscle SpikerBox. My research question was Does the presence of stretching affect the action potential in various muscle groups My hypothesis was If the subjects stretch before measuring action potential, then the action potential spike will be larger . I based my hypothesis on the results of a study by Ian Shrier from 2004. To conduct this experiment, I used the muscle spiker box, my smartphone, electrodes, and electrode gel, cables, and alligator cables. I attached the muscle spiker box to the targeted muscle and the smartphone via cables. I measured the action potential without stretching. Then I measured the action potential with stretching beforehand. I used an analyzation program to convert the lengths of the spikes into centimeters to get my results. The results showed that the action potential was higher with stretching rather than with an absence of stretching. These results were consistent with the studies that measured running speed and performance. These results can be used to develop a method of increasing performance in people with atrophied muscles.
356 1356 How Much Fat Is In Your Food? Medicine & Health J Many people struggle with fat and how often to consume it. Fats are essential for human life, but there are different foods contain healthy and unhealthy fats. I investigated three individual foods chocolate chips, potato chips, and almonds and used a fat extraction procedure to compare their fat levels. My main question was Which one of these foods will contain the most fat For the fat extraction procedure, I used acetone as a solvent to separate the fat and the food. After letting it evaporate for about two days, I was able to identify the fat clearly, and if it was liquid or solid.My results were that the chocolate chips contained the most fat, with a 94% percent average of extraction efficiency amount of fat extracted from the food sample relative to the amount of fat in the food. Knowing how much fat you are eating daily is a good thing to know because too much of the unhealthy fats can be harmful to your health and well being. This project is helpful because it helps you visualize the fats that you are eating.
357 1357 Is Caffeine on Your Mind? Medicine & Health J The objective of our project is to determine how long it takes for caffeine to make a prominent effect on the human memory. We used 200mg caffeine pills, a camera, a memory test we made ourselves, and a timer. Our test shows that the participants scores did not change enough to show indicative results within the one hour time period we tested them in. They also show that the children s memory works more efficiently after consuming caffeine when compared to adults. Therefore, our conclusion is that it takes longer than an hour for caffeine to have a significant effect on the memory.
358 1358 The Effects of Creatine on Metabolic Conditioning Medicine & Health J Many athletes worldwide struggle in determining if it s worth it to take supplements. This experiment intends to give them that clarity specifically with creatine pre-workout supplements. The key question being asked is how do creatine based pre-workout supplements affect the performance of athletes overtime Every Monday for 10 weeks, athletes would input their workout results for that day into an online mobile app where the scores were then accessed and placed into data tables. After calculating the percentage of the max, the percentages where placed in graphs to compare the results over time.When diving deeper, it was concluded that creatine pre-workout supplements don t have much affect on female athletes no matter the age. However, it was not the same for men. As the end result it was determined that young males between the age of 14-32 were not greatly affected by creatine. Whereas the male athletes who took creatine and were 33+ years out performed men who didn t take creatine.Creatine is something the body generates to help with building muscle mass. For men as they get older, their body creates less creatine while women don t create as much originally. Which gives reason to believe why the experiment turned out this way.With this given experiment and outline, it leaves a lot of potential for the future. With replacing the creatine with muscle recovery supplements, BCAA s, caffeine, etc, athletes can become more aware of what they are intaking and how it s affecting them.
359 1359 Vaping,What does it really do to your lungs Medicine & Health J The reason i chose to do this project was to prove to my friends that vaping isn t as cool as it seems and actually very harmful.And when using different levels of nicotine which is more damaging to the lungs.My approach to this subject matter was that my dad could by the materials and i would do everything else.The research was actually quite interesting speaking as they all involve death from vaping.As a result the jars were terrible,they were deteriorating and had burns on the tripe.I think the project i did contributes to the area that i am in.The subject of vaping is definitely something that needs to be heard as a thing to keep your kids away from.
360 1360 Do colored overlays positively affect fluency for Dyslexic student? Medicine & Health J The purpose of the experiment was to help dyslexic students find ways to increase their reading fluency and hopefully find reading more enjoyable. I tested dyslexic students 3rd-9th grades by recording each of them while they read 3 different passages obtained from the University of Oregon Dibels. Testing each student on total words read, total words correct, and time. The first passage was without any aids or colored overlays. The second passage was read using the colored overlay. The third passage was double spaced. The after listening ad grading each test the data suggested the younger students in the 3rd and 4th grade only benefited using the colored overlay. Grades 4th-9th grades did not show any increase in reading fluency using the colored overlay. However, all grades benefited from the double spaced document. All dyslexic students showed increase in words per minute and fluency. In conclusion, only the younger students showed increase in fluency using the colored overlays while the older students saw no change. Double spacing helped all dyslexic students in all categories tested. Each students showed an increase in fluency when reading the double spaced document. I believe educators should provide more double spaced documents when handing out papers to students in class to help any dyslexic students so they can begin to read better and easier in a class room instead of struggling and feeling left behind.
361 1361 My Research on Viruses Medicine & Health J My project isn t supposed to show people how to cure or stop these viruses from existing, it s supposed to just inform others about viruses. In my project my main topic will be about the influenza virus, I chose this virus specifically because it is a very common virus. My project can help inform others on influenza virus.
362 1362 BMI on blood pressure Medicine & Health J A person s Body Mass Index BMI affects a person s blood pressure. A specific type of BMI, which is obese, may affect your blood pressure. The blood pressure could possibly be high. There are different types of BMI Underweight, normal, overweight and obese .The BMI formula is a simple math formula.The formula is the persons weight in kg divided by their height in meter squared BMI Kg m2 Can a level of BMI or the level of obesity can effect the blood pressure and if then by what level. The reason for doing this project was to figure out which BMI affects your blood pressure If the persons BMI is 30 or greater than there blood pressure will be outside the normal range of 120 30. Names of people in this study were kept anonymous. typing the word subject then obtaining the subjects weight,height and blood pressure next to the persons it belongs to. At last calculate there BMI and record it on the corresponding participant .thought the mean time would be shorter but the hypothesis was correct. If the persons BMI was 30 than there BP was higher than 120 80 which can lead to serious health issues.
363 1363 The Effects of Music on Breath Holding Medicine & Health J It is thought that music may affect the human brain in part through regulating stress. The breath holding test BHT is used to assess how well an individual can tolerate stress. This study investigated how two different types of music, classical and hard rock, affect stress by using the BHT. Ten adult participants were asked to hold their breath for as long as comfortable while listening to either classical or hard rock music, three times with each type of music. Participants also completed a Distress Tolerance Survey DTS , which is designed to determine how well a person thinks they handle stress. In general participants held their breath longer while listening to classical music compared to hard rock music. The time holding breath seemed to correlate well with the DTS total scores for each individual.The results suggest that classical music may help individuals reduce stress.
364 1364 How does smoking affect the color of the lungs? Medicine & Health J The rationale of this experiment is to teach heavy smokers about the physical tolls smoking takes on their lungs which is the change in color because of all the chemicals that enter their lungs. Some smokers may not believe in the effects smoking takes on their lungs and they may need physical evidence to believe in the tolls smoking takes on their lungs so we decided to make a machine that simulates a lung and we can physically show everything that happens in their lungs. We hypothesize that If a smoker smokes 7 packs of cigarettes in one week, then their lungs will turn brown or black. The procedure that will need to be followed in this experiment is to gather the tools, make holes in the jar to connect the tubing to the suction pump and jar and to insert and light the cigarettes, insert the cotton balls in the jar, connect the suction pump to the adapter, connect the adapter to the outlet, turn the suction pump on, have an adult light and insert cigarette, repeat this process until all packs of cigarettes are used, after each pack is used scan the cotton balls with the color sensor to see the new color of the cotton balls. We will use a table to show how the original color of the cotton balls in the display jar changed after the chemicals from the cigarettes entered it.
365 1365 What drinks affect your bones Medicine & Health J One of the purposes of this project was to show what is good and bad for your health. I would see people make unhealthy decisions that were bad for their health. So, when I was thinking for a project idea, I thought about drinks that are very unhealthy. So, I chose the most common drinks people drink almost every day. These items are a Coca-Cola, coffee, Monster energy drink, milk, and water. I experimented with these everyday drinks with the help of chicken bones. The chicken bones play a very major part of this project because they represent the human bones. What I did with the drinks and bones is that I poured the drinks into glass containers. Then put one bone in one different drink container and let them be in the refrigerator for two whole weeks. As you can see the water bone is clean and strong, as so is the milk bone. However, I wish I could say the same for the coffee, Coca-Cola, and Monster energy drink. Those three were very brown and black. The Coca-Cola, coffee, and Monster energy drink are very bad drinks that should not be drunk a lot. In conclusion, the water and milk are very good drinks that help you with your health. Milk can give you calcium for your bones while water helps your body and bones. So, we should be careful with our choices of what we eat and drink, because these decisions can affect our body and bones.
366 1366 Hydration Station Medicine & Health J Hydration Station AbstractI have investigated physical hydration because I believe hydration and physical activity are very important and because most people think water is the best drink for physical activities. My hypothesis states that Gatorade would have the most electrolytes, meaning the best physical hydration.I conducted the Hydration Station experiment by gathering my fifteen materials, setting up the circuit, and then three trials of testing, finally averaging my trials.After my testing, I gathered my data, then input it into a table consisting of the liquids x variable and then my results in voltage y variable .In conclusion, my hypothesis was proven wrong by pineapple juice having the highest voltage electrolytes. If I were to expand this experiment again I would get different brands of pineapple juice and see which brand is best. My new question would be, what brand of pineapple juice has the best physical hydration.
367 1367 Egg-cellent Teeth Medicine & Health J If eggshells are soaked in liquid, then the darker and liquids with more dye will effect eggshells the most.Eggshells were used to simulate teeth because the chemical that build up enamal on teeth are similar to the eggshells. Common drinks such as coffee, Coke, sweet tea, and hot chocolate will be tested. By soaking the eggshells in the liquid for 18 hours, it showed how the continuous intake of fluids could affect the teeth wihtout brushing.Coffee beans have a natural, dark color and Coke contians a lot of dye. While the lighter fluids such as sweet tea and hot chocolate have a subtle color from tea leaves and cocoa powder.The sweet tea will not have as dark of a color as the coke and coffee because its color is natural and comes from tea leaves with no added colorants and its natural color isn t that dark either. As for the hot chocolate, the color for the hot chocolate is in powder form so that is a big part of why the color is not as dark.
368 1368 How Does Different Containers Affect Mold Growth On Food Medicine & Health J Mold grows on food from tiny spores that are carried throughout the air. I predicted that the plastic container out of the container the strawberries came in, the ziplock bag, and the plastic container that the plastic container would prevent mold from growing on the strawberries for longest. However, after a total of fifteen days and three checks my hypothesis proved incorrect. I concluded that the ziplock bag did the best out of the three containers. I also concluded that my hypothesis was wrong due to a faulty understanding of the amount the strawberries were closed off.
369 1369 Cool Yourself Medicine & Health J Ice packs are used for keeping things cold and controlling minor injuries such as bruises, cuts, etc. The purpose of this project is to see which type of ice pack is the most efficient. The experiment would measure the amount of time that the ice packs would take for its temperature to rise back up to 10 C.After making our insulated containers we placed the ice packs in the same freezer. We waited until the ice packs reached the freezer s temperature of around 4 C. We took the ice packs out of the freezer and place them inside insulated containers. the timer starts after the thermometer is inserted. Frequent trips to check on the temperature were made throughout the process. Once the temperature rose to 10 C we stopped the timer and recorded the results. We repeated the process for the rest of the trials. Out of all the ice packs, the block ice pack did their best while the bagged gel did the worst.The significance that our project has on real life is that it can help people make a more efficient choice. Without enough data, people take time to comprehend their situation. There would be a chance that the decision made would not have the best results. With the data that we collected from this project, we could help people decide on a type of ice pack that would offer the best results. This data could also help others make quick decisions in desperate times.
370 1370 Will higher expectations lead to improved performance? Medicine & Health J In this experiment, I tested the effects of behavioral treatment in mice. I randomly divided the mice into 2 equal groups, with mixed intelligence levels. I indiscriminately labeled these groups as Group A, being the smart group, and Group B, being the dumb group. These labels were not based on the actual intelligence of the groups they were quite equal at the beginning. To test the basic ability range of the mice, I made multiple handmade mazes to see how long it took them to go from Point A to Point B. I gave Group A increasingly difficult tasks and mazes while training them harder and not letting them give up. Meanwhile, I gave Group B the same, repetitive tasks and mazes over and over again, but only once per each mouse in a day, not giving as much importance to their success. I repeated this process for 15 days. In the end, I gave the mice a more basic maze from the beginning, and the time difference between the 2 groups was roughly 15 seconds. So, Group A was now 15 seconds faster than Group B highly unprecedented results.This is a slightly different alternative study of the Pygmalion Effect or a self-fulfilling prophecy. This is a phenomenon that higher expectations and training leads to increased performance. The purpose of this experiment is to prove that though students and or mice might have different capability levels, the same treatment of a more rigorous course is always beneficial rather than detrimental.
371 1371 Peanut Power Medicine & Health J The purpose of my experiment was to determine which type ofpeanut out of the five varieties would give us athletes the mostamount of energy to perform better on the field. I was able toconclude that my hypothesis was wrong.I hypothesized that theraw peanuts would produce the most amount of heat energy,and would in turn increase the water s temperature the most outof the 5 peanuts. My experiment determined that raw peanutsproduced the third highest amount of energy and temperatureincrease.It was the honey-roasted peanuts that produced themost amount of heat energy, which in turn caused thetemperature of the water to increase the most.
372 1372 What is the Best Way to Wash Fruit? Medicine & Health J Objectives Goal The objective of my project is to determine what the best way to remove bacteria on fruit Methods and Materials I used strawberries, grapes, peaches, petri dishes, fruit cleaning spray, water, and gloves. I tested both washing methods, then touched both of them, along with an unwashed piece of fruit, into a petri dish marked into thirds. After that I placed the petri dish in a warm area and covered them with towels so that they would not get direct sunlight. I photographed them every 12-24 hours. Results The best way to wash the fruit is with the fruit cleaning spray, but of course most people will not rub each piece of fruit individually for a whole minute. And, it turns out that rubbing actually does more of the cleaning than the spray does. Conclusions Spraying the fruit and then manually rubbing for a minute cleaned off the most bacteria. However, it is unrealistic to spend more than a minute cleaning each piece of fruit because some fruits, such as raspberries, are to delicate to rub for that long and no one realistically is going to spend that much time.
373 1373 Effect: The effect of k-cup coffee locations on bacteria growth Medicine & Health J Coffee is a very common drink in the U.S. and is made everywhere. It s made from public coffee shops, to hospitals, and in homes. This project was meant to find how much harmful bacteria was growing on K-cup coffee makers. Five coffee makers were used. One located in a classroom, business office, hospital, average American home, and a coffee shop. The hypothesis was that the coffee maker in the hospital would be the dirtiest. All coffee makers were swabbed, then using the contaminated swab, the experimenter swabbed all the petri dishes. Four days later, the dishes had some bacterial colonies. All the colonies were counted, added together, and written down. The hypothesis was not supported. The data shows that the dirtiest coffee maker was the one in the business office, and the cleanest one was in the coffee shop. There could be many reasons to why some coffee makers were dirtier than others, like the coffee maker in the business office could be very old, not cleaned frequently, or just swabbed very well. Another reason could be that maybe the one in the coffee shop is new, well cleaned, or was swabbed poorly. At the end off the day, the project showed that it is safe to drink coffee from a coffee shop, and there is a very small chance that someone will be getting sick.
374 1374 Nano-Hydroxyapatite battles Fluoride Medicine & Health J My project was testing fluoride and nano-hydroxyapatite in toothpastes, to see which mineral is best for the tooth. While researching I found that fluoride is supposed to work best with the presence of saliva, and my experiment did not include the presence of saliva. I chose to do this experiment to help people across the globe who suffer from dry mouth conditions. Fluoride is a natural mineral found in the earth and nano-hydroxyapatite is a synthetic mineral created by NASA but used mainly on the other side of Earth. I hypothesis that if fluoride works best with the presence of saliva then Nano-hydroxyapatite will show to protect the tooth better. My hypothesis was not confirmed. Results showed fluoride is better at protecting the tooth. If I were to repeat this experiment I would preform more trials and soak the tooth in a different beverage to see if nano-hydroxyapatite would be able to preform better in a different drink when considering the different variables in the drinks like carbonation, acidity, and sugar.
375 1375 Energy Drinks for Gaming Medicine & Health J The purpose of this project was to see which healthy energy drink is the best for gaming. The reason I wanted to do this project is I love to play video games and sometimes I am too tired or not focused enough to play. I watched videos about energy drinks that said they would help with energy and focus. I wanted to find the best one. My brother and I tested 5 different low calorie, no sugar energy drinks G Fuel, Bang, Sneak, Gamers Supps, and Rogue. My hypothesis was that G Fuel would give me the most energy and focus because the company was the first to make one and have been improving their ingredients since 2004. My results showed that G Fuel did give us steady energy and focus. Compared to all the drinks, it was the best tasting and helped me play my video games for many hours with no problems. Looking at its ingredients, it has 19 different fruit extracts, 10 vitamins, an energy complex, a focus complex, and an antioxidant complex. These make it the best energy drink for gaming.
376 1376 Radiofrequency Compared in Single and Combined Devices Medicine & Health J Studies have shown that devices emit radiofrequency, which can be harmful to the human body. However, it is not known if the use of more than one device at a time emits higher levels of radiofrequency than when they are used individually. Radiofrequency measurements were obtained in mW m by using a TriField EMF Meter Model TF2. The devices tested were a smartphone 1-Phone 11 and a laptop Lenovo Ideapad . These were tested individually and together in different states of operation. The different states of the devices tested were with them turned on, turned off, in sleep mode, streaming a video, and sending an email. The results show that the radiofrequency levels were the highest when the phone was turned on, amongst the devices tested individually. The radiofrequency levels were the lowest when the phone was turned off shut down . When both computer and phone were tested simultaneously, the combined radiofrequency levels were highest when the phone was sending an email and the computer was streaming, and the lowest combined radiofrequency levels were when the phone and computer were turned off. The radiofrequency levels were consistently higher when both devices were tested together compared to when they were tested individually. In conclusion, radiofrequency levels are higher when a combination of devices are used simultaneously compared to individual use.
377 1377 Detectable levels of Metals in Children's Playgrounds Medicine & Health J The rationale of this project is that the accumulation of metal at a low level over time has been shown to be detrimental to the health of kids. Playground soil contaminated by metals can be inhaled, touched, or ingested and this can pose health risks to children. This project determines the levels of lead Pb , chromium Cr , cadmium Cd , and copper Cu in three main children playgrounds in League City and Texas City using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The results showed significant detectable levels of metals in all playgrounds evaluated in this study. Walter Hall Park in League City has the highest detectable levels of Pb 12.43 46 mg Kg compared to other children playgrounds examined in this project TX-RP 3.93 3.97 mg Kg , T-GP 7.09 2.79 mg Kg , T-TX 6.05 1.92 mg Kg , LHH 4.68 0.76 mg Kg , L-SPLX 2.64 1.63 mg Kg . The cadmium level in Rainbow Park 0.16 0.11 mg Kg is significantly higher than all the other five children s playgrounds studied. The concentrations of Cu and Cr were not statistically different among the playgrounds. Notably observed in this study is that the levels of metals in the playgrounds were not homogenous. Overall, this study shows that metal levels in playgrounds should be public information available to parents.
378 1378 Which genre of music is best for lowering blood pressure? Medicine & Health J The purpose of this experiment is to build on natural ways to lower blood pressure. High blood pressure contributes to heart disease, the leading cause of death for men and women.This study specifically examines the types of music and their effects on lowering blood pressure. There were 30 test subjects that participated in the research. Their blood pressure was measured in 15 minute intervals. The first measurement was taken after 15 minutes without music stimuli to establish a baseline resting blood pressure. The next three measurements were taken after listening to 15 minutes of classical, pop, or heavy metal music. The order of music genre was randomized, though the playlist within the genre was unchanged. The data was compiled and the systolic measurements were averaged to compare each genre of music relative to the baseline resting blood pressure. As hypothesized, classical music at an average of 65 bpm, or beats per minute, lowered systolic blood pressure by an average of 5 points. Pop music at 105 bpm lowered the average by 4 points. Heavy metal music at 157 bpm was the least effective at lowering blood pressure at an average of 2 points lower than the baseline resting measurement. Overall, the averages of all three genres of music were lower than the non-music measurement.Further study could expand this research to include the effect of genre and age. Additionally, music preference can be included in the experimentation. Finding natural ways to lower blood pressure is important to public health.
379 1379 Speed and Furious: Does Running In Different Speed Change Heart Rate? Medicine & Health J AbstractSome people died because over exercise, so it is very important to know the right exercise for people s body. The purpose of this research is to discuss how does running in a different speed change heart rate The hypothesis states that if running at a different speed, then the higher speed will have faster heart rate. In this study, the researcher collected the heart rate from 4 participants for 10 days, when running at different speed and calming down, compared and contrasted the similarities and differences using line and bar graph. In conclusion, The Similarities between teenager and adult groups Comparing to 3 mile hour, the heart rate of 6 mile hour rose faster the heart rate of 6 mile hour had a bigger range at the first minute than 3 mile hour and the heart rate dropped the most in the first minute when calming down after running in 6 mile hour. The differences between teenager and adult groups adults original heart rate was lower than teenagers heart rate adults had larger range of heart rate changes in 6 mile hour and adults heart rate dropped faster when calming down. This test will help people find the right and best way of exercise for them.
380 1380 The best method for disinfecting locker doors Medicine & Health J The purpose of this experiment is to understand the best method for disinfecting locker doorknobs to ensure that students can protect themselves from harmful bacteria. Cotton swabs were used to swab five different sets of three lockers. For each set of lockers, a different disinfectant was used. Each locker was swabbed before being treated with the disinfectant, then the disinfectant was used. Water, water and soap, hand sanitizer, Lysol wipes, and an organic cleaner were used. After each experiment, the locker knobs were cleaned with dry paper towels. All petri dishes treated with water had bacteria, though it was a small amount. One out of three dishes treated with water and soap had no bacteria left. All dishes treated with hand sanitizer still contained bacteria, though it was minimal. One out of the three dishes treated with the organic cleaner had no bacteria left. Two out of the three dishes treated with Lysol wipes had no bacteria left. The conclusion is that Lysol wipes are the best disinfecting method, though water and soap can be used as well if Lysol wipes are not readily accessible.
381 1381 Vape: The Downfall Of Humanity Medicine & Health J Abstract Purpose of the experiment To show that vape juice with liquid nicotine is harmful to the health of a green bean plant. Summary of the procedure The Researcher grew 2 green bean plants by germinating the seeds using hydroponics. After they sprouted leaves, the researcher added vape juice containing liquid nicotine to one plant. The Researcher added 3 ml each day counted how many of the green leaves turned yellow or became dried up died.Summary of the data The Researcher made pie graphs at Day 5 Day 10. The vape juice plant had more yellow dried up dead leaves than the water only plant. The vape juice was harmful to the health of the green bean plant.Conclusion Vape juice with liquid nicotine is toxic poisonous.
382 1382 Directioned Frequency Medicine & Health J The purpose of this experiment is to test how the range of frequency affects the direction in which a person thinks the sound is coming from. This will also help me test how different frequencies affect the ear and how our brain responses to the noise. My question is How does the range of frequency affect the direction in which a person thinks the sound is coming from My hypothesis is If the range of frequency is between 100 and 3,000, then the average person will most likely to detect the direction rather than a higher or lower frequency because the average human being tends to hear more lower than higher frequencies. I concluded that my participants will most likely miss the direction in which the higher frequencies come from but will be able to detect the location of the lower frequencies.
383 1383 Does the Amount of Sleep Affect Student's Grades? Medicine & Health J This experiment s purpose was to test if the amount of sleep that students s get affect their test scores. My hypothesis was If students are tested after getting different amounts of sleep, then they will score higher after nine hours compared to five hours of sleep because they will be more awake and alert with more sleep. Research shows that you are more awake and more alert with more sleep. It also says that you pay more attention and remember more things, and you also think clearer. In this experiment I held three different sleepovers at my house. Prior to the sleepovers I made tests with fifteen questions and a study guide that went with them. The participants would study for fifteen minutes before they went to sleep an hour later. We would sleep for five, seven, and nine hours. They would then take the test. I would grade them and analyze the results.The average results for the test score for five hours of sleep was 9.25 questions out of 15 questions correct. Seven hours of sleep had the highest number of correct answers with 13.6 out of 15 correct. For nine hours of sleep, the average number of questions correct was 12.1 correct out of 15. I learned from this experiment that sleep does affect your test scores, and the proper amount of sleep you should get depending on your age.
384 1384 The Effects of Vaping on DNA Medicine & Health J It has been seventeen years since the first vaping product was released. The products that are currently in the U.S. market place have not yet been systematically reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration to determine their impact on health. The common onion Allium cepa is an excellent plant for the assay for the screening and monitoring of damage after chemical treatment. A vaping solution was used for the treatment of the allium roots. From the allium root micronuclei tests on two concentrations of vaping solution we found changes in the cell cycle and an increase of micronuclei in comparison to the negative control.
385 1385 How loud can it go! Medicine & Health J Many parents are very busy or don t like to see their children cry so most parents use toys as a distraction many parents say, Toys are the key to parenting they literally save your life. Most parents don t know those toys that they give to their children may damage hurt their ears. As most people say, take care of yourself when your young so you ll still be eligible to do things, that goes for ears too. You need your ears when your young and old hearing is one of our most used senses. This project prevents hearing loss at very young age and informs parents about certain toys so they can prevent their children from hearing loss at young age. This project is testing if all toys are safe for babies, many toys were tested to be precise 22 toys. This project used 22 different toys and a decibel meter. For this project you need to test each toy 5 times and average data. As predicted most toys went over the limit the limit is 85 decibels, but most doctors audiologists recommend 70dB. This project helps inform parents the truth about a lot of toys out 22 toys 6 22 didn t go higher than the limit. For this project the measurement used was decibel decibels are used to measure sound the abbreviation for decibels is dB .
386 1386 Comparing the Efficacy of Cinnamon Supplementation to Canagliflozin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Medicine & Health J Currently more than 30 million Americans are suffering from type 2 diabetes and $245 billion are spent on treating complications from diabetes. Therefore, discovering new medications to treat diabetes can lower complications and cost from this disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of cinnamon supplementation to that of Canagliflozin. The hypothesis was that cinnamon will lower fasting glucose and HbA1c more than Canagliflozin. A total of 56 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited 28 in the control group and 28 in the intervention group . Patients in both groups were encouraged to diet, exercise and to continue their other diabetes medications. Patients in the intervention group were given cinnamon supplement 2 grams day. Patients in the control group were given Canagliflozin 100 milligrams day. Fasting glucose and HbA1c were done at baseline and 4 weeks later for both groups. After 4 weeks, the mean change in fasting glucose was -27.86 mg dL in the control group and -35.46 mg dL in the intervention group p-value 0.687 . The mean change in HbA1c was - 0.34% in the control group and -0.97% in the intervention group p-value 0.076 . Therefore, cinnamon does not significantly lower HbA1c or fasting glucose more than Canagliflozin. However, the data showed that cinnamon lowered fasting glucose and HbA1c at least as much as Canagliflozin. Cinnamon should thus be used as an alternative medication for treating type 2 diabetes due to its lower cost, minimal side effects, and comparable efficacy to Canagliflozin.
387 1387 Scoliosis Identification Medicine & Health J The purpose of this science fair project was to demonstrate the benefits of education when attempting to identify if somebody has scoliosis as well as to increase awareness to scoliosis.For this experiment, participants would circle whether they had a medical background and if they had a family member with scoliosis. They would proceed to pick the one girl they thought had scoliosis for the two questions on the front. Once they were done, they would be instructed to turn over the page and read the top which explained what to look for in someone with scoliosis. Participants would then continue to pick the one girl they thought had scoliosis for the two questions on the back. The results post-education were not significantly better than those that were pre-education, the difference was lower than 5% for both questions.Some think that it is important to know about diseases and conditions so people can know what conditions are if they get diagnosed with them. This is especially true when it comes to scoliosis which isn t an uncommon condition. At any rate, this project was a very interesting project and this information could be useful to doctors and schools to help teach the parents how and what to look for in case their child develops a curvature of their spine.
394 1394 Gravity Vs Buoyancy with Temperatures Physics & Astronomy J The purpose of this experiment is to figure out how gravity, the force pushing down, and buoyancy the force pushing up, react to each other in water. This also helps engineers help build things like ships and submarines.The first thing to do to do the experiment is fill up a container with 20 degrees Celsius water. Then, drop a ball in the water and see how far down it goes. Do this two more times. Then, repeat everything previously mentioned for 40 degrees and 60 degrees water.With the data, it was determined that the depth of the ball increased by around 1.7 cm for every 20 degrees Celsius of increase, starting at approximately 21.8 cm at 20 degrees Celsius. Also, all the data lined up linearly, meaning it can be represented by the equation d .09t+20, where d is the depth the ball went in the water and t is the temperature.The hypothesis that was created supported the data. As previously said, the data can be represented by the linear equation of d .09t+20. This is likely because water vapor is less dense than water, and the more the water temperature increases, the more the temperature is closer to water vapor. There also could have been mistakes made, like visual error, because all the data was recorded visually. Recapping what was said earlier, the project can help engineers build submarines and ships.
395 1395 Wingardium Leviosa Physics & Astronomy J Wingardium LeviosaByron Strug and Grey WarrenEmery Weiner, Houston, Texas, America In the Harry Potter universe, Wingardium Leviosa is one of a wizard s most fundamental spells. It is used to make an object levitate in mid-air. In Harry Potter this is a simple magic of swish and flick, but what if we could access this awe inspiring power to make flying cars, build buildings, or even make floating cities that don t take up any land We chose to do this project because we were interested in using sound in new ways. Normally, sound and music are just for us to listen to, for enjoyment. Through this project, we discovered that sound can be used for much bigger things. For movement, transportation and, at extreme levels, levitation. In our project, we tested to see whether lower or higher frequencies are better for moving objects. Using a keyboard to play very loud Octaves of the C chord, we were able to move a polystyrene styrofoam ball in different lengths. Our hypothesis that a higher octave of C, would cause the ball will travel farther. The hypothesis was falsified and the lowest C Chord moved the ball the furthest. In conclusion, lower frequencies are better equipped to move objects. We can use this knowledge to test other items and see if all objects are the same or different. This data could then be used to levitate large objects.
396 1396 Power of the Underwater Physics & Astronomy J In a sport where every millisecond matters, swimmers have to work on the minute details in order to improve. Underwater dolphin kicks are one of the few things that are always being perfected. This experiment aimed to discover if there was any correlation between the number of underwater dolphin kicks and having a faster swim.For this experiment, participants were asked to do 45.72 meters 50 yards freestyle swim with varying orders of zero 0 , one 1 , three 3 , and five 5 underwater dolphin kicks in multiple rounds. The participant s fastest swim per round were added up overall to see which number of kicks had a larger quantity of the fastest swim for that round.There was not a large correlation between the kicks and the number of fastest swims. Overall, there was not a clear winner but the data did lean towards doing one 1 dolphin kick as being faster than zero 0 , three 3 , or five 5 kicks. This information is useful for any swimmer who is trying to become faster. In the future, it would be interesting to see if the same results would apply to longer distances.
397 1397 The Impact Weight has on Distance using a Trebuchet. Physics & Astronomy J After completing my science fair project, I had mixed results. The results of the project were that the ball with the 250 grams weight went the least far, which partly proved my hypothesis. The ball with the 500-gram weight went the farthest, which I did not expect. I hypothesized that the ball with 750-gram weight would go the furthest, however, the distances were in between the 250 and 500-gram tests. I thought that the trebuchet must have not been sturdy enough for that immense weight.In conclusion, A rubber ball will travel farther as the weight increases, up to a certain weight. This particular trebuchet was not sturdy enough to handle the 750-gram weights as the ball did not travel as far as it did with the 500-gram weights. To gain better results, a more sturdy structure could have been used. Also, starting with lower weights and topping out at 500 grams could have produced the desired results.
398 1398 Hot vs. Cold Physics & Astronomy J Does hot water freeze faster than cold water To test this, 2 separate cups were used, one containing 250 milliliters of hot water and the other containing 250 milliliters of cold water. Both initial temperatures were measured and recorded, with certainty that the hot water was above 90 degrees Fahrenheit and the cold water was below 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Before the cups could be placed in a freezer, the temperature of the freezer was recorded, with the temperature being below 0 degrees Fahrenheit. The cups were then placed in the freezer where every thirty minutes, the temperatures of both cups of water were measured and recorded. The stopping point would be when both cups were to reach 10 degrees Fahrenheit. This method was used three times, to reach accurate results. After all three trials, the conclusion was that hot water does freeze faster than cold water, with the average jump from the beginning to the first thirty minutes being 12 degrees Fahrenheit for the cold water and 44 degrees Fahrenheit for the hot water.
399 1399 Waterbending With Different Types of Magnets Physics & Astronomy J Benji BerzinBrandon Strug WATERBENDING USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF MAGNETS Is water magnetic Most people would say No, but science says otherwise. Water is actually dipolar. This means it is affected by both polarities of magnetism. So, in this experiment, the abilities of dipolar magnetic properties of water were tested. To do this, a pipette filled with water was inserted into a piece of styrofoam. A small container was filled with water and a centimeter ruler was taped to the side of it. Once the water was still, a magnet was placed as close as possible to the pipette without touching it. The water in the pipette repelled from the magnet, and then the foam would slowly drift away. After 10 seconds, the distance the foam drifted from its original starting point was measured. This procedure was tested using four different kinds of magnets neodymium, samarium cobalt, ceramic magnet, and an electromagnet. There was also another test that had no magnets at all. There were three test runs for each magnet. The average foam movement for each magnet was calculated. The data showed that the neodymium magnet had an average of 8cm. The samarium cobalt magnet had an average of 7.66cm. The electromagnet and the ceramic magnet however, had low averages of one and two centimeters. The no magnet had an average of 1.83cm
400 1400 Maglev in Motion Physics & Astronomy J This project analyzed the physics of magnetic propulsion by modeling the propulsion system of a MagLev train. A scale model was created using electromagnets to simulate the attracting repelling forces that cause MagLev trains to move. The speed of the model train was recorded as a function of the pull force of the electromagnets. A magnet strength equivalent to 11 pounds of pull force was shown to produce the most cost-effective results.Next, the levitation system of a MagLev train was studied by creating a scale model of a track using neodymium magnets. The levitation height was measured as a function of the pull force of the magnets. No strong increase in height was observed.Thousands of people use MagLevs daily in Japan. In Japan, MagLevs shorten travel times for commuters significantly, in addition to decreasing traffic congestion and pollution on busy freeways. Many countries, including the US, are planning to build MagLev trains to reduce travel times in their countries. The same principles tested here can be scaled up and applied to real MagLev trains in order to make travel faster and more cost effective for the average citizen.
401 1401 How Does a Catapult's Launch Angle Affect the Distance of the Projectile Physics & Astronomy J Abstract My project was how does launch angle affect the distance a projectile will travel I hypothesized that at 45 degrees, the distance would be the longest. I decided to build a catapult to test this. I used the wood needed to build it, as well as other necessary items such as tape measures, protractors, and saws. To find the distances, I chalked and launched a tennis ball from 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees. I then averaged the launches and compared them. Looking at the data, I saw that the distance increased from the 0 degree launches to the 45 degree launches. When retesting the second day, variability became a factor. A possibility is that having to torsion the catapult again affected it. I had to retest 45 degrees to compare the two data sets. The 45 and 60 degree launches were almost exactly the same, and the 75 degree angle s distance fell after that. This led me to believe that there is a distance peak between 45 and 60 degrees. However, with the data set I had collected, my hypothesis that 45 degrees would launch the furthest was supported. In a possible subsequent experiment, I will narrow down the space between the angles to pinpoint the exact location of the peak angle.
402 1402 Kinematic Simulation of a Golf Swing Physics & Astronomy J What is loft angles effect on the distance and height a golf ball travels when hit This driving question, commonly referenced in golf, led me to start my study with the overall hope of advancing sports science and creating a better understanding of the influence of physics in golf. To do this in an accurate, yet direct way. I decided to use Inventor Autodesk AutoCAD program to model 5 different loft angled golf clubs and simulate them hitting a golf ball at a constant speed. I then graphed the distance and height each all traveled, giving me an accurate trajectory and an answer to my driving question. Which I then created a formula based upon, assisting in the ease of calculating this data in the future.
403 1403 Unbreakable Physics & Astronomy J The purpose of this experiment was to find the type of glass that could withstand the heaviest mass. This is significant because during natural disasters, windows become a dangerous factor. Normal glass is used by most people, not knowing there are other types of glass. Our hypothesis was if we drop varying weights on 13.97cm x 17.78 cm normal glass sheets, plexiglass sheets, and polycarbonate glass sheets at 2 meters, then the polycarbonate sheets will require the heaviest mass weight to be dropped at 2 meters in order to break the glass.We used three types of glass normal glass, plexiglass, polycarbonate glass. We had a simple textbook set-up and varying mass weights. We placed the glass on the set-up and dropped the weights until we got a break. Once we got a break, we recorded the mass of the weight and the time it hit the glass, excluding polycarbonate glass. We repeated this process twelve times, four trials for each type of glass. Further research was conducted to test the strength of polycarbonate glass. The best results achieved were dents.Based on our data, we found that polycarbonate glass required the heaviest mass weight to take damage. In opposition, normal glass required the lightest mass weight. If we used the data for future reference, then we can change our uses of glass. Polycarbonate glass may have done the best in this investigation but, one-day people may create a stronger type of glass for our needs.
404 1404 The Effect of Friction on Objects in Motion Physics & Astronomy J I started my project wondering if friction made any difference when an object was moving. I felt like it would and that the smoother the surface, the easier something would move. I slid a heavy book down a ramp covered in felt, sandpaper, foil, and nothing. I was correct that the book covered in nothing slid fastest and the sandpaper was slowest- it did not slide at all- in every test. I learned that friction is important in life because it affects every motion we do. Knowing about how friction works will help me later when trying to move something, drive, or even what shoes to wear for different activities.
405 1405 Materials vs. WiFi Physics & Astronomy J Summary My science fair project explored how much different materials affect a WiFi signal when the signal passes through them. I tested a pan, aluminum foil, a blanket, a pillow, and air for something to compare to.Hypothesis My hypothesis for this experiment was that the metallic objects that I tested - such as the pan and aluminum foil - would disrupt a WiFi signal more than the nonmetallic objects. This hypothesis was proven correct by my experiments. This may be because, as I learned in my research, metallic objects tend to reflect light and radio waves and WiFi is transmitted using radio waves. This tendency to reflect light is also why some metals appear shiny. Procedures To do my experiment, I placed the objects I wanted to test in between a WiFi router and the measuring device, my phone. This format worked well and I was able to get all the data I needed. I made sure to test every object 3 times and analyzed the average. There is not anything I would do to improve this method. Variables Independent - My independent variable was whatever item I tested because it did not depend on anything else.Dependent - My dependent variable was how much the item affected the WiFi signal because this value changed depending on the material being tested.
406 1406 Home Run Humidor! Physics & Astronomy J HOME RUN HUMIDOR!!! The problem for this experiment is Does the humidity in a baseball storage affect how far the baseball will travel when hit by a baseball bat The most useful information the scientist gathered is having a better understanding of humidity. The scientist s hypothesis is If baseballs are stored in different humidities, then baseballs stored at around 50% humidity will travel the farthest when hit with a baseball bat. For the procedure the scientist first divided 50 baseballs into 5 groups, then he put 1 group into the humidor for 1 week. Then after 1 week, he took the group of baseballs out of the humidor. After that he tested the group of baseballs by hitting them with the A.B.S. Automatic Bat Swinger . And finally, he recorded how far each baseball traveled in centimeters. In the data collected in this experiment, the scientist will show each humidity levels average s. Very Low Humidity 241.808 cm. Low humidity 167.64 cm. Medium humidity 220.73 cm. High humidity 215.40 cm. Control 221.49 cm. A very low humidty range traveled the farthest. The scientist s hypothesis was incorrect. Instead of Group C medium humidity traveling the farthest, Group A was the group to travel the farthest. The thing the Scientist learned from this is that he now has a clearer understanding on what humidity is. The real-world findings of this experiment is, if the MLB wanted to keep their games exciting, they should keep their baseballs at a very low humidity range.
407 1407 Surface-tension powered raft Physics & Astronomy J this project is about surface tension rafts. surface tension rafts work by adding a soap or other substances i.e. vinegar onto the tail or side of the raft the surface tension is lower then the water in front of the raft the raft then moves forward because it moves toward areas of high surface tension.
408 1408 How Does Temperature Affect a Magnet's Strength (Magnetism)? Physics & Astronomy J The hypothesis of my project was the more you cool a magnet the stronger it will become. For my research I investigated all the factors that determine a magnet s strength. Finally I focused on temperature. When a magnet is heated, the magnet s particles begin to move at an accelerated rate confusing and jumbling the particles. This phenomenon misaligns the magnetic fields therefore reducing the magnet s strength. However, when a magnet is cooled, its magnetic properties are strengthened because confusion between the particles is reduced. Procedure 1. Five magnets were secured to individual sticks and a magnetic washer and a hook to one stick.2.The amount of weight each magnet could lift in grams was tested. Each magnet was tested at 5 different temperatures. The 5 trials were at -17.7C degree Celsius , 2C, 22.5C, 50C, and 100C.3. The magnet was attached to the washer. While holding the stick with the magnet, the basket handle was put on the hook at the end of the washer stick. A second person slowly added weight to the basket until it dropped. The basket dropped when the magnet could not hold any more weight.The basket was placed on a weighing scale to record the maximum weight the magnet could carry.4. This process was repeated for each of the magnets in each of the five trials.My results proved my hypothesis that the cooler a magnet gets, the stronger it becomes. This result was consistent in nearly every one of my trials.
409 1409 What a Drag Physics & Astronomy J The purpose of this project is toWe want to do physics because of medical terms of disabled people in honor of my sister and other disabled people across the world and scientific studies.Learning physics will make me better to help the people body.
410 1410 The highest bounce Physics & Astronomy J The purpose of my experiment was to find out what surface would make the bouncy ball bounce the highest. If you re interested in having the most fun with a bouncy ball, my work will guide you to the best surface needed to make your ball bounce the highest. Typically, people don t care about the surface on which they bounce their bouncy ball. They do not realize the drastically different reactions one can observe when bouncing a bouncy ball on a variety of surfaces. Before I conducted this experiment, I firmly believed that the ball would bounce the highest on a wooden surface. I decided to gather a variety of materials, drop my bouncy ball on each surface three times and record my results. I chose to drop the ball on each surface three times in order to gather conclusive information, and then take the average to the nearest inch as my final result. The concrete gave the greatest bounce with an average height of 23 inches. Next up was the wooden board, which averaged 17 inches. Finally, there was a surprising 3-way tie between the plastic tub lid, a sheet of cardboard and the metal cookie sheet. All averaged heights of 15 inches. After gathering my data and concluding that the concrete gave the highest bounce, I met my objective of figuring out the best surface needed to make your bouncy ball bounce the highest.
411 1411 Levitating Magnets Physics & Astronomy J The purpose of my project was to test and see which type of magnets will make a platform levitate the highest. The magnets I used to do my project were ceramic and ferrite ring magnets. To do my project, I started by using double-sided tape and taping 4 ceramic magnets in 2 pairs which are parallel to each other to a flat cardboard surface. I did the same thing to another cardboard surface. Then, I took a smaller piece or cardboard and taped it to the side of the magnets. After that, I placed the other cardboard platform with the magnets directly above the other surface. Finally, I measured the height that it levitated. I did the same with the ferrite magnets. The results for the ceramic magnets were 4, 4 , and 3 cm, and the results for the ferrite magnets were 4 , 4 , and 4 cm. The conclusion was that the ferrite magnets could make the cardboard surface levitate higher than the ceramic magnets.
412 1412 Wood VS Metal Physics & Astronomy J The purpose for this project is to see the different effects on the metal and wooden bat. For example, I was motivated to do this project because I play baseball and also, my parents motivated me to do this project because it is somewhat different to others. One problem that I was trying to solve was which bat is better to use to play baseball with. First, I went to the baseball field which my family and did 2 trials with each type of bat. Once we were done with the trials the results were that wooden bats have more force in them than metal bats.So, based on this experiment I was able to compare the difference between a metal bat and a wooden bat. Comparing the velocity, distance and weight . That s why MLB players use wooden bats and not metal bats.
413 1413 Water Viscosity Physics & Astronomy J The purpose of this project is to understand how the temperature of water affects its viscosity. Our hypothesis is, If the temperature of the water increases, then the viscosity of the water decreases . We know that viscosity is the resistance against flow for any liquid. We also know that temperature can change the molecular structure inside water. To test our hypothesis, we conducted an experiment where the flow of water on a slope, was timed at different temperatures. The temperatures of our independent variables started at a very cold temperature, and kept increasing with each different variable, until the end of the experiment.We recorded the amount of time it took for all the water to reach the end of the slope at different temperatures. After conducting the experiment, we analyzed the recorded information from the data table, and modeled it into a bar graph so we can understand the data in a visually appealing way. They showed that as the temperature of the water increased, the time it took for the water to reach the end of the slide decreased. This proves that our hypothesis is correct!We concluded that we got these results because, the molecules of the water got affected by the temperature. The higher the temperature is, the more freely molecules of water can move down a slope. That is why hot water has a lower viscosity, than cold water. This is how temperature affects the viscosity of water.
414 1414 Air Pressure in a Volleyball Physics & Astronomy J The reason why I chose to do this project is because I wanted to see if air pressure affects the volleyballs discance. I play volleyball and I wanted to see if matters. I started to build a catapult that would hit the volleyball. I used wood and screws and a spring and a power saw and latch. I built a base with wood and put two wood poles to stabilize the arm and put a screw through the wood and that was what the arm was put on. There were two nails, one on the base and one on the arm and the spring was connected to that. The volleyball was sitting in between the poles. Then I pushed the latch and it would let the spring go and the arm would swing and hit the ball. The measuring tape is put in the front and when it hits the ground the first time is what you write down. I used an air pressure gauge to measure how much air was in the volleyball. I did 6 psi, 4psi, and 2 psi. I did each psi 5 times. My hypothesis was correct because the higher the psi the futher it goes.
415 1415 How Temperature Affects Viscosity Physics & Astronomy J How Temperature Affects ViscosityTemperature plays a major role in the affect of the viscosity of a liquid. The hypothesis states, if a liquid is heated, then the viscosity will be lower causing a marble to drop to the bottom at a faster rate. If the liquid is at room temperature, then the viscosity will be at its original state causing the marble to reach the bottom at a slower rate than when it is heated. If a liquid is cooled, then it will have a higher viscosity causing the marble to drop to the bottom at a slower rate.This experiment was conducted by dropping a marble into five different liquids and recording the time it took for the marble to reach the bottom. This test was conducted five times for each liquid at room temperature, heated to 120 F, and cooled to 37 F.It was found that the cooler the liquid, the more viscous it became. This means the marble traveled the slowest through them. As the liquid is heated it will become less viscous. Heated liquids would be the least viscous allowing the marble to pass through them at the fastest pace. The viscosity of a room temperature liquid would therefore fall in the middle range of heated and cooled liquids.The hypothesis of the experiment was proven true based on the findings above. Future projects could include testing the viscosity of everyday liquids people consume such as, carbonated liquids, juice, milk, protein drinks, and energy drinks.
416 1416 Driving Me Crazy Physics & Astronomy J I was motivated to build a golf driving machine, because I felt that we could get a functional golf robot for less than $150,000. The machine I built cost $200-$250, and was lightweight enough to be moved easily. My goal for distance was 200 yds, which is the typical driving distance for an amateur adult golfer. I solved the problem of the price of golf driving machine, and the issue of moving a golf driving machine around a golfcourse. First, I assembled the frame of the machine, and attached a dowel to hold the club. Next, I zip tied paracord, and bungee cord to a pulley to act as a spring. Next, I attached a golf club to the dowel, and loaded it into a wagon. I took it to the course, set up a launch monitor, and tracked 41 shots. My averages from the monitor tracking a 20 year old Super Concord driver were 73.1 yards in the air, 35.8 yds rolling on the ground, 108.9 yds in total distance, 0.4 yds curving to the right, the club swung 51.9 mph, and the ball flew at 75.1 mph. When it tracked a Ping G15 driver the averages were 91.3 yds in the air, 24.1 yds on the ground, 115.4 total yds, 7.4 yds to the right, 60.1 mph club head speed, 82.5 mph ball speed. My science fair project met most goals except for driving distance, and not continually destroying clubs.
417 1417 Patterned Pendulum Physics & Astronomy J For my experiment, I decided to create two different types of art pendulums utilizing sand and paint. The controlled variables in my experiment is the weight of the water bottles, the amount of water in each set of paint, and the size of the hole in the water bottle. The independent variables are the sand and paint. The dependent variables are the amount of time that it takes for the pendulum to swing across its axis. The paint pendulum travelled slightly faster across the paper than the sand pendulum.
418 1418 Will It Float? Physics & Astronomy J AbstractThe reason for this investigation was to find the best type of boat for different types of loads. The hypothesis was that the boat with the largest surface area would be able to carry the most weight. In the experiment, five boats were built and tested with several weight loads. The boats were constructed out of cardboard and were wrapped with foil to make them water resistant. The boats were then tested and measurements were recorded using a spreadsheet. The results were interesting because it showed that boat designs matter when it comes to carrying a load. The hypothesis was proven true when comparing the five boats. The boat with the smallest surface area carried the least amount of weight and the boat with the largest surface area carried the most weight. Something interesting that was found was that the larger boats carried more weight per square inch than the smaller boat. A future experiment that compares the same design of boat with different surface areas would be interesting, because that would show if the design really has an impact on how much a boat can carry.
419 1419 Mist Opportunities Physics & Astronomy J This experiment was carried out to design and test a system that could protect houses from wildfires using mist. The system uses mist due to the fact it saves water and allows for a more blanketing spray. However, if a house used this system, it would need a tank full of water that could potentially be used up if the spray if left on too long. This is why the experiment was focused on finding out whether it s better to wait until the fire is close, and turning more nozzles, or using fewer nozzles and turning it on when the fire is farther away to maximize water usage. The experiment found 10 nozzles activated at 50c kept the temperature down the most, but using 6 nozzles activated at 42c saved slightly more water and had almost no difference between the two temperatures. This proves the hypothesis, which stated 6 nozzles activated at 42c would keep the temperature down the most, was shown to be incorrect.
420 1420 Piano Resonance Physics & Astronomy J Pianos are instruments played all around the world. they make sound with strings that are struck by felt hammers when when keys are struck. The strings then vibrate, giving off a sound. Sometimes, vibrations carry to other strings, causing them to vibrate and make sound. This is a reverberation that will resonate in the piano. The resonations volume and length can be affected by the piano size amongst other things.This project was testing different sized pianos and their resonation length. Revibrations can add wrong notes to a peice, and the resonation can make them more audible. Pianos with less audible resonance are better for concerts. The hypothesis for this project predicted that grand pianos would have the longest resonance due to the size of the sound board. This hypothesis, however, was proven wrong, as baby grand pianos had the longest resonation time. Upright pianos and grand pianos had much shorter resonantions than baby grand pianos, so the data suggests they are better for playing.
426 1426 Difference in Growth Between Manda Koso and Not Plant Sciences J Yuto Yamada Mrs. JohnsonScience-3rd 1 16 20 AbstractThe purpose of this experiment is to see the difference in growth between a plant that has a special enzyme Manda Koso on it and a plant that doesn t. This can be important when seeing if this enzyme is actually effective at improving the growth of plants. If a plant has enzyme, then grow better than a plant without enzyme because the enzyme helps increase the rate of nutrient absorption and makes photosynthesis more efficient.Plants were planted in a garden and divided into 2 groups, the enzyme group, and the control group. The enzyme group will have enzyme on it, while the control group won t have enzyme. Water was given to the plants of both groups every day and the enzyme is sprayed on the plants every week. The height and the number of fruits flowers are recorded for both groups every week. In conclusion, the plants with enzyme grew bigger than the control plants, which supported the hypothesis of this experiment. This can be seen by the results of the roses with enzyme grew larger than the control group roses. Another result was that the petunia with enzyme had more flowers than the control group petunia throughout the experiment. Additionally, the cabbages with enzyme didn t get eaten by insects, unlike the control group cabbages. In this future we can use this information to predict that enzyme accelerates the plant s growth and respells insects from eating the plants.
427 1427 strawberry rot experiment Plant Sciences J AbstractObjectives goal The objective of our experiment was the see which substance would keep strawberries from molding. Methods and materials We used lemon juice, salt, sugar, flour, and strawberries. We submerged two strawberries in two separate bowls and poured into half a cup of each substance into each bowl and examined the strawberries everyday for a week. Results Both strawberries submerged in salt lasted the entire week,one strawberry from the lemon juice lasted the entire week, while the other strawberry submerged in lemon juice molded on the area uncovered by lemon juice. Conclusion My conclusion is that salt works best for preserving strawberries and sugar works worst.
428 1428 Does WiFi radiation affect plant growth? Plant Sciences J We investigated the effects of non-ionizing radiation from Wi-Fi routers on the growth of plants. Our research question is Does radiation from Wi-Fi routers affect the germination rate, speed of germination, height, chlorophyll level, and leaf size of mustard plants Our hypothesis is If plants are grown while exposed to radiation from Wi-Fi routers, then the plants germination rate, speed of germination, height, chlorophyll level, and leaf size will be less. We took 150 seeds and separated into two groups, Group A not exposed to radiation and Group B exposed to radiation . Group A was grown in a Faraday cage to block radiation and Group B was grown outside the Faraday cage. Germination rate, average height, and leaf size was recorded for Groups A and B for a period of 6 days. The germination rate for Group A was 211% higher than Group B. Additionally, the average height of the plants in Group A were 212% higher than the plants in Group B and the leaf size of Group A was 230% higher than the plants in Group B. The leaves were observed with a spectrophotometer to measure the chlorophyll levels and we found out that the chlorophyll levels were increased significantly as well.This suggests the possibility that the change was due to the increased exposure to radiation in Group B. Future plans for this project would be to repeat the experiment or do new experiments to add proof to the hypothesis developed here.
429 1429 Acid Rain What A Pain! Plant Sciences J The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether or not plants make an effort to stabilize the pH level of the soil after given acid water to replicate acid rain. The reason for investigating this topic was to gain more knowledge on the effects of acid rain on plants as this is an ongoing problem farmers face. The hypothesis of this experiment was If five plants were given five different solutions of acid water, then the plant given the solution containing water and milk will have the greatest change in the soil s pH level. To do the experiment, 18 clear cups were filled with soil and had 3 spinach seeds planted. The cups were watered 150 mL of water every week for three weeks. 45 mL of each of the 5 different acids were each combined into 450 mL of water creating 5 different acid solutions. 150 mL of each solution was each given to three plants during week 4. The pH level of each plant was measured every week for week 1 to week 3 and every day during week 4. During all three trials, the vinegar plants had the biggest change in the pH level of the soil throughout week 4. Based on this data, the hypothesis of this experiment was proven wrong. Also, all of the borax and vinegar plants died which also leads to the conclusion that the pH level of the acids isn t the only factor that affects plants.
430 1430 Photosynthesis Plant Sciences J The project went pretty well. After I put the plants in the microscope i saw that there were some dead plant cells especially in the plants that were outside. The plant inside didn t die that much thought, but instead they grew a little bit. I put the plants from inside under the microscope and saw that it was still alive afterwards. The plants both started the same, but after this project I say that it does affect not having that much water.
431 1431 Plant Biostimulants vs. Traditional Fertilizer Plant Sciences J The experiment was testing grass plant growth using traditional fertilizer and plant biostimulants. The main objective in this experiment was to test whether traditional fertilizer or plant biostimulants were better used by themselves or together. It was tested by planting oats grass into pots with soil then adding the different traditional fertilizers and biostimulants into each pot to see which one would perform the best.
432 1432 True Water Plant Sciences J I wanted to do this experiment because we use a water filtration system at home, so I wanted to see if my home made filter would work as well. It happened to work! I wanted to identify the water clarity and parts per million level with two layers of charcoal with my filtered water. First of all, I put a cloth at the bottom of my bottle to catch the chunks. Then the charcoal goes in the bottle. Next I put the pebbles, more charcoal, then pebbles again. I ended with a layer of sand. Did I think that this was going to work I asked myself so many times, and it did. My hypothesis was correct. It helps with clarity and parts per million level when two layers of charcoal are used. I m pretty happy with the results. It worked as I suspected it to filter my water. The filters with only 1 layer of charcoal did not work at all, but the one filter I did with two layers worked phenomenally. It worked so much better than I thought it would, this is a great option for camping or places that might not have access to clean drinking water just make sure to boil it first.
433 1433 Intoxicated Basil: The Effect of Nicotine on Basil Growth Plant Sciences J WARNING! This product contains nicotine. Nicotine is an addictive chemical. This may be a familiar phrase, because it is in every commercial for products that contain nicotine, like commercials for vaping devices. Vaping is a dangerous, and growing trend in teens especially. For this process, called vaping, a person most commonly uses a device called an e-cigarette. This uses replaceable cartages or pods containing various chemicals including nicotine. There are many concerns about this process called vaping, and it is the expected cause of various lung diseases. This project was designed to test the effects of nicotine on growth. Basil plants were used to test this. Four nicotine strengths were tested, ten plants getting each. There were also ten plants that were given just water making them the control group. Together this made 50 total data points. According to the data collected, the control clearly grew extremely better than the plants that received nicotine. Out of the plants that received nicotine, the plants that received 24mg strength grew the most. This could be because it wasn t all being absorbed because it was too thick to penetrate the soil and be absorbed by the plants. The research hypothesis that if the nicotine levels increase the plants growth will decrease was only partially supported. When the nicotine levels were zero, the plants grew the most, but in just the plants that received nicotine the plants that received a higher strength decreased, though there were overlaps in the data.
434 1434 Does a Spoon Full of Sugar Help the Plants Grow Abound? Plant Sciences J In my experiment I questioned, Do hydroponic plants grow better in plain water, glucose water, fructose water, or galactose water . My hypothesis was, If hydroponic plants are grown in a glucose solution, then the plants will grow faster because they will have more energy. I think the plants will have more energy because in an animal cell, glucose goes into the mitochondria, makes ATP energy , which leads to cell growth, causing us to grow. Because a plant cell also has a mitochondria, I think glucose would help it grow. The outcome of this experiment was that water makes plants grow fastest. This disproves my hypothesis because I thought that glucose water would make the plants grow the fastest. Glucose, as well as fructose and galactose, may actually stunt the growth of the plant roots. This may be because a sticky substance appears the roots, binding them so they aren t able to grow. In conclusion, plant and animal cells must not be that similar, as animal cell use glucose to grow, while it doesn t help, but may hurt plant cells. As plants make glucose through photosynthesis, they may have enough stored, and didn t need more.
435 1435 Wacky Wifi: a study of wifi on plants Plant Sciences J Wi-fi is a big part of everyday life humans use wi-fi a lot. Wi-fi could have some effect on plants and, if so, what impact could it have on humans The experiment was designed to see if the distance of plants is changed, then the seeds farthest away from the router will grow the best. A room was set up with a Wi-Fi router in the center, with 20 plants various distances away from the router. The seeds were uniformly watered with 90ml of water when necessary and exposed to 10 hours of light. At the end of the experiment, the plants nearest to the router were very unhealthy or dead. While the control group was healthy and thriving, even though the height of the plants does not look that significant when comparing the two groups, the amount of living plants when compared to the control group was significant.
436 1436 Will plants maintain pH during Transpiration? Plant Sciences J A five day comparative pH study has been performed on three small plants from different habitats namely, Foliage, Ocimum and Viola for better understanding of the process of transpiration. This study show that each plant is unique in maintaining pH of their transpired water with different weather conditions. Experimental study confirmed that indoor plant, Foliage transpired neutral water compared to outdoor plants. This study further indicates that plants tend to transpire water with high pH to overcome faster rates of evaporations during sunny days with high temperature.
437 1437 Effects of Coffee Grounds on Plant Growth Plant Sciences J Background Chemical fertilizers result in a toxic buildup of chemicals and tend to wash away. Organic fertilizers are renewable, biodegrade, and environmentally friendly. Used coffee grounds provide phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and copper, release nitrogen into the soil as they degrade. Hypothesis If used coffee grounds act as a fertilizer instead of a store-bought inorganic fertilizer, then the plants will grow faster or at the same rate.Materials and Methods Eight tomato plants of the same height will randomly put in 4 groups. Group 1 received used coffee grounds UCG Starbucks coffee . Group 2 received store-fertilizer SF Miracle-Gro Shake n Feed . Group 3 received UCG and S-BF. Group 4 served as control. The Indoor Grow Lights YoYoMax are put 20 inches away from the plants. Plant height is measured with ruler level soil to the topmost part of the plant at the start and the end of the experiment. Results Plants in UCG group control group were both 30 cm and tallest. The plants in the combination group UCG S-BF were the smallest 2 cm .Conclusions Used coffee grounds helped the plants grow better than the store-bought fertilizer. Used coffee grounds added to store-bought fertilizer did not help the plants grow.
438 1438 Goldfish and Plant Growth Plant Sciences J Increasing world population and diminishing food resources puts emphasis on urgent need for eco-friendly, sustainable food production systems. Wheat is rich in iron, thiamin and folate, is one of the important staple foods in both developing and developed nations, but requires large fields to grow crops.Purpose of my experiment is to determine whether wheat plants can be grown rapidly in an aquaponics system, consisting of variable number of goldfish.Fish tanks are modified by inserting porous dividers to prevent fish from eating the plants. Plastic mesh sheet is fitted into one small section to use as the surface area for plants to grow. Same amount of water is used in tanks, and 1, 3 and 5 goldfish are used. Controls are no goldfish in tank and a pot with soil. All groups received same amount of daylight. Wheat seeds are placed on mesh surface or in controls. The height of the 5 plants is measured for 21 consecutive days, averaged and results are compared. Total dry weight of 5 plants group is also measured.Plants in tanks with one goldfish and three goldfish tallest have grown taller than the plants in the tank with five goldfish, suggesting that three goldfish generated optimal amount of fish waste converted to the nitrate, which likely supported the best growth among all the fish tanks and controls.In conclusion, this experiment demonstrates that wheat plants responded positively to the experimental growing conditions, which makes it possible to grow wheat in the aquaponics system.
439 1439 Algae Is The New Appetizer? Plant Sciences J The purpose of this project was to see if the growth algae can increase when adding an excessive amount of carbon dioxide in order to prevent global warming. There were 2 trials taken during the experiment. Each trial had three containers with a lid placed on top two to contain non-toxic, blue-green algae, and one to hold a mixture of yeast and sugar, which created a reaction to produce carbon dioxide. The lid of the yeast-sugar mixture was a hole that was later put through an aquatic airline tube. The tube then connected to a container of algae. Both ends of the tube were sealed with modeling clay. The third container with algae had minuscule holes poked through the lid do that way the algae would not pass out . The size of the algal growth was tested by using squares, and seeing how many the algae covered. The squares were made using a ruler and a black marker. The squares were then taped under the container. The blue-green algae was tested every day for three weeks. In total, the algae with excess CO2 covered 19 squares, and the average CO2 level carbon dioxide ended up covering only 15 squares. The data was analyzed and the conclusion was drawn, that when adding an additional amount of carbon dioxide if added to algae, it s growth rate will increase faster.
440 1440 Sunflower Water Drainage Plant Sciences J I m curious to see if the direction of the water drainage will affect the growth of a sunflower plant. The reason I chose this project is to experiment the effects of drainage, if any. By understanding how to better produce plants it will be a positive step towards our future. I have set up two plants to drain from the bottom and two plants to drain from sides, then recorded data for thirteen days. Through my research, drainage will influence plant growth. Per the data, drainage from the side seems to be the most effective way.
441 1441 Do Radish Seeds Like Coffee Grounds? Plant Sciences J Abstract The purpose of this project was to determine if coffee grounds have a positive effect on the growth of radish seeds. A total of forty comet radish seeds were planted equally in two identical individual plastic pots using 2000g potting soil for the first one but with 1500g potting soil mixed with 500g coffee grounds for the second pot. Each pot received the same amount of water and sunlight during the three week experiment. The sprouting , the average number and length of leaves and the average height of radish plants in each pot were measured and recorded every three days. At the end of the experiment, comet radish seeds planted in a soil mixed with coffee grounds showed a significant fast germination and sprouting with a slight higher number of plants compared with the plants in the plain soil pot. A slight increase in the length of the plants and leaves grown in the soil mixed with coffee grounds was also observed. The data was analyzed and the conclusion was drawn that mixing soil with coffee grounds for comet radish seeds accelerated the germination process as each of the three experimental trials showed a significant faster sprouting than the seeds in plain soil along with a slight improvement in the length of plants and leaves as well.
442 1442 Do Turnips need their morning coffee Plant Sciences J The purpose of this experiment was to test how coffee can affect the growth of turnips. If it can be proven that caffeine can help plants to germinate taller and stronger, then crop growers can use the experiment to their advantage. The hypothesis was that if 3 turnips are grown with coffee instead of water then they will grow 2 cm larger in diameter than 3 turnips that are grown using only water. Everyday from November 18,2019 to January 6, 2020 6 turnip plants were grown using either water or coffee. a group of 3 were grown using water and another group was grown using coffee All 3 pots were grown on a patio where they had sunlight but were not exposed to rain. The researcher found that the hypothesis was incorrect because the turnips grown with water largely outgrew the turnips that were grown with coffee. Water pot A had a diameter of 11.4 cm, water pot B had a diameter of 12.7 cm, and water pot C had a diameter of 11.9 cm. The turnips grown with coffee were significantly smaller than the turnips grown with water. Coffee pot A had a diameter of 9.1 cm, coffee pot B had a diameter of 8.6 cm, and coffee pot C had a diameter of 11.1 cm. In the experiment the researcher found that caffeine had a negative effect on the turnips that were tested. Though all turnips were able to germinate those, grown with coffee were much smaller.
443 1443 Germinating Bean Seed Plant Sciences J Introduction This investigation was to identify the best liquid to germinate the seeds. If 15 bean seeds are grown using 5 different liquids Sprite,water, salt water, milk, vinegar , then the seed grown with Sprite will grow the tallest.Procedures Used 5 bean seeds are grown using 5 different liquids each liquid is used to grow 1 seeds . The same liquid is used to grow each seed. Everyday measure the length of the plant and keep track of length on paper or online. Repeat 3 times to get accurate results. Data Water had an average height of 9 , Sprite had an average of 8 , and the rest of the liquids Salt water, Vinegar, Milk didn t work. Conclusion The results of this project were that water germinated a bean seed the best out of Sprite, Water, Salt Water, Vinegar, and Milk. Sprite germinated a bean seed the second best and the rest didn t work. Some other results of my project was that the three seeds grown with water sprouted first, but two of my sprite plants grew at a faster rate. Although Sprite grew faster, water had a higher average height. If we were finding results based off speed, I would say Sprite grew my plant the fastest.
444 1444 Fertilizer vs Components Plant Sciences J In the 4 weeks of measuring, we used red pepper plants to test caffeine, eggshells, and, while all had fertilizer, one plant had only fertilizer. The plant that only had fertilizer grew half an inch every week, starting from 9 inches. The plant with eggshells also grew half an inch every week, except that it grew to 8 1 2 inches from 6 1 2 inches discovered at week 2 . In contrast, the plant that had caffeine was 4 inches before it wilted after the first week passed by, and we suspect that the weather was one of the reasons for this.
445 1445 QUEEN BEAN: THE ANALYSIS OF GREEN BEANS GROWN USING HYDROPONICS Plant Sciences J World hunger is a huge problem, and as much as 25,000 people each die due to long-term starvation and hunger problem. One of the primary reasons for the shortage of food is due to the depletion of soils and conditions to grow food conventionally. A problem that hydroponics cans solve. In this experiment, the researcher tested which hydroponic solution would best maximize the crop yield in green beans. In doing so, the researcher grew green beans from seeds in Rockwool and then transplanted them into one of two systems. One system contained solution A, and the other had solution B. Every day, the researcher measured each plant s height, number of leaves, and color along with the pH, nitrate, nitrite, total chlorine, total alkalinity, and total hardness levels of each system to ensure it was at its optimum conditions for the plants. In the end, solution B had an average plant growth of 3.7 centimeters while solution A s was 3.1 centimeters. Additionally, the plants grown in solution B produced more leaves in comparison to solution A. Plants grown in both systems had a healthy green color throughout the experiment. Based on the researcher s findings, it was concluded that solution B benefited the green beans more than solution A did. In the future, this hydroponic system with this particular solution can be scaled up and can aid in solving the devasting problem of world hunger.
446 1446 What Non-Toxic Material Will Remove Algae the Fastest? Plant Sciences J The purpose of this experiment is to determine the best non-toxic material for removing algae with efficiency and speed. Non-toxic materials may be a better solution for algae growth because chemical algae removers can be very harmful. The hypothesis states that if barley straw is used to get rid of the algae, then it would remove the algae the fastest because it releases natural chemicals that inhibit algae growth when it decomposes.In this experiment, the scientist has split algae-infested water into seven jars each with one hundred squares on the bottom for measuring algae growth. Then, every five days, each of the seven non-toxic materials were added to each of their designated jars and observations such as the decrease in the amount of algae were also made. This experiment is observing which non-toxic material removes the most algae in the shortest amount of time.In conclusion, the best non-toxic solution for removing algae was vinegar for it had 47% of the algae remaining without coloring the water deeply. Therefore, the hypothesis was disproved as barley straw was not the most successful. This information will be useful to many people from those who own fish tanks to those who have their own ponds. People will be able to get rid of the algae without using so many harmful chemicals. This information may even help researchers find improved solutions for managing algae overgrowth without harming the environment as this experiment has shown which non-toxic solutions were better than the others.
447 1447 Does aloe vera keep fruits fresh Plant Sciences J People are always grossed out when they look into the fridge and find molded fruits and vegetables after a week since they were bought. Most people would like to look in the fridge after a week and find no molded fruits and vegetables. The reason the chosen project is because families like mine love fruits and vegetables and aloe vera can preserve them from molding. The way fruits and vegetables are bought end up being a waste of money However, if you have fruits and vegetables covered with the aloe vera plant you are covered to save money instead of wasting money. When you look into your fridge and see the fruits and vegetables you bought you don t want them wasted so use aloe vera to preserve it. The approach of investigating does aloe vera preserve strawberries from molding was having both strawberries in containers testing aloe vera covered strawberries, and regular strawberries. While checking everyday after a week and two days normal strawberries were already molded. However aloe vera covered strawberries had no mold. This experiment resulted in aloe vera covered strawberries not molding as fast as normal strawberries, however all five regular strawberries had mold on them. Only one out of four aloe vera covered strawberries had a little bit of mold. In conclusion aloe vera does preserve strawberries. This experiment contributed to the area because when you eat fruits you don t want them molded, and wasted. Objectives were met because you don t have to worry about mold.
448 1448 Nature's Little Trackers Plant Sciences J Nature s Little Tracking Devices Pollen This experiment tested the effects of area type and shoe material type on pollen attraction. The scientist made an educated guess that the shoe type textile tested in a forest area would attract the most pollen. In this experiment, the scientist went to 3 area types beach, forest, and grassy. The scientist then took a pair of shoes and walked for five minutes in the shoes in the area. Next, the scientist put the pair into a bag to avoid cross-contamination and repeated that for 5 pairs of shoes per area type and shoe type combination. Then using a separate piece of tape for each shoe pair, the scientist blotted the shoes with tape and counted how many pollen grains were found under the microscope and compared the averages of pollen for each shoe material type and area type combination to see which combination collects the most pollen. The data showed that shoe material types tested in a beach area collected no pollen. It showed that for all area types the rubber collected the least amount of pollen, then synthetic, then leather, and textile. When comparing the individual numbers for each combination, leather shoes in a forest area collected the most pollen. The scientist s hypothesis was wrong, as leather shoes instead of textile shoes found in a forest area collected the most pollen. The knowledge learned in the scientist s experiment can be used to figure out which cases forensic palynology should be applied to.
449 1449 The Higher the pH the Better? Plant Sciences J My project to grow Perennial Ryegrass in the soil pH levels of 6.5, 7.0, or 7.5 was not just for fun but to find which soil pH ryegrass grows the tallest. This will ultimately lead to fuller and brighter green lawn quickly during the winter when the soil s pH is 6.5. People should consider caring about the work that I have done because this ryegrass requires minimal attention to produce an extravagant lawn. All that ryegrass needs to grow efficiently is daily sunlight and moist soil. First, I planted each of the fifteen pots with twenty ryegrass seeds and watered each pot daily. The ryegrass started to germinate and sprout out of the soil. Germination occurs in the first five to ten days for ryegrass. Each of the fifteen ryegrass pots were placed in an area where they could each receive an equal amount of sunlight. The ryegrass in the 6.5 pH soil sprouted on day seven. On day eight, the 7.0 pH soil ryegrass sprouted, and on day nine the 7.5 pH soil ryegrass sprouted. For the next four weeks, the ryegrass continued to grow taller and taller. The average growth of the ryegrass in the 6.5 pH soil was 7.42 cm. The average growth for 7.0 pH soil is 7.36 cm, and the average growth for 7.5 pH soil was 6.94 cm. These measurements led to the conclusion that the 6.5 pH soil is the optimal pH level to enhance Perennial Ryegrass growth advancing to a greener community.
450 1450 How Ferrofluids Affect Leafy Plants and Grains different than Water Plant Sciences J World hunger is a big problem on Earth that makes approximately 25,000 people die each day of hunger. This experiment was performed to help solve the problem of world hunger.For this experiment, leaf and grain-based plants were watered with water and a mixture of water and ferrofluid. This was to see if the mixture of water and ferrofluids had a greater positive effect on these plants. Results showed that the leaf-based plants fertilized with the mixture had a higher stem length than of the plant watered with simply water. Though the experiment showed that the grain-based plant fertilized by the mixture didn t grow at all, it can t safely be concluded that the plant didn t grow because of the mixture because the grain buckwheat is not a winter growing plant.Leaf- based plants should be watered with the ferrofluid-water mixture because of the results of my experiment showing that leaf-based plants fertilized with the mixture have a longer stem length than of the plants watered with just water. According to this experiment, many lives can be saved using this method of fertilizing plants.
451 1451 What duration of electricity causes bean seed germination the fastest? Plant Sciences J purpose of my experiment was to see the effects of different durations of electricity on seed germination. An electrical field was created for the seeds by placing a copper rod and a galvanized nail into water and connecting it to a 9-volt battery. The seeds were in the electrical field and taken out at the appropriate amount of time required for each group. After the seeds had the proper duration of electricity, the seeds were planted and every 24 hours data would be recorded of the experiment. The data was quite puzzling because in trial 1, the 60 minutes of electricity group Group E , germinated as one of the quickest, but control germinated at the same time as group E. Group E was germinating just as fast as any other normal seed. Similar results happened for trial 2.The results were inconclusive because there was not enough data to make a definitive answer.A source of error was possibly using a water electrical field which might have given group E a unfair advantage of having water seep through the shell of the seed. Another source of error was possibly the voltage was too high for these types of seeds to handle. For future experiments, there should be a shorter time interval you would record the data from 24 hours to 12 hours, try a different method of an electrical field, and lowering the voltage of electricity, which should give the seeds no unfair advantage.
452 1452 Various Composting Effects on plant growth Plant Sciences J This project was testing the effectiveness of composting. People have been wasting their time with non efficient compost, mainly because they don t really know what type of compost provides the best nutrients for their plants. The hypothesis was cow manure compost is going to be the most effective because it is high in nutrients such as Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium and the least effective would be the control soil because it doesn t have as many nutrients. A sunflower seed was planted into each of the 3 different types of compost, one with worms, one with cow manure and another with chemical fertilizer. A seed was also planted into regular soil. On August 26, 2019 the making of each individual compost was started,and finished on December 19, 2019. The same day 4 sunflower seeds were planted into each compost and the soil. Two weeks later the height of all 4 plants were recorded. The plant with the most growth was the one planted in cow manure and it grew to be 6.9 inches, the plant with the least growth was the plant planted with the worm compost and it grew only 6.2 inches in two weeks.
453 1453 Does Salt affect plant growth Plant Sciences J Salt is a dehydrator which soaks up any moisture or liquid it is in. We wanted to see how salt would affect the growth of a plant. Once we put the seeds in the soil we immediately put a solution of rock salt and water into two cartons to see how it affects the seeds before it grew into a seedling. The seeds in the cartoons with rock salt took a little more time to start sprouting Then when they grew a little bit we added 3 teaspoons of rock salt in one carton and 5 teaspoons of rock salt and the other carton. In the end the carton without salt grew perfectly fine, the carton with 3 teaspoons of salt wilted a lot and stunted the growth but did not completely die, the carton with 5 teaspoons of rock salt dried out too much and died. We sprayed salt water every 2 days to see the effect. We also added normal water before the salt water solution. Gardeners have been using salt water for a while now but you may be wondering for what they use it to kill weeds. A natural solution to kill the stubborn weeds in your garden.
454 1454 Give Me Space! Plant Sciences J The purpose of this project is to study the relationship between the spacing of plants and what height they end up growing to. Plant spacing directly impacts the growth of plants. Planting plants too close affects the health of the plant and stunts growth, and planting too far apart affects production. Growth and production affects gardeners and farmers worldwide. Spacing plants properly will give plants a taller fuller look, which means the plant is healthier. Many home gardeners can benefit from proper spacing because it makes them aware of how they space their plants for a better garden, but famers will benefit the most. With this experiment farmers will be able to produce healthier crops to sell to others or harvest for themselves. The main problem being studied is Does plants spacing affect plant growth In order to test the hypothesis, that if plants are planted further apart then they will grow taller than plants grown closer together, plants were planted at different spacings and the heights were recorded every 5 days for 40 days. As a result the plant 601mm apart furthest apart grew taller than the plants 25mm closest together apart.
459 1459 Smart Glasses Robotics & Intelligent Machines J The purpose of my project is to help people stay on task and not get distracted. In this project, one will connect the Smart Glasses to a phone. This way any message that comes on their phone will display on the Smart glasses screen. The device is made so it can easily come off anyone s glasses when you don t need it. The Smart Glasses is compact and uses an Arduino pro mini 3.3v 328p to use less power and work for a longer time. The Smart Glasses can connect to anyone s phone if it is in less than 35ft of range and if Bluetooth is on, so they won t have to worry about finding their phone for checking messages.
460 1460 Robotics Maneuvering and Tasking Robotics & Intelligent Machines J Robotics is an important aspect of life, changing the way we see things or telling us what possibilities we have. Whether mankind is going into outer space or digging to the Earth s core ! This robotics project shows just that. This endeavor can help us see whether or not robots can do endless things.Objectives Hypothesis This project was to see how and if a robot made from scratch and with simple tools can complete a series of required tasks made by a complex computer program.Methods Procedure Robot designs were researched and analyzed. Then the robot was built from the designs out of small LEGO pieces from a Mindstorms EV3 kit. After completed, the brain Brick of the robot is plugged into a computer and then programmed using the computer s different functions. Next, the programs are downloaded into the brain Brick of the robot. Finally, the program is run to do the required tasks on the course.Results After the robot completed the tasks, it was shown that the robot executed the program in the correct sequence of events.Conclusions This project shows that programmed robots can do almost anything possible. When a program is downloaded into a brain , or a computer component of a robot, the robot will run that program in the sequence it was told to execute it in. All it takes is a great mind to come up with a creatively correct program and robots are set to do anything that it is told to do.
461 1461 The EmBot 2.0 Robotics & Intelligent Machines J In this project, my entire goal was to create a better version of my previous year s robot design. I researched companies drone designs, and how this problem could be used in real world situations. I then used my problem as an influence when designing multiple drafts, that were each a better version compared to last year s design. Then I overlooked my design drafts and decided which design concept I would continue with. I choose a sleek design, that improved the components that were flawed. I came out with my final design, an efficient, well thought of design that I believe is a better version, the Embot 2.0.
462 1462 K9 - Robotic Dog to test Prosthetic Leg Robotics & Intelligent Machines J I decided to create a robot to test dog prosthetic legs, because dogs lose limbs, and if a robot could test prosthetic leg designs, it would speed up the process of getting injured dogs prosthetics. I researched about it, modified and built a robotic dog design. Then I coded my different walking tests, combined a leg design with an attachment piece and 3-D printed that as the prosthetic. After that I tested the robotic dog with all four legs, with a missing leg, and with the prosthetic. I believe that this worked because, although the prosthetic was not better than all four legs, it was certainly better than no leg. I also succeeded because I was able to test a prosthetic, and that was my goal.
463 1463 Drone takeoff and landing on different terrains Robotics & Intelligent Machines J My experiment s goal was to find out what surface drone take off from and land on best. In the experiment, the drone took off from a representation of either ocean, mountain, grassland, desert, tundra, and ice biomes. the drone used an automatic takeoff and land function, which took human bias from the equation. These are the times, in seconds, for each surface Ocean takeoff, 9.57 landing, 3.19, total,12.76. Mountains takeoff, 3.81, landing, 4.79 total, 8.6. Grassland takeoff, 3.94 landing, 3.51 total. Desert takeoff, 2.95 landing, 5.15 total, 8.1. Tundra takeoff, 2.93 landing, 3.5 total, 6.43. Ice takeoff, 3.85 landing, 2.69 total, 6.54. This research could be useful for companies like zipline, which delivers blood quickly with drones. Using this research, these companies could be more energy efficent by only using larger, more power consuming drones on the most difficult of terrains. In conclusion, the easiest terrain to operate on was tundra, with a total time of 6.43 seconds, and the most difficult terrain was ocean, with a total time of 12.76 seconds.
464 1464 Image processing algorithm for autonomous driving: A Cheaper Alternative to LiDAR Robotics & Intelligent Machines J Autonomous driving drastically improves car safety, but one of the key components used for measuring the distances between cars, LiDAR, is very expensive. This project demonstrated an alternative approach to autonomous driving. Two cameras took pictures as they were moving toward the expected collision point in increments. The pedestrian marker was moving perpendicular to the cameras view toward the expected collision point in increments. Then, in each picture, the distance between the pedestrian marker and the expected collision point was measured. The distances between the two markers were substituted in an equation that produced the distance from the cameras to the expected collision point. The procedure was repeated, changing the independent variable, the distance between the cameras. Then the calculated distances from the cameras to the expected collision point were compared to the theoretical distances. Percent error was calculated to determine accuracy. It was concluded that the greater the distance between the cameras, the more accurate the distances were. This experiment demonstrated that the use of cameras can be used with almost equivalent distances as LiDAR, but with a significantly lower cost.
465 1465 The Drone Delivers Robotics & Intelligent Machines J A drone is a kind of aircraft also known as an unmanned aerial vehicle because it does not need a pilot on board to fly it. A person on the ground flies a drone,and some drones are guided by remote control while others are guided by computers. Flown by people thousands of miles away, drones are available in different sizes and shapes. Many have cameras that take pictures or record video. The U.S. military has used drones since the mid-1990 s. Since early 2013, many people have started flying drones for fun. So many people own drones that the government had to create rules for flying them. This project is important because unmanned aerial vehicles can be used to deliver medicine to an area that is affected by a catastrophic event. We can deliver medicine and other things in an impoverished or catastrophic area, a drone can be used without long term human harm using geographic location and global satellite positioning as accuracy measures like Amazon delivery technology. to deliver medicine or other things for people in need in order to give the people medicine in a catastrophic event. Our findings did not meet our desired project goal, our hypothesis was nullified due to the fact that the distanced covered by the drone using a smaller object, such as a pencil, showed size and battery capacity may not be a factor in the use of drones in delivering medicines to desolate areas.
466 1466 Underwater ROV Robotics & Intelligent Machines J This is the link to our detailed engineering notebookhttps open id 1c9zBFaHrRKsljjeF1PJGhtIJfYp5mrwo Here is the link to underwater clean up ideas using a robothttps open id 192n5NOn5Pt8UB h63DjhBJ1eVudwGUEs
467 1467 Bristle Bots Robotics & Intelligent Machines J My project is about Bristle Bot. Bristle Bots are tiny little robots that vibrate around. My original project was if slanted or straight bristles were faster. I tested if the hardness of bristles made it go faster. My hypothesis was correct it did.
477 3002 A Solution with Mucin Animal Sciences S The medical masters of society can reattach limbs and transplant new organs.Yet the vehicle for all of this is the human body s ability to recover. This project seeks a solution to supercharge wound recovery with snail mucin. This project tested the regeneration speed and health of planaria when exposed to snail mucin.It was hypothesized that any amount of mucin would stimulate faster regeneration due to its unique mixture of nutrients and minerals.5 planaria were tested in each group of 0ml mucin,10ml mucin,20 ml, and 30ml.After 10 days results were clear.Planaria in the 20ml and 30ml groups saw less regeneration, less activity and were less healthy. They did not grow to full size and were negatively impacted by mucin. 10ml paralleled the control 0ml in that both groups regenerate back to full size, 10mm-15mm and saw much more activity than other groups.It may seem that mucin caused negative impacts to planaria. However, post-project research shows that this is a result of PH changes the mucin caused which were unprepared for and unpredicted.This caused the negative side effects to the planaria in 20 and 30ml groups. Overall, it seems that planaria did not respond positively to large amounts of mucin, but 10ml, a small amount did not negatively impact the planaria and even allowed them to outperform the control in some cases. If society wants to accelerate medicine, we need a way to supercede the basic biology of wound recovery.Although it may require more experimentation, that solution is snail mucin!
478 3003 Affects of the molarity of nitrate ions on daphnia Animal Sciences S For this project, our question was, How does the molarity of nitrate ions affect D. magna We derived this question based on our last year s results. Last year, we tested how fertilizer affects D. magna and we concluded the fertilizer with 5 grams of 15% nitrogen was killing all of them completely while the 5 grams of 5% nitrogen only killed half. The 15 grams had a concentration of 128.2 mg L, while the 5 grams only had a concentration of 10.6 mg L. From these results, we were able to manipulate the concentration with the 5% nitrogen of fertilizer because we wanted to find their exact dying point. However, we concluded these habitats with 1.25 grams, 2.5 grams and 3.75 grams did not have a significant difference in the heart rate.
479 3004 Music and Mice Animal Sciences S This project is about the memory affect that music has on mice. I choose this project because I am a musician and I wanted to see if there was a connection between music and mouse memory. The hypothesis was that the mice that listen to classical music would have the most reduced maze time. For my project, I bought nine mice and divided them into three groups. I let them run through a maze and recorded their times. For the next seven days each group would listen to their assigned music. Classical, rock, or no music. After the seven days they ran through the maze again and the times were recorded. The results showed that the mice who listened to classical music had the most reduced time. On average, the classical group ran the maze twice as fast as they did before. The rock group ran the maze 1.65 times faster and the control group ran the maze 1.5 times faster. With all the information, I was able to conclude that my hypothesis was supported and that classical music has the biggest positive affect on mouse memory.
480 3005 Who Rules, Who Drools: Dog Intelligence Animal Sciences S Who Rules, Who Drools Dog Intelligence Our project is about testing the intelligence in different dog breeds to see which one is the smartest. Dog intelligence is important because it attends to the dogs advanced memory skills, and adaptive intelligence. If we test the intelligence of different dogs breeds, then we think the Beagle breed will be the smartest overall out of the breeds tested. For the first test, allow the dog to smell and get familiar with the towel. Once comfortable, place it over the dog s head. For the next test, place two or three empty buckets or cups upside down in a row. While your subject watches, place a treat under a cup. Mix up the cups and see if the subject picks the correct one. Finally, underneath a piece of furniture place a treat within their paw s reach. Time each objective and record on a piece of paper. After our project was completed we gather our data and notice that all the breeds won at least 1 category. The Beagles were the smartest in the 2nd objective which was seeing if the dog can find the hidden treat using their sense of smell and their ability to retain information. The Shih Tzus won in the 1st objective which was getting a towel of their head using adaptive intelligence, and the Poodles had the shortest reaction time in the 3rd category which was testing their problem solving skills. The data at the end did not support our hypothesis.
481 3006 Effects of Vaping Components on the Physiologic and Cardiovascular Parameters of D. magna Animal Sciences S Despite the detrimental side effects associated with vaping, 37.3% of high schoolers have still been reported to vape. In order to further deter school-age students from vaping, studies are being conducted to investigate the effects vaping has on the body. This project aimed to investigate the effects of vape pod components on the cardiovascular system. Daphnia magna were utilized as a model organism due to their status as an indicator species, which are organisms that provide information about how a population will react to the exposure of chemicals. In this experiment, Daphnia magna were exposed to nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerine, and benzoic acid. Additionally, a control group was a part of the experimental setup. Over the course of 3 days, the heart rates, heart size, and mortality for each sample of Daphnia magna were observed to provide conditions that indicated the cardiovascular system s health. Heart rate and heart size were both recorded using the online applications Tracker and SketchandCalc, respectively, to ensure accuracy of data. The groups exposed to vape pod components were found to have abnormal heart rates, smaller heart sizes, and a greater rate of mortality for the populations in comparison to the control group. An ANOVA was conducted of the different heart rates and mortality for each component s group and were both found to be statistically significant. This project indicates that vaping does have underlying implications on the cardiovascular system that could be harmful to one s health.
482 3007 TEM Microscopy of Strepsiptera Caenocholax fenyesi Antenna Chemoreceptors and Nervous System Animal Sciences S This project is asking the fundamental question of, what do the chemoreceptors of the parasitic insect, Strepsiptera, antennae look like on a cellular level, and how are these interrelated with its nervous system This is an important question because, it is unknown how male Strepsiptera find females mates, but it is highly speculated to be related to the pheromones females release, and as an extension of last year s project, it is known there are many chemoreceptors on the antennal structures. By utilizing an extremely high-powered Transmission Electron Microscope, multiple specimens of Caenocholax fenyesi were chemically preserved, sliced using a diamond knife, and observed. Cellular observations were made of the antenna, and dendrites and axons were found in neuron bundles close to receptor structures within sensory caps. This means these receptors act as messages to the brain, and this could have to do with the males direction and location of females. This unprecedented project utilizes high-powered microscopy rarely applied to this insect family in order to gain a cellular understanding of the function of the antenna and adult males, and it greatly contributes research to this poorly studied insect.
483 3008 Testing the Effect of Light and Sound on Daphnia magna to Extrapolate the Effect on the General Invertebrate Population Animal Sciences S Annually, 100,000 sea creatures die as a result of various factors, from oil spills to plastic ingestion. To determine the effects of sound and ultraviolet radiation as potential lethal factors on aquatic invertebrates, Daphnia magna were exposed to different modes of these pollutants. The two frequencies 128 Hertz and 256 Hertz were played for 5 seconds, twice weekly, in their respective groups and the final group was exposed to ultraviolet light for 12 hours daily. The temperature, turbidity, and the number of invertebrates alive were measured twice weekly. After the five-week trial period, the average mortality of D. magna in each group, ranked from greatest to least was the following control, 256 Hz, 128 Hz, and UV flashlight. The data suggests that ultraviolet light has the worst effect on marine invertebrate survival rates. Furthermore, lower frequencies had a greater negative effect on aquatic invertebrates life spans. The data and results provided can be instrumental in raising awareness about the deadliness of ultraviolet radiation so regulation can be enforced on contributors to further irreversible expansion of ozone layer holes, a barrier between the sun s harmful ultraviolet radiation and Earth s inhabitants. The data gathered concerning certain frequencies effect can promote laws against ship propellers and seismic airgun surveys carried out by petroleum companies both release immense amounts of sound. Possible extensions include placing one group under natural sunlight to represent the natural environment more accurately as well as testing other aquatic invertebrates to see how widespread the trends from this study are.
484 3009 Cats Under The Influence Animal Sciences S The weight of indoor animals, such as cats, seem to increase negatively due to the lack of movement and need to provide for themselves. This is because they are provided the necessities to survive. This experiment used the process of observation to see the effects of the herb, Catnip, on the activity levels, food intake, and the amount of sleep the cats partake in. My hypothesis states, if catnip is given to the cats then the cats will be more active, eat less, and sleep more often.Throughout the process, I separated the testing time in half, giving me one week to observe the cats without catnip and the other week to observe the cats with catnip. Everyday for two weeks I would begin the process at 7am with a bowl of food and water and end the process at 7pm with the same portions. I observed the actions of the cats regularly throughout the day making sure to write down the info I collected. In conclusion, the activity of the cats seemed to increase from a few minutes to nearly an hour while the food intake increased dramatically from nearly half a bowl to leaving an empty bowl almost every afternoon. The cats seemed to keep their sleeping schedule near 5-7 hours daily, keeping the data rather close in number. Thus leaving my hypothesis nearly true. Significantly, this process helps feline owners better understand the effects of catnip on their pets and how to use the herb efficiently.
485 3010 For the Love of Hustle, Hairbrushes, and Heartbeats Animal Sciences S There are three choices give up, give in or give it all you have! This is my motto in caring for my horses because they have the same choices and hardly ever disappoint! To keep the horses happy and healthy is the objective. When they give their all, it makes you want to do the same! Therefore, when they are ridden or exercised, it is important that they are brought back to a state of calm. My hypothesis is that horses can be more quickly calmed when groomed after exercise. To understand how grooming or brushing a horse after activity can affect their wellbeing, I first took the regular heart rate of three horses using a stethoscope. I then had them walk and jog on a lunge line. Afterwards, I took their heart rate again. I repeated the first step, but after they exercised for three minutes, I brushed them for three more minutes. I also walked them around the arena between each trial so they could get back to their normal resting heart rate. Their normal resting heart rates bpm were all similar. They ranged from thirty-two to forty-four bpm and were in increments of four. Their heart rate after exercising ranged from fifty-two to sixty bpm and were also in increments of four. Their heart rate after exercising with brushing varied between thirty-six and forty bpm. This experiment reassured me that grooming your horse after an activity is a good way to relax them and bond with them, too.
486 3011 Epigenetics In Ladybugs Animal Sciences S Abstract My project is on epigenetics epigenetics is the study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than the alteration of the genetic code itself. The reason I chose to do this process is because in theory the epigenetics in ladybugs can be the same as the epigenetics in humans. What I did with in procedure was, I got three ladybug enclosures and I put 10 ladybugs in each enclosure. In one enclosure I overfed the ladybugs, the next one I fed normally and the last one I overfed. I took the average weight of the 1st generation and terminated them with boiling water. The 2nd I fed all of the enclosures a normal amount of food. After they became adults, I took the average weight. What I found was that the enclosure that was overfed and had the largest average weight in the first generation, had the lowest average weight in the 2nd generation. The opposite could be said for enclosure that was under fed in the 1st generation and fed normally in the 2nd, where the first generation had the lowest average weight and the 2nd generation had the highest average weight. Which was almost the exact situation that I said was happening in my hypothesis.
487 3012 A Cost-Effective, Sensitive, and Specific Assay for the Detection of Avian Rotavirus and Picornavirus and A Retrospective Analysis of Avian Enteric Disease in the United States Animal Sciences S Avian-rotavirus-and-picornavirus-are-among-the-leading-causes-of-gastrointestinal-illnesses-in-poultry-species-around-the-world, and-therefore, entail-major-economic-loss-for-the-global-livestock-industry. Conventional-diagnostic-methods, due-to-their-high costs and equipment requirements, have been-unable-to-curb-this-loss. Hence, the-goal-was-to-utilize-highly applicable molecular-techniques, namely, Reverse Transcription Polymerase-Chain-Reaction RT-PCR , to-develop-a-sensitive, specific, and-cost-effective-diagnostic-assay-for-Avian-rotavirus-and picornavirus. To-ensure-maximum-coverage-of-viral-strains, RT-PCR primers were designed from all published sequences of the viruses. Conserved regions of the sequence alignments were manually searched for potential primer sites based on predefined primer design-criteria-that-emphasized high genome binding capability and safeguarding against mispriming misamplification. Positive-and-negative-control-samples-of-each-virus whose-viral-RNA-was-extracted-via-a-modified-silica-membrane-spin protocol that were combined with the primers and other RT-PCR reagents underwent standard RT-PCR thermal cycles. Analysis of the initial RT-PCR products on a 1% agarose gel provided evidence of non-specific amplification and mispriming to correct this, an extensive full-factorial experiment-in-which-primer-concentrations, annealing temperature, and-extension-time-were altered against-one-another-was-conducted. Eventually, the RT-PCR protocol that yielded the best results up to 89% sensitive and 86% specific was validated by testing with poultry farms in the Midwest found a 42% decrease in the wait time for diagnostic results and a 31% decrease in overall costs and was used to screen 980 samples of enteric disease cases from 20 US states 69.9% positive for picornavirus, 43.9% positive for rotavirus, 30.6% positive for both viruses, and 17.3% negative for both viruses . Phylogenetic analyses made possible by Sanger-deoxy sequencing of positive samples and examination of data isolated by geographic region offered valuable insight into many of the viruses most important characteristics, such as variance and patterns of spread, which could be key to the development of new treatment strategies, and, in conjunction with the assay, could stimulate major advancement of the livestock industry.
488 3013 Out of the top 20 best seller for adult dry dog food at PetSmart, which one obtains the correct and right amount of nutrients for a healthy balanced adult dog diet? Animal Sciences S My investigation was to research and find out which one of the 20 best adult dog foods sold at PetSmart reach the correct and right amount of nutrients, for a healthy balanced adult dog diet.The purpose of this investigation is to prevent any possible future diseases in adult dogs due to a lack of the necessary nutrients. This will be beneficial to the dog himself as well as the owner because it will avoid future expenses on veterinary bills, due to the consequences of not having the necessary nutrients. For example some nutrients like Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids are not approved as necessary nutrients by the AAFCO Association American feed control officials even though they are crucial for the dogs health. Omega 3 fatty acids are recommended by veterinarians due to their inflammatory properties and how they help absorb vitamins and process hormones. In addition to this, the omega 3 and 6 fatty acids contain a substance called DHA and EPA which have been shown to help in brain disorders like canine cognitive dysfunction which is common in adult dogs.
489 3014 What does calcium do to sea-monkeys Animal Sciences S Our purpose for doing this project was to see the effect of calcium on sea life. We just wondered what type of effects it could have not knowing if it would be good or bad we just wanted an answer. The problem was what effect would putting calcium in water with brine shrimp would it have on the hatching process. for the procedure you put flexible airline tubing into the rigid airline tubing, and connect it to the air pump. After that you would want to fill up the water bottle with 27.04oz of water. In the water you would put a pinch of baking soda and a teaspoon of rock salt. Then put a lamp next to it, turn on the lamp, and turn on the air pump before putting in the brine shrimp eggs. Repeat the process but before putting in the brine shrimp, put in the calcium. The end result was that the eggs hatched faster with the calcium.
490 3015 Fungus No More: A Study on the Correlation between Household Fungi Deterrents and Earthworm Behaviors Animal Sciences S My parents love gardening, and because of that , I am exposed to interesting things other people might pass by. When I saw a snail crawling on a rotten piece of okra, I was intrigued and wanted to know what was drew the snail to bad okra. Through my research, I learned about how snails farm fungus. I thought that this would be an interesting project and I was rather excited. Once the reality of trying to order snails hit me, I realized that it would be easier to experiment with a decomposer I knew that was accessible and easy to work with- the earthworm! I decided to keep the same overall model of the project by keeping the same independent variables, however I still made some major practical changes because of my time constraints. The experiment supported my hypothesis and produced interesting test results. If I am to do this project again, I would definitely allocate more time in this project, do shorter trial times, and try different household deterrents to see what impact they have on the earthworms. I would like to try this experiment with worms, but only if there was a way to legally order a bulk amount for a fair price. My project results are beneficial to farmers and home gardeners who are wondering about which safe product they can put on their plants to keep it away from being attacked by fungus.
496 3021 Grades' Effect on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Behavioral & Social Sciences S Why do people learn Are they motivated to learn for a grade, or to satisfy their inner curiosity Does test anxiety affect their motivation to do so As this study examined the answers to those questions, it sheds light on the crucial roles of motivation, extending from extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and introjected regulation when one performs well due to pressure or guilt and identified regulation recognizing importance in developing a specific behavior. The analysis conducted a survey of questions mainly regarding motivation, test anxiety, and grades. It was given to 131 high school students, 28 high school teachers, and 23 high school parents from selective samples in the United States to assess different perspectives of the responses further. After four weeks of collecting data, it was further analyzed. One Chi-square test was used to determine a possible association between grades and motivation, and the other between test anxiety and motivation. While the results of the first test did not provide enough statistical evidence to support a relationship between grades motivation, the relationship between test anxiety and motivation did. The results allow the null hypothesis that there is no association between test anxiety and motivation to be rejected. The outcomes suggest that the grades that a student makes will not affect their motivation, but their test anxiety might. With around 16% to 20% of American teens currently experiencing test anxiety, there is a reasonable fear of a decrease of intrinsic motivation, overall affecting how human beings learn.
497 3022 Efficient Breaks: Cognitively Challenging Tasks Versus Relaxing Recovery Tasks to Maximize Productivity Behavioral & Social Sciences S Many individuals mindlessly take breaks without thinking about the effectiveness of different breaks, such as a relaxing break versus a challenging one. A study was conducted in which 101 participants were given a maximum of ten minutes to solve ten anagrams, before undergoing a five-minute break of solving a sudoku puzzle or playing a video game before doing another set of ten anagrams. The control group was outlined where participants did not take a break between the tasks. Productivity was indicated by an increase in correctly answered anagrams and a decrease in completion time between the two sets of anagrams. A t-test was conducted on the completion time in anagram sets between the sudoku break and the control found significance with a p-value of 0.00000002081. This suggests that cognitively challenging tasks result in a shorter completion time of the original task with the same performance as the differences in the anagram sets between the control and sudoku were not significant. The t-test conducted in both completion time and anagram scores between the control and video game was not statistically significant with p-values greater than 0.05. This implied that taking a video game or a relaxing recovery task had the same effect of taking no breaks. These results can be applied from students to individuals in the workforce, to maximize the amount of time one has in their day by choosing similarly cognitively challenging breaks to reduce the completion time of the original task.
498 3023 Night Time Behavioral & Social Sciences S My project tests people s perception of time in a light and dark environments. This could help students with procrastination and time management based on how time affects them. The test I conducted to do this placed subjects in a room with no way to tell time, then recorded how much time they thought had passed at several intervals 30,1 30,3 00,5 00 . I repeated this in brightly lit and dark rooms. Then I compared their perception of time while in each environment. I found that generally subjects felt that less time had passed and had more accurate predictions while they were in a dark room than when they were in a light room. In light rooms the average percent error was +57% while in the dark rooms it was only +26%. If I was to continue this experiment I would expand my subject pool to test based on age, gender, and possibly race, and I would find more settings to test time perception in.
499 3024 Stroop Effect Behavioral & Social Sciences S The stroop effect is widely used in psychology and it is used to measure a person s selective attention capacity as well as their processing speed ability.The purpose of this project is to see if changing the shape of the word will have an affect on the stroop effect. My hypothesis is the semi-circled words will be harder to read than the other the two test. The participant will be handed a group of test and will only be allowed one time per test to read it as fast as they can with making minimal errors. Test one is a list of 15 words where the color matches the word. The second test is the same 15 words but the color of the word does not match the word. The third and forth test are just like the first two but are put in semi- circles. The results showed the females were faster when reading the 4 different test. My hypothesis was correct due the shape of the word will have an effect on the readers processing speed ability. From test 1 to test 3 for it on average took .15 seconds more to read the list of words when the shape of the word was changed. The same thing happened with test 2 and test 4. When the color of the word did not match the word there was a 4 second difference between those test. In conclusion the shape of the word has an effect on the stroop test.
500 3025 Remember Me? Behavioral & Social Sciences S Imagine you just spent two tensing hours frantically scribbling down lecture notes while your professor pronounces words you never knew existed in the English language. You are left dumbfounded as you cannot begin to understand how you are going to prepare for your upcoming exam. Been there I have. What if there is an easy way to retain information from your fifteen-page lecture notes on Brownian Motion and Stochastic Calculus with implementing one simple ingredient The answer is color! To test this proposition, I conducted an experiment to quantitatively measure and observe how color affects memorization. I tested sixty subjects by giving them each three minutes to read an article and three minutes to complete an identical fill-in-the-blank quiz afterward. The subjects were unaware that there were three different versions of the article one with black words Control , one with specific blue words Experimental 1 , and one with specific red words Experimental 2 . Each subject was given a version at random. The control group produced an average of 1.7 wrong answers, Experimental Group 1 produced an average of 1.45 wrong answers, and Experimental Group 2 produced an average of 1.35 wrong answers concluding that the control group produced the most wrong answers by at least 0.25 more.The effects of color on memorization can be used in the classroom, for marketing purposes, lecture notes, and in many other settings. Implementing the use of color will help improve students and consumers cognitive skills and aid in retaining information.
501 3026 Got Anxiety? The Effect of Anxiety on Age Behavioral & Social Sciences S The purpose this experiment was to test to see if, when compared with heart-rate and temperature, which age group experiences the most anxiety. This study is important as it reveals the trends through which anxiety may be predicated.To test this study, I obtained 66 test subjects ranging from ages 8 to 40, with two people per age. Through gathering them in an open park space, as confined spaces are prone to cause un-motivation and poor performance rates, I gave each of my participants five different trials of tests. These tests were mathematics based, as the specified subject is prone to cause the highest levels of stress. To gather and analyze my data, I used two methods of calculations, temperature and heart-rate. This helped strengthen my results and aided me in forming the clearest conclusions.Based on my results, my hypothesis was proven to be correct. My 15 to 18 year old age group had been affected with the most performance anxiety. This was followed by my 19 to 29 year old group, 30 to 40 year old group, 11 to 14 year old group, and 8 to 10 year old age range. The correlation between temperature and heart-rate helped conclude and strengthen the results of my research.By discovering trends in the global matter of anxiety through this study, future physicians will be able to concur with what steps must be taken in order to reduce ones chances of obtaining anxiety.
502 3027 The Relationship between Economic Status and Academic Success in the Houston TFA Debate Circuit Behavioral & Social Sciences S The experiment was a observinal survey of the Houston TFA debate circuit. It surveyed 348 debaters across 28 out of the 36 competing school in Houston to determine the relationship between economic status and win-rates within the Houston TFA Debate circuits. A strong positive relationship was established between economic status and win-rates p .0004, r2 .9982 , meeting the statistical standard for an affirmation of the hypothesis . Those of the highest economic cohort achieved a 142% higher win-rate than those of the lowest economic cohort. Thus, economic status is a philanthropic imperative to address for non-profit debate organizations.Outside of the context of the hypothesis two additional relationships were established. First, there is a statistically significant difference between low-income debaters in high-income debate programs and low-income debaters in low-income debate programs p .0021, r2 .979 . This indicates NPOs should focus aid on the basis of schools rather than individuals. Second, using the derivative of blocked regression lines it can be determined that there is a statistically significant difference between debate forms p x .0001, r2 x .999 , with the largest discrepancy of win-rates being in policy debate. This indicates NPOs should focus aid on policy debate rather than Public Form debate or Lincoln Douglass debate.
503 3028 Are Elders Getting The Proper Care They Want? Behavioral & Social Sciences S This project is to determine if elders are happy with the care they are receiving from nursing homes, assisted living, and family care. I wanted to do this project because I have been to many nursing homes and heard of caretakers neglecting and hurting our elders. My hypothesis was if elders are taken care of by their children, then I believe they will be satisfied.I first went to a nursing home that got fairly bad reviews and the administrator of that home denied my access to survey the residents. I then went to a family gathering and a Veterans of Foreign Wars facility to get the two other groups of my project.The concluded information I had gathered was that only 8 out of 30 of the elders under family and assisted living had no complaints of how their care takers were taking care of them four from family care, four from assisted living. Both forms of care had the same amount of social complaints but family had more cleaning complaints and assisted living had more cooking complaints.
504 3029 Negative Reinforcement Behavioral & Social Sciences S There are many different parenting styles, but how do these styles affect the children who grew up with them I hypothesized that a younger age group would respond better than an older age group to negative reinforcement based on different popular parenting styles when they were growing up. I administered surveys to two different age groups and the negative reinforcement was administered by a false difficulty score at the top of the survey. The younger age group actually did test better with negative reinforcement than without it. However, the older age group tested the same. But, because of a lack of data, I cannot be sure about the validity of the results of the older age group. In conclusion, this information would be helpful to teachers and parents because they could use this information to challenge their children and students.
505 3030 A News Perspective II: A News Frame Detection Program and the Effects of Frame-Awareness on Decision-Making and Emotional Responses as Reflected by Measures of Non-Metabolic Heart Rate Behavioral & Social Sciences S Rapid expansion of technology has resulted in the media becoming more prevalent in society, and the selective presentation, or framing, of information in the news industry to captivate and occasionally manipulate audiences has risen exponentially. This study aimed to understand the effects of awareness of frames on emotional responses and decision-making before programming a software to detect news framing.164 participants were asked to read articles about an event, with and without frame labels, of four frame types morality, which highlights emotional and tragic details, responsibility, which blames an external force for an event, economic consequences, which focuses on finances, and an unframed control.It was found that frame labels caused individuals to approach the articles with more skepticism and provide more neutral responses regarding the article subject however, individuals reported the emotions associated with each frame more frequently as well as more intensely as reflected by measures of non-metabolic heart rate.Additionally, a news-frame detection program was created. The program used lists of terms associated with the three frames to identify their presence in user-inputted online articles. A frame label was then displayed, informing readers of the present news frame and emotional response it could cause. Near-human accuracy was reached in frame-identification for tested articles.Although news consumers may not be able to detect framing, a simple, accessible computer algorithm can. Once aware of the selective presentation in the media they consume, individuals will be better equipped to make well-informed decisions decisions that will shape the global dynamic.
506 3031 Check Emotion Light: Delta T vs. Delta Emotion Behavioral & Social Sciences S We decided to create a check emotion light similar to a check engine light. We wanted to invent a device that can detect an emotional change by just being provided a persons skin temperature. First, we had to find out whether there was a connection between emotional changes and a fluctuation of your skin temperature. This would be used for a variety of people who are unable to express their emotional state such as mental health patients, autistic children, and other people who are incapable of stating their emotional state. The motivation for this project was that one of our researchers has experienced being a caregiver of a child with autism. His experience was frustrating, because he couldn t clearly understand how the child felt. While conducting our experiment we determined that there was a 0.400 degree Fahrenheit range for each emotion During future experiments, we will upgrade both the number of people we experiment on and our materials. This research could minimize frustration and improve time management for future facilities involving people who are not able to express their emotions fluently.
507 3032 Audio Paired with Textual Stimuli Affects Comprehension? Behavioral & Social Sciences S Does pairing audio with textual stimuli positively affect a student s initial comprehension The human mind has been a topic of interest to me for a long time now, and based on what I ve noticed in class, I wanted to see if listening to a piece of text being read aloud will allow for students to understand more of the material. Based on some background research, I hypothesized that if students had a peer read to them, then they will be able to score higher on comprehension tests. To test this, I gave three groups of six students the same test. What differentiates the groups is that one group will be the control group and read silently to themselves, another group will read the test out loud to themselves, and the last group will hear the test be read to them by a peer. The results of the test proved my hypothesis to be wrong and that the group that read aloud to themselves scored the best. In a school environment, students may have a hard time understanding what they read due to the lack of focus and or interest. I hope that through this project, I can portray to teachers that class read aloudscan benefit students by helping them connect with the topics in class and understand more of the general idea of the topics being discussed.
508 3033 Do You Hear That? Behavioral & Social Sciences S Our project is Do You Hear That. For this project we will be testing pareidolia. Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon in which the mind responds to a stimulus, usually an image or a sound, by perceiving a familiar pattern when none exists. We will test this by playing music and white noise at the same time and then slowly fade the music out so all that is left is white noise. This will show if white noise slows down reaction time.The reason we selected this topic is because it has recently become a topic of discussion in the science field. Since it has been causing such a commotion, we decided that we would like to test our hypothesis about it and help contribute to the science community. Recent studies similar to ours have shown that pareidolia often occurs when people are trying to multitask while listening to music. For example baseball players had more strikeouts while they were listening to music whereas they had less when they weren t. This shows that music that s similar to white noise can distract the brain and cause a delayed reaction.In conclusion there was no correlation between the reaction times with white noise and without. The males had faster reaction times then the females for both with white noise and without white noise. Overall white noise caused a significant delay in the perception of what you hear.
509 3034 The Effects of Different Sound Pitches on the Auditory System Behavioral & Social Sciences S Based on my research, people are more distracted by high pitched shrieking sounds and because of that, they notice or hear with different reaction times. This helped me support my view on the problem because I claimed that high pitch noises will affect the auditory and visual reaction times of a person. This project is important because it can help us understand how our auditory system impacts our visual system which can lead us to find out what distracts us most in the real world and what allows us to have faster reaction times. The project has a societal impact because there are distractions present almost everywhere around us and usually in classrooms as well. We tested the problem, The Effects of Different Sound Pitches on the Auditory System. We tested 50 people with an auditory reaction time test with low, high, and normal pitched sounds. The graph and the data show that the hypothesis was correct. If the pitch of the sound in the background is higher, then the person had a faster auditory reaction time. This is shown because, in the table, the ART s for the low pitch sounds were the highest meaning the participants had the slowest reaction time when that low pitch sound was playing in the background. All the objectives of the project were met.
510 3035 Testing the Effects of Alpha, Beta, and Delta Binaural Beats on Brainwaves and Memory by Implementing EEG and List Learning Evaluations Behavioral & Social Sciences S It is known that binaural auditory beat stimulation can impact cognitive functions, however there are limited studies on how these stimulants can affect memory. The effects of three binaural beats in the Alpha, Beta, and Delta frequency bands were studied utilizing electroencephalogram EEG and list learning evaluations to determine if auditory stimulation would cause a change in brainwave activities and if that change would relate to any increase in their list learning memory test score.Participants were exposed to 5 minutes each of 10 Hz Alpha, 20 Hz Beta, and 3.5 Hz Delta binaural beats. Before the first binaural beat exposure and after each listening session, a list learning test was conducted to measure any changes in memory capacity. Brain activity was measured throughout the experiment to observe a change in brainwaves during the stimulation. The list learning memory test was conducted to determine if there are any differences in the memory related to these brainwave changes. EEG recordings of the individuals were obtained by using a modified Mindflex headband and a HC-06 Bluetooth module. Results suggest that there was no significant list learning memory improvement after 5 minutes of binaural beat exposure in any of the tested frequencies. However, EEG results showed there were significant changes in brainwave activity after the Alpha, Beta, Delta binaural beat stimulation. The results encourage the development of therapies in which binaural beats are utilized as a means to promote behavioral responses due to brain frequency band changes.
511 3036 The Influence of Mobile Phone Factors on Teenagers' Academic Performance Behavioral & Social Sciences S Although past studies have concluded a correlation between cell phone use and grades, they have not specifically compared the ages at which cell phone users received their phone and the impacts on their grades going forward. This study aimed to determine the influence of the mobile phone on academic performance of various high school students. A survey was conducted to determine the ages at which participants obtained a cell phone and the pattern of their grades over time. The mean of the data collected was used to determine the average grade in each core subject for each time period. The differences in current averages between those who received cell phones during middle school and those who did not was organized into a bar graph. Using this information, a t-test was performed. Based on the sample study, it is apparent that there is a strong negative correlation between ownership of a cell phone and grades over time. First time cell phone owners who were in middle school grades 6-8 , were found to mostly have higher average grades than those who received cell phones prior to or after middle school. According to the t-tests conducted, the researcher concluded the difference between these two groups is not significant and can be due to chance alone. Since most people go through education and own a mobile phone in their lifetime, it is important for them to understand the consequences that come with owning a mobile phone and how it can affect their academic performance.
512 3037 A Schooling on Schools: Analyzing Differences in Education Perspectives Across Racial, Socioeconomic, and Education-based Demographics Behavioral & Social Sciences S Education level is one of the strongest predictors of a person s future socioeconomic status and social tolerance. Due to its prominence, controversy and debate about various topics in education manifest often. The following study sought to investigate how different demographic characteristics, including gender, race, and household income influence United States citizens opinions on thirteen topics in education such as school starting times and race-conscious college admissions. A survey was distributed to 131 participants, who were asked to rate their levels of agreement with thirteen statements regarding educational topics on a scale from one to ten and to report their gender, race, whether they were a high school student, and household income. After seven weeks of data collection, a combination of t-tests and one-way ANOVAs were utilized to identify statistically significant differences between groups. It was discovered that of the four tested independent variables, race had the greatest effect, with significant differences across races in opinions towards government funding, merit pay for teachers, weighted GPA systems, race-conscious college admissions and income-based admissions. Income and school demographic had less influence while gender did not affect respondent opinions at all. The broad expanse of distinct findings provides a multitude of phenomena to examine in greater depth in future continuations. This study also contributes a framework for demographic analyses in other subject areas and reveals valuable information about the general population s opinions on the issues inspected to inform both public districts and private institutions alike.
513 3038 Peoples thoughts about ocean littering Behavioral & Social Sciences S I was born in El Salvador but I was raised in San Luis Talpa where there is a beach. For the first six years of my life, I enjoyed being only 4 minutes away from the beach, being able to see turtles laying their eggs and seeing the eggs hatch. I remember my grandma telling me that she respects the ocean a lot and that I should too because its a big part of our life and that it can either give us life or end it. We know so little about the ocean and that can be terrifying but what s more terrifying is the thought of the ocean dying because of us and that will cause the deaths of not only the whole oceanic ecosystem but of humans too. We are killing the ocean coral reefs and its animal, we are destroying its beauty, we are contaminating it, we are killing the ocean. I want to know others thoughts about this issue so that I can try to make some change by informing them of the importance that the ocean has for everyone on this planet. We have depended on the ocean in so many ways and can be seen through history so we need to take care of it instead of killing it.
514 3039 Can the type of music affect the heart rate? Behavioral & Social Sciences S This project set out to see if the genre of music has any effect on a person s heartrate. The purpose of this experiment was to see if the type of music had any effect in a person s heart rate and that can correlate to why they listen to a certain genre of music at a certain time, for instance they may listen to a specific genre that speeds their heart rate so they can be motivated when they re exercising.The experiment consists of two participants listening to 4 different genres of music for a minute and a half and then have their heart rate measured after each song for a minute. They will listen to four genres of music rock and roll, jazz, trap, and blues. In this experiment the songs will be Sweet Child O Mine Guns N Roses , In A Sentimental Mood Duke Ellington , Sicko Mode Travis Scott , Every day I Have The Blues B.B. King . Then repeat the experiment three times. The control of this experiment was the heart rate of the person at the beginning when they had not listened to music. The results of the three trials were summed up and each genre of music got an average heart rate which was then compared to the control heart rate. As a result, trap was the genre that had the greatest change in heart rate while blues was the genre of music that had little to no effect on a person s heart rate.
515 3040 The Lie, the News, and the Post-Truth Society Behavioral & Social Sciences S This study aims to explore correlations between various demographics, emotional connections, trust in the media, and cognitive ability with a person s willingness to change their opinion. A survey asked about people s emotional connection to immigration and whether they thought the government should support the Blood Quantum or DACA immigration. Participants were then presented with articles and pictures supporting and challenging both types of immigration to see if their opinion changed at all. Questions pertaining to demographics, trust in the media, and cognitive ability ended the survey. The sample consisted of 31 participants after filtering out the invalid responses. I expected to find that those with a higher level of education, cognitive ability score, socioeconomic status, and trust in the media would have a higher variance in opinions those with lower emotional connection to immigration would hypothetically have more variance as well. The study found one weak positive correlation between participants variance in opinion and their attention to electronic surroundings. These findings suggest that people s attention and level of scrutiny on the internet is much different than in the workplace or at school
516 3041 The Power of Words Behavioral & Social Sciences S The purpose of The Power of Words is to determine if reading positive sayings overtime can change the outlook of the reader. The project idea stemmed from the insecurities of highschoolers, and the hypothesis is that positive affirmations overtime will change the outlook of the participant. The procedure involved giving a survey as a base to later determine improvement, then 30 days worth of positive affirmations, then giving the same survey to examine the improvements or non improvements. After 30 days it was found that the majority of participants improved their outlook. Out of question numbers 1-20, numbers 5,8,9,16, and 18 received 2-3 point improvement in the 1-5 scale. These questions had to do with self value, mental health, and happiness. Their positivity and view of themselves improved for the better. Giving them a higher self esteem and a more positive view of life. The Power of Words contributed to the benefit of mental health of teenagers.
517 3042 The effects of short term virtual reality engagement Behavioral & Social Sciences S One of the biggest hurdles to jump over for people that want to experience virtual reality, is the constant media attention it gets for ,supposedly , not being safe to use after a certain period of time. During my experiment I set out to test if these so called warnings were really justified. I began by prepping my test track which consisted of a hand eye coordination test, an eye sight visibility test, a speech test, and finally a 100 meter sprint. Soon after completion, I put on my Windows Mixed Reality Headset and dove head first into the virtual world for 1 whole hour. which is the recommended play time by most medial journalists . Right after I here my 1 hour alarm start blaring, I immediately remove the headset and start on the course. First with eye sight visibility, then eye coordination, followed by the speech test and the sprint. I repeated this process 4 different times with a hefty break in between each one at intervals of 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, and 5 hours and of course a control run before any of these . After every test run I made sure to record my results. My conclusion is that , while yes Virtual reality can definitely inhibit the ways in which you read, move and comprehend. It is minimal, and very short lasting. I only experienced discomfort after my 4 and 5 hour run, which is alot higher than the commonly tossed around 1 hour.
518 3043 Rewards or Punishments : Which Works Best Behavioral & Social Sciences S In my science fair project, I wanted to see whether people responded to a stimulus of Rewards, or to a stimulus of punishments better. I thought that If people are rewarded for doing the right thing, then they would be more inclined towards doing the right thing again. For my project, I rounded up a group of 10 subjects, split them into 2 groups of five, then I gave them a simple task drawing shapes, writing paragraphs, etc. , one group was rewarded for good work, while the other group was punished for bad work, Each group performed simple tasks three times, and for the most part, the rewarded group showed the most inclination towards doing better. However, in a study done with children, scientists had children drink a new soda. One group got no rewards or punishments, another group got rewarded for drinking the soda, and another group got accolades. The group who got rewards and accolades showed the best inclination towards drinking the soda again. However, when they redid the test after a few weeks, they found that the groups who received accolades and rewards did not like the soda as much as the first week, while the group that did not receive rewards nor punishments said that they like the soda the same amount, if not more than the first week.
519 3044 Parents attitude towards teenage pregnancy Behavioral & Social Sciences S The purpose of this experiment is to see whether religious people, more specifically Christians, respond towards teen pregnancy in a more negative way than non religious people. Christians were chosen for this experiment because they tend to have conservative views towards pregnancy. They tend to be more strict and protective with their children on what their allowed to do at a young age until they are married. While on the other hand, as I have observed, atheist tend to not have such a huge concern about teen pregnancy which is why they were chosen for this experiment as well. Ten people that are Christians and 9 atheist people were chosen for this experiment. A survey of 10 questions was handed to each and every volunteer that decided to take part in my experiment. As I analyzed the survey questions from both groups my hypothesis was proven to be wrong.The reason why is because religious people did respond to teen pregnancy as a bad thing but they would still be very supportive of their children because at the end of the day he or she is still their child and they would do whatever is possible to guide them and help them through the process. Also atheist people viewed teen pregnancy as a bad thing because teens are not prepared or mature enough to have a child but yet the parents would be supportive of their situation.
520 3045 The Shycle Behavioral & Social Sciences S About 14,000 people can t afford two pairs of shoes, however shoes are a bare necessity for humans. Also the environment is getting worse by the minute and these shoes would take some damage away from the earth. This experiment was meant to test if it was possible to create a shoe that can be both wearable and helpful towards the environment by being made out of waste, and I ve proven that it is possible because i ended up making the shoe and having people wear it and take a survey about it. I found that people can make shoes out of waste products and although they re not as comfortable as normal shoes they re still wearable and beneficial. There was an average of 3.14 number of neutrality towards the actual buying making of the shoe, allowing us to see that this plan isn t too far out of reach for a reality. In the end i was successful in creating these shoes that serve their purpose of being wearable and made out of waste products, so this experiment has been beneficial and a success.
521 3046 Risk Taking in Soccer Behavioral & Social Sciences S Risk-taking is not just something found in soccer, it is also found in every action that you take. Every time you get in the car, there s a plenitude of negative outcomes, but you still choose to take the risk of getting in the car and arriving at your destination. One of the reasons for this behavior is our rational decision making. Every day our response to risk is rational, and it is because of this that we forget all of these small inconsistent probabilities. However, when we are aware that there is a high reward, anything will be sacrificed to get the reward. For this experiment, we wanted to test if taking a risk is associated with a high reward tournament. We used soccer as a proxy that conclusively supported the idea of higher reward is equivalent to more risk taken. We noticed a significant difference of risk taken in the beginning of a tournament versus the final game. The final game obviously holds more reward and as a result of that teams play with more risks. Which is also true in the day to day life, when you are taking actions which hold more reward, your natural instinct is to obtain it at any cost.
522 3047 How Do Fears Change With Age? Behavioral & Social Sciences S Fear is a common issue many people experience every day. Younger audiences may be more afraid of certain things that elders don t find frightening. This made me ask the question how do fears change with age In this science fair project I researched how the age of a person affects certain fears they have. The fears I picked were psychological, financial, and health related. Over the course of two days I conducted a survey with 100 participants from ages 15-75 asking the simple idea question how afraid are you of this fear Designing the survey, there was 11 questions 3 psychological questions, 3 financial questions, and 5 health related questions. Using a scale method from 1-10 every age group had different ratings and opinions. I averaged the results to see which age group was most afraid of these certain fears. Teens and adults had psychological fears, whereas senior adults had health related fears. Across the entire board the topic of losing loved ones was feared the most. These findings show there are psychological pressures many young adults face that elders believe aren t as scary. Likewise many of our senior adults are afraid for their health. Overall everyone is afraid of losing loved ones, in fearing for their health and the psychological effects that come with losing someone you love. With further research and more participants, I can go in depth to what other topics elicit the most fear from certain age groups of individuals.
523 3048 Characterizing Predictors and Protective Factors of Stroke Sequelae Behavioral & Social Sciences S Previous studies indicated that post-stroke depression PSD is common after cerebrovascular accident CVA . Here we outline PSD predictors. 271 patients 48% female mean age 59.2, 134 left-sided, 137 right were tested 12 months after CVA using a Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory and a standard neuropsychological test battery. Major depression existed in 30.6% of patients with near-exact rates for left-CVA 30.6% versus right-CVA 30.7% patients. 17% had post-stroke panic attacks. Logistic regression indicated that comorbid anxiety, history of depression, and memory impairment were significant predictors of PSD OR p-value 0.05 . Patients with comorbid anxiety were 7 times more likely to have PSD. Side or location of CVA and executive difficulties were not significant predictors. Interventions that target comorbid mood and anxiety disorders will be effective in managing PSD.Another aim investigated the role of bilingualism in improving post-stroke executive function. Evidence for a feedforward fronto-ponto-cerebellar loop and a feedback cerebello-thalamo-frontal loop executive function network exists. 113 patients 25 bilingual, 88 monolingual 51% female mean 14.4 years-education were divided by frontal versus non-frontal lobe stroke. Tests included measures of phonemic fluency, mental flexibility, working memory, organization, problem-solving, and reasoning. Rates of executive impairment were similar between groups 76.7% for bilingualism, 78.3% for monolingualism . A two-way bilingualism stroke location ANOVA demonstrated significant interaction for phonemic fluency such that bilingual non-frontal lobe patients performed better F 3,101 6.52, p 0.012 . Main effects were on abstract reasoning and nonverbal problem-solving for bilinguals regardless of stroke location. Bilingual non-frontal stroke patients had a protective factor for language-related executive functioning.
524 3049 Photo superiority memory Behavioral & Social Sciences S This project is set out to introduce how photo superiority memory affects different age groups to certain images. The purpose was to figure out if the images will get similar reactions based on a closed relationship ages. In order to conduct this experiment I got volunteers from ages 5-50 , starting from 5 years because kids have imagination and ending at 50 because most adults have already experienced and learned from mistakes and I don t want mental health issues to be an effect in this experimentEight different age groups have been made where only 5 volunteers correspond to the age groups. Each volunteer has been shown 8 images that can be seen in one s everyday life. They would have about five seconds to say whats the 1st thing it reminds them of or what is it that they first noticed. I would have hoped that the age groups will respond differently based on their knowledge, there were a lot of repeated responses but there were some unexpected ones as well.
525 3050 The effect of different music genre on the endurance of new athletes Behavioral & Social Sciences S This project was about how to make exercising, like jogging, easier in an unconventional way. I tested how music can improve endurance. Before I started the experiment I researched the effects of music on the brain and saw that many experiments and studies found that listening to music boost people s emotional state. I set the independent variable was the type of music and the dependent variable was the amount of time and distance the person lasted. The procedure on how I went about is that I had selected people who don t exercise that much and asked them to jog with no music. Then, they were required to rest and jog again with music. With multiple volunteers and trials, I concluded that music can improve endurance.
526 3051 The effect of gender and age on short term memory Behavioral & Social Sciences S This project is designed to determine how many things a person can hold in their short term at once. It was also used to test if there was a correlation between age and gender and how they retain information. The hypothesis was If women, men, and different age groups are given a short term memory test, then women and younger people will do generally better. The procedure was to show test subjects, from their respective groups, a series of letters and numbers. Then given 10 seconds to look at the letters shown on display screen, once that time is over they are allowed to write as much as they remember. The same was to be done with the numbers as well. In the letters category, the female 10-20 experimental group performed the best with an average of 9.8, and the male 41-50 experimental group did the worst with a 7.0 average. In the number category, the female 41-50 experimental group performed the best with an average of 6.0, and the male 10-20 experimental group did the worst with a 3.4 average. My gender result is consistent with my hypothesis because it was predicted that females would have better short-term memory. However, the age was not because in the numbers category the female 41-50 did better. From this experiment I observed that females tend to have a stronger memory and they are really observant.
527 3052 Gems of the Social World: Subconscious Programming Behavioral & Social Sciences S In a world where influence is more valuable than currency, citizens aren t subject to the will of having their own choices because of the power others subconsciously hold. This might seem like a dystopian take on reality, but without even being aware of it, society has become prone to manipulation ranging from political propaganda to social media sponsorships. In a novel technique to approaching mental integrity, this experiment considers a possible solution of reigning in consciousness.These problems lead to the question Do different sexes and the disclaimer of subconscious manipulation affect the decision making of individuals when faced with a choice presented with Neuro-linguistic Programming and visual cues To carry out the experiment, individuals were presented with three different-colored crystals. Before each subject chose a crystal, specific visual and verbal cues that involve subconscious programming were used to coerce a specific selection. With every other person, the subject was made aware of the use of subconscious programming before being asked to choose, in hopes that the subject would be less susceptible to it s effects.The results of the study yielded a 41% increase in people who chose blue with NLP compared to the control group. When a disclaimer was given, 68% of the subjects noticed the cues. This data proves that people are capable of identifying and eluding influence given a certain level of awareness beforehand. This can be extrapolated out to both everyday situations and large scale decisions in which a defensive guard can go a long way.
528 3053 The Effects of External Pressures on Eyewitness Testimonies Behavioral & Social Sciences S In criminal justice, accuracy when delivering the final verdict regarding a person s innocence is crucial, since it often determines the course of a person s life. Eyewitness identification is believed to be one of the major causes of wrongful convictions due to the inconsistency of human memory, yet it is still widely used in criminal investigations. In this experiment, the effects of two independent variables on the accuracy of selecting a perpetrator of a crime from a police lineup were tested time of exposure to the lineup and peer pressure through the misinformation effect. Experimentation was divided into two different stages, with the first portion involving the testing of the time variable and the latter portion consisting of testing the effects of misleading information on memory recall in different age groups. The results of the time experiment indicated that the group given more time to observe the lineup demonstrated a higher level of performance, with an accuracy percentage of 62.5%. It was hypothesized that adolescents would have a greater tendency to change answers when given false information, but there was an even 50-50 split between adolescents and adults. With a greater knowledge of the factors that most heavily contribute to erroneous eyewitness reports, investigations can be structured to yield more accurate results, and the amount of wrongful convictions can be reduced significantly. A possible continuation would be to test the misinformation effect through other methods that reflect more natural disruptions that could interfere with the memory of a crime event.
529 3054 Stop in the Name of the Law! Behavioral & Social Sciences S An astounding of all mistaken identifications are caused by false eyewitness testimonials. Countless number of innocent people have been convicted of crimes they never committed. They have lost precious time in jail waiting for a miracle to happen so they could be released. Unfortunately, too many people have fallen victim to inaccurate eyewitness statements, which is what inspired me to look for another approach to police interrogations in hopes that more witnesses would be able to correctly identify perpetrators. In order to do this, I had a great deal of student volunteers watch a crime video and take a short quiz that determined what their learning type was. Then, I questioned the students about the crime that was committed two days prior. I decided which type of photo lineup either sequential or simultaneous I wanted to use for each student and I appealed to their learning type while interrogating them. My hypothesis was that the simultaneous lineup would produce the most accurate results for visual and aural learners, and the sequential lineup would produce the most accurate results for kinesthetic and reading and writing learners. The experimental results partially supported by argument by showing that the sequential lineup worked best for visual learners and the simultaneous lineup worked best for reading and writing learners. The experiment also showed how inaccurate some eyewitness testimonies can be.
530 3055 The Effect of Light Color on Productivity Behavioral & Social Sciences S This project was aimed at determining whether the color of light humans are exposed to effects their level of productivity and cognitive functioning, and the hypothesis was that violet colored light would positively affect the level of productivity. In the experiment, the people being tested were placed in a controlled environment where external light could not enter and placed under an LED bar light to test the multiple effects of the color. They were given two activities to complete, their blood pressure was measured prior to and after the experiment, and the time that it took to complete the activity was recorded. These steps were repeated for all seven colors used for the three subjects that I had to experiment with. The data revealed that the test subjects performed better under warm-colored lights rather than cool color lights after analyzing the trends throughout the subjects performances. After acquiring results from the experiment, it was found that magenta light was the most positively affecting and not violet as the hypothesis stated. After looking at trends between the three subjects, the magenta light made the people less anxious and in a happier state of mind compared to the other cool colors which were motivation-less. In the future, it would be more credible to have a larger sample size, at least ten, to compare more data to find a stronger trend. Testing other aspects like sleep and brain wave patterns would also prove beneficial.
531 3056 Seeing the Light, How It Distracts Us Behavioral & Social Sciences S To summarize, our project was conducted in order to best identify which color of light would increase our attention span the most when a subject is exposed to it. We hypothesized that if the exposed wavelength is 700 nm red light , then the subjects attention span would be at its summit. We tested exposed them to the primary light colors and read passages out loud to them. We then gave them 5 recall memorization questions.Their scores allowed us to see if they were able to focus better under certain light colors compared to others.Our results proved our hypothesis correct as many of our test subjects got their highest test score when exposed to red light.
532 3057 Are Children Vulnerable to Food Marketing Traps? Behavioral & Social Sciences S Age vs. Taste PerceptionChildhood obesity is a real problem in the United States, so I ve been wondering how we can fix it. I decided to test if the packaging of a food impacts people s taste perception particularly children . The hypothesis I tested was if food packaging has an effect on taste perception in different age groups, then more children will think the food with the original packaging tastes better. To investigate my topic, I selected one sweet food gummy bears , and one savory food Pirate s Booty , then I poured half of each food into a brown bag. During the test, I told participants the food may be the same thing in both packages, but it may not. After that, participants tasted from each bag of food original package first, one food at a time , described the flavors to me, rated each bag out of 5 , and told me if there were any differences between the food in the original packaging and the brown bag. After my experiment, results showed that children were worse than the other two age groups at predicting sameness, especially for the sweet food. These results show that healthy food companies need to put graphics on their packages that draw children s attention. If they don t, children will choose the food with the brightest package instead of the food with the healthiest content.
533 3058 Prediction of Chronic Stress Through a Computational Linguistic Machine Learning Model Behavioral & Social Sciences S Chronic stress, a disorder marked by dangerously prolonged stress levels, is becoming increasingly widespread, and current diagnostic methods are inadequate to address the issue. The sole public tool to predict chronic stress is the Perceived Stress Scale PSS , which is currently not administered during psychological checkups. This project aimed to produce an alternative tool for psychologists to determine whether an individual was predisposed to developing chronic stress by recognizing patterns between linguistic characteristics and PSS scores. To this end, the researcher utilized machine learning, a method of data analysis that automates analytical model building. The researcher developed two prompts to record respondents writing a positive prompt Prompt A and a negative prompt Prompt B . The researcher hypothesized that those with chronic stress felt constant psychological pressure, which would manifest in writing patterns, especially in adverse situations. Thus, when compared to Prompt A, Prompt B would produce a more accurate model to predict chronic stress. The researcher administered the PSS and two prompts to 300 male and female participants. To analyze the writing, the researcher employed the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count LIWC program, which reads a given text and determines the percentage of words that reflect different emotions.Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the surveyed sample was representative of the whole population and that the Prompt A-generated model was extremely accurate in predicting PSS scores. Hence, the research study created a predictive tool that could be self-administered and did not require extensive experience, unlike current predictive means.
534 3059 The Effect of Coffee Temperature on the Human Heart Rate Behavioral & Social Sciences S This research project The Effect of Coffee Temperature on the Human Heart Rate set out to prove if increasing coffee s temperature would increase a person s heart rate. The purpose was to try to find if there is any possible healthier way for which coffee can be consumed because many people have found themselves developing an addiction towards caffeine. Since it is prett obvious that more caffeine means a higher boost of energy, I decided to observe temperature because it s one of the factors that is mostly not considered but yet might hold some type of effect on the way our bodies react towards coffee, frappuccinos, etc, and they ve taken a big role in our worlds and lives. Three different coffee temperatures were used ice, warm, hot . The warm coffee was the control, while the other two temperatures were the other two variables. Different coffee temperatures were used to evaluate the effect made in our heart rates. The control group or the warm coffee seemed to create a small change in heart rate increasing it by an average of 3 bpm beats per minute . The hot coffee did increase the heart rate at an average of about 5 bpm while the coffee at about 2 bpm. The data supports that the hotter the coffee, the more the heart rate increased.
535 3060 Social Media’s Correlation with Obesity, Impaired Cognitive Abilities, Lowered Self-Esteem & Heightened Anxiety in Adolescents Behavioral & Social Sciences S As the amount of time adolescents utilize social media on a daily basis increases unprecedently, social media has become increasingly influential on the mental and physical development of adolescents. The fundamental purpose of this study was to determine if social media-use correlates with unhealthy BMI levels increased stress eating and anxiety levels and decreased self-esteem and cognitive abilities. In this behavioral study, students completed self-report questionnaires to characterize their social media use as well as questions about their eating habits, cognitive abilities, self-esteem, and anxiety levels. Each respondent s evaluation was converted to a numerical score and categorized into one of the following social media usage-patterns non-usage, low-usage, moderate-usage, and high-usage. All results were compiled and analyzed in which usage patterns were correlated against BMI, cognitive abilities, self-esteem, and anxiety. The results were consistent with the hypotheses, and thus, allow the experimenters to conclude that high levels of social media usage correlate with unhealthy ranges of BMIs, increased likelihood of stress-eating, decreased cognition r -0.980 , decreased self-esteem r -0.864 , and increased anxiety in adolescents r 0.927 . Two-sample t-tests were utilized in order to determine whether the results of non-users and high-users were significantly different. Thus, the greater the time spent on social media, the severity of the detrimental effects increased on adolescents mental and physical health. After revealing this study s findings, the experimenters expect students to regulate the amount of time they spend on social media and plan on raising awareness about the study s alarming results.
536 3061 A Moral Compass For Autonomous Vehicles Behavioral & Social Sciences S In this project the moral compass of the average person was observed in regards to forced choices that autonomous vehicles have to make on the road in a detailed survey. This was done in order to discern the effect that different variables had on a simple simulation of forced choices on the road for the participants. The survey was comprised of a control question, three questions including different aspects of one variable for each of the three variables chance of death, age of pedestrians, and the passenger , and two questions that compared the variables and confirmed the results taken by the single variable questions. The order of importance of the three variables, chance of death, the passenger, then the age of the pedestrians, was recorded. This was observed by finding the mean of the deviation from the control and the standard deviation for each variables category for each participant. Then, the ratio of the variables was created to measure the degree of weighting that should be placed on each variable in a real situation. By analyzing the results it was found that the chance of death affected a participants choice the most and that the age of the pedestrians affected their choice the least. The contributions of this project was to compute data that could be used to create a moral algorithm in the future.
537 3062 Phones and Teens, is there a connection? Behavioral & Social Sciences S There is a long-standing feud between adults and teenagers using phones, adults like to say phones are bad for teenagers and teenagers to say they are fine. This experiment was designed to test the relationship between a teenager s phone usage and how stressed they feel. To test this relationship, an online survey was given to students in the Academy for Science and Health Professions. The data collected varied greatly, thus no conclusion can be drawn. I believe that the fatal flaw from this experiment was the students either lying or exaggerating the truth. Multiple students answered that they used no social media of any kind but also claimed 10 10 stress at home and in school, but some students using no social media also claimed levels of 1-3 10 stress at home and school.
538 3063 Phone Frenzy: Recording Sleep Patterns and Quality With and Without Using A Phone Before Going To Bed Behavioral & Social Sciences S Sleep is very important to adolescent growth, however, many adolescents all over America suffer from chronic sleep deprivation. Although adolescents require an average of 8.5-10 hours of sleep, the average American adolescent only gets around 4-6 hours of sleep. Could phone usage and social media distract teenagers and keep them up all night, lessening the amount of sleep and quality of sleep they should be getting Over the course of two school weeks, two alternating groups of participants participants using their phones before going to sleep as usual for one week, or participants not using their phone two hours before going to sleep for the other week were required to fill out a daily log every morning. My results illustrated that when participants used their phones before going to sleep, they had a shorter amount of sleep and poor sleep quality. On the other hand, participants that did not using their phones for two hours before going to sleep had a longer amount of sleep and a better sleep quality. This experiment illustrated the importance of sleep, and the link between phone usage and the quality and quantity of sleep. This experiment also gave my participants a chance to observe the changes to their sleep whether it became better, worse, or stayed the same throughout the course of two weeks.
539 3064 What do you Smell? Behavioral & Social Sciences S After completing this project the scientist found that people options are easily swayed.This project would be a great continuation project because it is connected with real world problems.This project also shows peoples fear of being wrong as people did not want to write in answers because they feared of being wrong.
540 3065 Skate Park Effects on Crime in Urban Areas Behavioral & Social Sciences S Cities are always trying to reduce crime and have their citizens be happy. One of the most effective ways to do this is to provide services to the people so that they spend their time productively. One of the groups that could most benefit from public development is skateboarders, who often clash with authority due to using the street as there place to skate. Skate parks may be a viable solution to urban crime.To test this, data was gathered on the overall and property crime of the 10 most populated cities in America. Then, the most popular skate parks were selected in each of these cities. Crime data were collected for five years before and after each skate park was built. the differences between the means of the before and after years were calculated to discover if there was a correlation between skateparks and a drop in crime.Of the 10 skateparks and cities observed, 7 showed a decrease in crime, both overall and property, after the skate parks were built. This data, along with other researched examples, show that skate parks can be beneficial to the community and reduce crime.
541 3066 What type of music helps a person to concentrate the most? Behavioral & Social Sciences S This project is important because it is designed to determine different types of music s effects on human concentration levels and especially which type of music increases the concentration level the most. The hypothesis being tested is that Classical music will help a person to concentrate the most. So I designed an experiment which tested different people s speed time puzzle on a concentration task sudoku when they re listening to different types of music. The result was that 11 out of 19 participants did the best when they were listening to classical music. In conclusion, classical music helps people to concentrate the most, thus they should listen to classical music more than others that s distracting when they re doing work in order to increase the productivity and efficiency of work. Therefore, the conclusion of this research can reach the goal of set up playlists scientifically.
542 3067 Are Crickets Attracted To Heat Or Light? Behavioral & Social Sciences S When putting the crickets inside the box then shining a light on one side they went to the other end and the corners where their was no light. When putting the heat on the side of the box they were attracted to it fast. Where their was both light and heat they wanted to be by the heat but they didnt like the light.
543 3068 How do people court their love interests? Behavioral & Social Sciences S Being teenage girls in high school, soon to be in college, the topic of love interests is one that is very relevant in our lives. This being said, our project focuses on how each gender views gifts in regards to a person of interest. We believed that boys would rather give and receive tangible objects or wishlist items like a pair of shoes, whereas girls would rather receive and give more heartfelt gestures such as a handwritten letter. In order to prove this theory, a survey was created that consisted of six questions including age, gender, relationship status, which item would you rather receive, what item would you rather give, and how would you choose to go about flirting with someone. About 180 participants took this survey and their results were analyzed using a chi squared test of independence to statistically prove if genders had a scientific relationship to gifts they would rather receive or give. The chi squared test of independence showed that although there was no scientific correlation to genders and a type of gift they would rather give, it was proven statistically significant to the .001 degree that boys would rather receive a wishlist item whereas girls would rather receive a heartfelt gesture. There were small trends within age and relationship status, but nothing was statistically proven. Sources of error may have come in response bias as to who agreed to do the anonymous survey.
551 3076 Barista’s Special Acid Blend Biochemistry & Microbiology S Many people consume coffee on a daily basis. As such, they should be more aware of how acidic coffee can be, because the acidity of a beverage can also greatly affect the health problems that come with it. To find out the general acidity of a variety of different coffees, the more popular coffee brands were used in the experiment. Folgers Instant Coffee Crystals, Starbucks Coffee House Blend Medium Roast, and Maxwell House Vienna Instant Coffee were chosen because they were excellent representations of what coffees people drink today. The hypothesis was that Maxwell House Vienna Instant Coffee would be the most acidic, and that hypothesis ended up being proved correct after completing the experimental process of brewing the different coffees and recording their acidity. Some inferences on what could ve affected the results are the type of roast the coffees were, as well as their ingredients like sweeteners and such. In conclusion, coffees like Maxwell House Vienna Instant Coffee are not as healthy to drink as coffees like Starbucks Coffee House Blend Medium Roast because of how acidic they are compared to the other two coffee brands.
552 3077 Acne vs ACV- The Ultimate Battle Biochemistry & Microbiology S This project was meant to test the most effective home remedy for acne. We planned to test and compare the three most popular home remedies for acne Aloe vera, Toothpaste, and Apple cider vinegar. However, upon doing the control experiment we discovered that aloe vera and toothpaste have no effect on the bacteria. As a result, we have changed our project to testing which concentration of Apple cider vinegar is more effective for clearing acne. To carry out this experiment we created 3 different solutions, each with different concentrations 25%, 50%, 75%. Using the solution we conducted a zone of inhibition test and record the radius. By measuring the radius of each trial s zone of inhibition we were able to come up with an average radius for each solution. Using this information, we differentiated the averages to conclude which concentration of Apple cider vinegar is the most effective solution for clearing acne. Our hypothesis was that the 75% concentration of Apple cider vinegar is the most effective for clearing acne. The experimental results supported our hypothesis by showing that the average radius for the 75% concentration of Apple cider vinegar was greater than that of 50% and 25%. Our results also proved that the higher the concentration the greater the effect.
553 3078 The Adsorption of Tofu Biochemistry & Microbiology S The purpose for doing this project was to help many who are interested in the culinary arts to learn more about the process of adsorption of a marinade and how different ingredients affect it. Many should be interested in this topic because it could not only help many who are interested in the culinary arts, but it could also help us in our daily lives when cooking a meal. I soaked tofu in a solution of blue food dye and added different ingredients such as salt, sugar and vinegar, and measured the amount of food dye that adsorbed to the tofu. The hypothesis was that a salt solution would best help the dye adsorb to the tofu. Salt is part of many marinades, and is also known for enhancing flavor. The data failed to support the hypothesis. The results indicated that vinegar was actually the best ingredient. Vinegar had the highest average standard color match, 10, and salt only averaged 7.5.I think I got this results because vinegar has a high acidity, which could have resulted in it being the best ingredient, while salt does not have such a high acidity.
554 3079 Does Magnetism Affect Regeneration In Planaria? Biochemistry & Microbiology S Accidents happen everywhere around the world and many people are severely injured. Many may have to go through an amputation. Amputations are very expensive due to the cost of prosthetics as well as the maintenance needed and can be a major burden for most families. However, a possible solution could arise by understanding how planaria regenerate. This project aimed to find a faster way to complete the regeneration process in planaria. To test this 20 planaria were equally divided into four groups. Group one planaria were placed without any magnets, group two planaria were placed with grade n35 neodymium magnets, group two planaria were placed with grade n45 neodymium magnets, and group four planaria were placed with grade n52 magnets. The planaria were observed daily for 17 days. Group four planaria grew the fastest, followed by group three, group two was next, and lastly it was group one. To search whether the data collected was significant an anova test was performed. After the anova test was conducted the p-value of the data at a significance level of a 0.05 was 0.0009. With this it was concluded that magnetism does help planaria regenerate faster. This data can be a stepping stone for future research, because if scientists find a way to apply the planarian regeneration process into humans, then scientists can help make the process faster and more reliable.
555 3080 Is It Berry Moldy? Biochemistry & Microbiology S The project looks at which liquids between water, liquid from an aloe vera plant, store-bought aloe vera drink, and agave nectar would have the most reduced mold growth. Our team s hypothesis was that the liquid from the aloe vera plant would have properties that would reduce mold growth. We tested the hypothesis by separating strawberries into different containers pertaining to the liquids, dipping the strawberries in, letting them dry, and checking the changes to each group daily. However, the experimental process results did not support our hypothesis, instead showing us that the agave nectar was the liquid that reduced the most mold growth.
556 3081 Testing Energy Quality Of Vegetable Oils Commonly Used in Biofuels Biochemistry & Microbiology S The process of creating biodiesel, while good for the environment isn t very efficient, this project aimed to compare different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production to find the most efficient. The data found in this experiment could help biodiesel producers to create more energy efficient fuel. In order to test the oils a titration test was carried out on three different oils, canola, corn, ann peanut. The titration test made it possible to find the free fatty acid levels as a percentage. This number makes it possible to test the quality of biodiesel, the more free fatty acids in the fuel the higher quality. There was a difference between the three oils, however statistical analysis could not disprove the null hypothesis of differences being due to chance. This means there is not reliable real world application to the results found in the experiment.
557 3082 ANALYSIS OF SYNONYMOUS CODON USAGE BIAS OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS AND ITS ADAPTATION TO THE HOSTS Biochemistry & Microbiology S Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. This project discovers how this Yellow Fever virus adapts to its hosts relative synonymous codon usage. In this project, we hypothesized that It is expected that the synonymous codon usage of the different yellow fever virus strains in separate countries should be different. Furthermore, synonymous codon usages of different yellow fever virus strains in the same country should also be different from each other. I also hypothesized that the synonymous codon usage of the yellow fever virus will adapt to its hosts Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Homo sapiens. In our research, we analyzed the synonymous codon usages for yellow fever virus strains from different countries as well as yellow fever virus strains from the same country. We found that the synonymous codon usages for yellow fever virus strains from different countries were different. We also found that the synonymous codon usages for yellow fever virus strains from the same country were different. Lastly we found that the yellow fever virus strains adapted to their hosts Aedes aegypti, Aedes albapictus, and Homo sapiens.
558 3083 Biomimetic Bienzyme-immobilized Microcapsules for Oxidative Phosphorylation Biochemistry & Microbiology S Mitochondria support aerobic respiration and produce bulk of Adenosine Triphosphate ATP , cellular energy carrier, by oxidative phosphorylation. Recently, inherited dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system is increasingly recognized as a frequent cause of human disease involving one or more of the top energy consuming organs, such as skeletal muscle, brain, liver, heart, and kidneys. Biomimetic subcellular compartments containing active enzymes are a promising approach to substitute for dysfunctional mitochondria. To realize it, a structure enabling cascade reactions involving multiple enzymes is necessary to mimic the oxidative phosphorylation system. Taking the advantage of large surface area of porous silicon, we demonstrate an artificial oxidative phosphorylation system, consisting of enzymes embedded cell-like microcapsules with ATP synthase on outer surface. The core of the biomimetic microcapsule is porous silicon microdisks PSD . Bi-enzymes glucose oxidase GOx and horseradish peroxidase HRP immobilized in PSD performs glucose cascade oxidation, generating a proton gradient, which drives the ATP synthase on surface to continually produce ATP by catalyzing oxidative phosphorylation. While we were able to conjugate natural enzymes on PSD, it s not easy to control their spatial distribution in PSD. Knowing that gold nanoparticle Au-NP immobilized on PSD can function like both GOx and HRP, we synthesized Au-NP in PSD, resulting more stable alternative oxidative phosphorylation system. Its function was confirmed by measuring the concentration dependence and time dependence of glucose-to-gluconate converting rate. This biomimetic mitochondria could act as an efficient oxidative phosphorylation catalyst, providing an alternative treatment to disorders associated with cellular energy deficiency.
559 3084 Ethanol Biofuel Biochemistry & Microbiology S The objective of this experiment was to find out whether cellulosic material can be transformed into biofuel that can be used to light a street light, or can be used for domestic lights too. The startup hypothesis was if the biofuel from easily available materials like grass, sawdust, cardboard can produce energy, electricity from it it can be used for street lighting and other common needs. In order to test this the cellulosic material needed to be boiled, to break down the sugars. Then an enzyme was needed to break up the sugars even further, the samples were then left for 24 hours to ferment. The results of the experiment were surprising because grass which was thought to have the most cellulose actually produced the least amount of ethanol. But the cardboard did produce ethanol, which draws the conclusion that the stated hypothesis is correct. With this experiment and some math equations, it helps strengthen this hypothesis because with an 80 Watt the ethanol made with the cardboard a light bulb can last up to 2 days, with only .22 gallons! with 100%, no energy lost in heat With only this little amount of ethanol, if a light bulb can last 2 days then, even as little as a gallon can last at least a year.
560 3085 Invertase- Do Your Thing Biochemistry & Microbiology S This project tries to find which drinks like Crush orange juice, Tampico mango punch, high pulp orange juice, Treetop apple juice have the most glucose even after adding an invertase. It s also an enzyme that is commonly used to make candy liquid centers, chocolate covered cherries, fondant candies, creme eggs and other cordials. I used invertase in my experiment as a substance for breaking down the glucose. Sucrase is also known as invertase or saccharase. It catalyzes the hydrolysis breakdown of sucrose table sugar to fructose and glucose, usually in the form of inverted sugar syrup. It is called invert sugar because the optical activity is reversed in the process. However, Hydrolysis is so slow that solutions of sucrose can sit for years with negligible change. Type 2 diabetes is when the body can t use insulin properly. It can develop at any age. More than 5,000 youth diagnosed year in 2011 and 2012.
561 3086 Bacteria on Grocery Carts Biochemistry & Microbiology S This project is about comparing the amount of bacteria on grocery carts that are unsanitized, sanitized with store provided wipes, and sanitized with Clorox wipes. We became interested in this project when we realized hundreds of people use the same grocery cart everyday. Some people use sanitizing wipes that grocery stores provide them but, they may not always work. Others may bring their own kinds of sanitizing wipes, but those may also not work. Our project is about seeing which kind of sanitizing wipes remove the most bacteria and actually work. For this project, our hypothesis is that If bacteria on grocery carts is tested, and the cart is wiped down with sanitizing wipes and Clorox wipes then tested again, then the Clorox wipes will remove the most bacteria. During our experiment, we went to three different grocery stores and took bacteria samples of three carts at each store. At the store, we took an unsanitized sample of bacteria, then wiped down half of each of the carts with the store provided sanitizing wipes and took another bacteria sample, then we wiped the other side of each cart down with Clorox wipes and took another bacteria sample from the same carts. We placed all the bacteria samples into the petri dishes and watched recorded their growth.After analyzing all of the data and comparing the unsanitized grocery carts to the store provided sanitized carts, and the Clorox sanitized carts, the numbers showed that our hypothesis was incorrect.
562 3087 Enzyme Reaction Time Biochemistry & Microbiology S The experiment is to show how enzymes work and help break down food at a certain temperature. The problem of my experiment was that the thermometer had to be cleaned after each use and let it sit until it went back to room temperature. The experiment was all about temperature and time. The conclusion made from this experiment is that the higher the temperature the faster the reaction. The reaction time kept going down as the temperature got higher. Enzymes work faster under more heat. The averages of all the trials for each temperature got lower and lower. And the reaction time during each trial went down by 5 through 16 seconds.
563 3088 Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) among Urban Wild Birds in High-density Locations in the Houston Area Biochemistry & Microbiology S Urban wild birds such as crows Corvus corax are a common sight in high-density locations int he city of Houston. They can be seen in open parking lots of shopping centers, public parks, gasoline stations and other public places. The droppings or fecal wastes of these birds could be vectors and potential spreaders of antibiotic-resistant bacteria ARB that pose risk to human health. Houston as home to the biggest medical center in the world and known for its flooding become highly vulnerable to these opportunistic bacteria. In this investigation, two 2 high-density locations namely shopping center and public park parking lots were chosen as sites for collection of fecal samples from wild birds to determine the presence of ARB. Bacterial culture was used to grow the bacteria in general nutrient media supplemented with antibiotics namely ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfonamide. This was followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing for bacterial species identification, and selective isolation to measure the frequency of ARB.Results revealed that the species of bacteria resistant to the different antibiotics were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus sp. The highest growth frequency were observed in sulfonamide and tetracycline in both locations. These bacteria are known to be opportunistic. Their presence in the bird droppings is an indicative of higher risks to public health and thus deserved to be addressed appropriately.
564 3089 Yeast metabolism Biochemistry & Microbiology S The purpose of this experiment was to see if yeast metabolize faster with or without oxygen. This can help with growing the yeast population to maximize daily products used in everyone s life. Such as, shampoo, bread, sewer plants, etc. The downfall of the yeast growing faster without oxygen is that it s harder to keep it alive over a long period of time. Which means more money and more technology to keep the yeast sustained.
565 3090 Optimization of Lead Identification for the Dopamine D2 Receptor through a Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship based Machine Learning Model Biochemistry & Microbiology S Even in today s developed society, fatal illnesses such as Alzheimer s, depression, Parkinson s, Schizophrenia are extremely common. Drugs have long been the accepted solution to most diseases, but many diseases remain without a cure. Drug discovery is the solution to this problem. Molecules within drugs are delivered to a receptor within the body that, when the molecule binds to the receptor, produces a signal that triggers the respective function of the receptor. One of the phases of the drug discovery process, lead identification, involves narrowing down the 1060 possible molecules to a small group with high levels of bioactivity, or the ability to bond with a receptor. The current standard of lead identification involves expensive equipment, a controlled setting, and an extensive amount of time. To streamline this phase, a computer-based alternative can be highly valuable. In this project, a quantitative structure-analysis relationship model involving a machine learning framework was applied to lead identification for the Dopamine D2 receptor. With a final validation R2 value of 0.675527591 and a RMSE value of 0.598305735, both of which are close to the accepted industry threshold of a strong predictive model, the machine learning model was deemed a success. This trained model was then integrated into a web server application. For diseases such as Schizophrenia, Parkinson s, and depression, researchers can effortlessly determine a set molecules with high bioactivity values for the receptor, and thus narrow the many possible drug candidates down to a selective group for a fraction of the time, cost, and risk.
566 3091 Flamas For Real Biochemistry & Microbiology S By testing the Doritos Flamas chip using the different solutions, I was able to conclude that sugar monosaccharides and polysaccharides were a common biomolecule in not only the Doritos but as well as the Ruffles and tortilla chips. The Doritos Flamas Chips also did not show any traces of fats or lipids as previously expected, however, the hypothesis was correct about there being no protein.Theoretically, if we were to test all the foods we ate before consuming them, we could indeed become a healthier and long lasting society.
567 3092 Rusty Apples Biochemistry & Microbiology S The purpose of my Science Fair project is to prevent apples from browning. In this project, I applied different solutions to apple slices to see which solution works the best to keep the apples fresh. The research questionin my Science Fair Project is How can apple slices be prevented from turning brown . I hypothesize that the lemon juice will make the most progress of slowing oxidation because lemon juice is the most acidic solution. I placed slices of apple in bowls and covered them in solutions of honey, lemon juice, salt, vinegar, milk, Sprite, apple juice and tap water. The control has no solution on it. I made observations every hour and again the following morning and recorded how brown each slice became, with 1 being the least brown and 5 being the brownest. My hypothesis was proven wrong because the 3 solutions that work the best by keeping the apples from browning were salt, milk, and apple juice. If I conducted this experiment again what I would do differently is I will leave the apples on their solutions longer to check if anything changes.
568 3093 Refrigeration and Chromatology: A Continued Study on the Topic of Chromatology in a Food Safety Environment Biochemistry & Microbiology S The bacteria E. Coli Escherichia Coli is responsible for mild illness when introduced to humans, and is a common contaminant of food and raw meat products. It has been found, through this continuation study, that red packaging and environment for a bacterial sample can lead to lower bacterial growth rates and higher bacterial death rates. This experiment s purpose was to test the effect of refrigeration and the color red on the growth rates of E. Coli. The hypothesis was that the group which was exposed to the color red would have lower average growth rates than plates that were not intentionally exposed to any color. Sixty plates, separated into two groups, had E. Coli applied to them. Half of them, with red agar, were wrapped in red saran wrap. They were refrigerated for twenty-four hours, and the colonies on each plate were counted. Data from previous years was then analyzed to produce a set of regression equations for control groups and red groups over the last three years, under all variables used in previous experiments. These regression equations show that the most effective variables were refrigeration, individual packaging, colored environment, and colored packaging. The other accumulated results of this testing showed that red, even under refrigeration, lowered the average growth rate of bacteria. This data supported the hypothesis, but the researcher is interested in continuing to study this topic, to learn more about the effects of chromatology, and to expand the outside applications of this research.
569 3094 What is the effect of environmental agents like pesticides, mold, perfume (chemicals) and aspirin on (non-pathogenic) Klebsiella Aerogenes and probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus? Biochemistry & Microbiology S My project is about how environmental agents like parabens, pesticides, aspirin, and the mold penicillium chrysogenum, affect the growth of klebsiella aerogenes and lactobacillus acidophilus in a human s gut microbiome. I chose this experiment because multiple of my family members suffer from autoimmune diseases and I want to understand some of the microbial factors that lead to this. We are made up of bacteria, the amount outnumbering cells from 10 to 1. These microbes in our body create a microbiome which is an extremely significant part of the immune system which needs to be in a balance of good and bad bacteria in order to sustain our bodies and allow us to be in a healthy state. If imbalanced with a higher amount of the bad bacteria, it can cause dysbiosis, which is reported to lead to illnesses and diseases. I want to discover if the environmental agents can affect the growth of both bad and good bacteria, therefore affecting this balance and the susceptibility of disease. I found that Pesticides, inhibited both pathogenic nonpathogenic and probiotic bacterial growth, both Aspirin and Parabens, increased the growth of pathogenic nonpathogenic bacteria while inhibiting the expansion of probiotic bacteria. The mold penicillium chrysogenum was found to also increase the growth of pathogenic bacteria klebsiella aerogenes but did not affect the growth of lactobacillus acidophilus. This is significant because if exposed to these toxins, we can create a dysbiosis of bad bacteria and therefore cause a higher susceptibility of disease.
570 3095 The effectiveness of garlic on bacteria and its growth Biochemistry & Microbiology S This project is about testing garlic on bacteria to see if it is an adequate source to help prevent the growth of bacteria. It will also help us understand determine if garlic is an effective home remedy in killing fighting off bacteria for medicinal purposes. The reason I chose this project as my science fair project was because I believed that it could help make remedies that could fight off bacteria such as a common cold, or E. Coli. My hypothesis was that if garlic is anti-bacterial, then it will kill bacteria and prevent its further growth. To prove that garlic is anti-bacterial, I first prepared my petri dishes with the bacteria and then added dots of garlic to each of the 4 quadrants. After that I put them in the incubator at 29 degrees. Every day, in the morning and afternoon, I checked on my petri dishes progress and the growth of the bacteria. In the end, the petri dishes showed more growth of bacteria than the prevention of it. At first, my results were showing good results, and helping my hypothesis. The first batch had few growth at the start, but towards the end it started to produce more and more bacteria. These results showed that my hypothesis was wrong since the results came out in a high percentage of bacteria than I expected. These results were important because it helped me realize that next time I would probably need to change up the amounts of garlic each dish had.
571 3096 Can fruit tannin extract really kill bacteria? Biochemistry & Microbiology S Not many people around the world has access to hygiene products, so I did this experiment with five fruit s tannins, three trials each, to find out if we can use a natural product to kill bacteria. I heated fruits peels with fresh water and then put them on my Petri Dishes which held my hand s bacteria. The results rejected my hypothesis, the bacteria grew where the fruit s tannin was placed more than around the area without tannin. I thought that maybe the bacteria would grow where the tannin was because I left it there and didn t remove the dead bacteria off. A small side experiment proved this thought, I used soap instead of tannin and more bacteria grew.
572 3097 Are You Low, or No? Biochemistry & Microbiology S The purpose for this experiment is to discover what types of carbohydrates are good for making blood sugar levels stable. I chose this for my topic because the diabetes community is very important to me and is not talked about compared to others. I am hoping to find good results within my research and to make a difference. I also hope to give hope to others who are struggling with unstable blood sugars and give them ideas on how to manage them.My hypothesis was that complex carbohydrates would stabilize blood glucose levels better rather than simple carbohydrates. If complex carbohydrates remain longer within the blood stream, then complex carbohydrates will stabilize blood sugar levels better than simple carbohydrates. I found that on day three of my experiment I was the most stable of all with my blood sugars. On day three I ate mostly ate complex carbohydrates. This project was mainly based to help anyone with a diabetes lifestyle. My data truly supported my hypothesis. Whenever I would have the simple carbohydrates my blood sugars would tend to spike up and then slowly start to descend rather than stay stable like the complex carbohydrates.My results prove my hypothesis to be correct. I can concur that the procedure went pretty well, there were no problems.
573 3098 Don't Wine with Vitamin C You'll Be Fine! Biochemistry & Microbiology S Can we provide another way to increase the vitamin C levels in our foods then how much they already have With the process of fermentation of vegetables, the vitamin C levels in the vegetables increase over a few days. This allows adults to have an alternative for vitamin C, resulting in better health. The variables to conduct the experiment included the test of 3 different liquors white wine, red wine, tequila and the vegetable choice of broccoli. We hypothesized that tequila would be best for increasing vitamin C levels. After 4 days of fermentation, we conducted the experiment by blending each broccoli and adding water a starch solution to get a liquid solution. After doing so we added droplets of iodine till a blackish-bluish color appeared. After a series of trials, it was presented to us that Red wine required around 35 drops, White wine around 14 drops, and tequila around 24 drops and normal broccoli around 16 drops to get to a color change. Furthermore, we concluded our experiment with the red wine-broccoli containing the most vitamin C, then tequila, 3rd being the regular broccoli used, and last was the white wine, containing the least amount of vitamin C.
574 3099 Investigating the Gastrointestinal Effects Resulting from Interactions between Lactobacillus Paracasei Shirota and Helicobacter Pylori for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Biochemistry & Microbiology S In recent years, researchers have been finding that individuals with autism experience more gastrointestinal issues than individuals without autism, which affects both their behavior and digestion. This project looks to see if by introducing Lactobacillus Paracasei Shirota to a part of the small intestine that may have an abundant amount of Helicobacter Pylori, we woud be able to see if the Lactobacillus Paracasei Shirota can compete against the Helicobacter Pylori. I hypothesized that Lactobacillus Paracasei Shirota would stop the Helicobacter Pylori bacteria from growing, which then can decrease digestive problems for people with ASD, seeing as many of them have an abundant amount of bacteria that cause indigestion, like Helicobacter Pylori, compared to someone without autism. The experiment results supported my hypothesis by showing how Lactobacillus would decrease the amount Helicobacter Pylori when introduced to the same gastrointestinal system, ultimately reducing indigestion and inflammation.
575 3100 Best Products To Remove Bacteria Biochemistry & Microbiology S This project is centered around finding the cleaning solution that works best to remove bacteria. This project was directed to everyday life when it comes to cleaning in the kitchen. This specific project used raw meat in order to create a realistic, real life situation when it comes to cleaning up after a meal. The reason we chose raw meat was because it contains the most bacteria. We also used the following solutions clorox wipes, lysol, bleach sodiumhypochlorite , and 409 multi-surface spray. Our hypothesis was that the sodium hypochlorite solution would kill the most bacteria out of the chemicals being tested. For the procedure, we distributed raw meat across the wooden cutting board after dividing the board into four equal sections. We then collected the bacteria from each section on a cotton swab and rubbed them across the petri dishes. Once we finished, we then cleaned each section with its specific cleaning solution. After that, we collected the sanitized areas on a cotton swab and rubbed them across labeled petri dishes. Our hypothesis was proven correct because the sodium hypochlorite removed around 6% more bacteria than the clorox wipes, which removed the second most amount of bacteria.
576 3101 An Organic Appproach- Antibiotic Resistent Bacteria Biochemistry & Microbiology S The reason for doing this project is to see if there is a cure medication for bacteria that are not responding to antibiotics.This investigation will be conducted using Petri Dishes, Nutrient Agar and Bacteria. First and Foremost I will create my nutrient agar then use a Q-tip to swab a keyboard. Secondly, I will create my different concoctions using Honey with garlic, Turmeric with Coconut Oil, and Pineapple Juice with Turmeric. I will then wipe the Q-tip onto my petri dish. Inside the petri dish is my nutrient agar to physically see the bacteria. I will then add my three drops of different types of concoctions into the different Petri dishes I will seal it tight and tape it. My observations will be recorded daily. I will be comparing my concoction to using a regular antibiotic penicillin to see the effect of my concoctions on bacteria.At the end of my experiment, I have come to the conclusion that garlic and honey were the most effective concoction that kept the antibiotic-resistant bacteria away the other mixtures did not work the bacteria grew on top of some of the other mixtures.In conclusion, my garlic and honey concoction was the closest to working and this information partly supports my hypothesis. If I were to do this experiment again I would use bacteria from a cell phone.
577 3102 Outsmarting Cancer through SREBP regulation Biochemistry & Microbiology S Fatty acid metabolic pathway in cancer proliferation is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. The fatty acid synthesis creates chains of fatty acids utilized by growing cancer cells for energy, to support processes such as membrane formation and signaling. The main enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of saturated fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH is fatty acid synthase FAS . The FASN gene codes for the multi-functional protein FAS. Any mutation in the FASN gene impacts the expression of the Fas protein and its metabolic pathways. Thus, FASN plays an important role in tumor cell development and survival. Research has been done on different ways to inhibit FASN. There are compounds known to inhibit FASN like C75 and cerulenin, but the mode of action of these compounds is not fully known and can cause a potential depletion of fatty acids. A better approach is to utilize the MiRNA inhibition process. The MiRNA can be used to prevent the transcription of the FASN gene by regulating its growth factors and preventing the formation of FASN proteins. One of the key growth factors that impact the FASN gene regulation is the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 SREBP-1 . The research findings reveal that SPREBP can regulate not only FASN but other signaling pathways that contribute to cancer proliferation. The miRNA, has-miR-33, is identified to inhibit SREBP-1 and 2 expression which subsequently down-regulates their targeted genes, including fatty acid synthase FASN . The SREBP regulation by his-MIR-33a represents a novel targeting mechanism for cancer therapy.
578 3103 The Interaction of Nicotine and E-Liquid Flavors Biochemistry & Microbiology S In response to little scientific research on the effects of vaping on the lung s microbiome and the youth vaping epidemic, this experiment looked at the interactions of vanilla, cinnamon spice, menthol, and tropical party to nicotine. My initial hypothesis was that cinnamon spice would kill the most bacteria and be more resistant to nicotine than the other three flavors tested. Using the checkerboard assay and the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test, it can be concluded that flavors do increase the harmfulness of nicotine. The e-liquid flavors of menthol and tropical party killed the most of the Streptococcus Salivarius bacteria while cinnamon spice and vanilla had a synergistic interaction with the nicotine which increased the bactericidal properties of nicotine. As a result of these findings, my initial hypothesis was correct that flavors do increase the harmful effects of nicotine, however, in the disk diffusion test, vanilla had double the resistance of the other three flavors to nicotine, not cinnamon spice like I originally hypothesized. Also, the checkerboard assay findings support my hypothesis that flavors and nicotine produce a greater negative effect on Streptococcus Salivarius bacteria than they would separately this indicates vape juice with nicotine and flavors are more toxic to the lung s microbiome.
579 3104 Puumala Virus Adaptation to Hosts: A Genome Based Analysis of Codon Usage Biochemistry & Microbiology S Puumala virus PUUV is an enveloped, single stranded negative-sense RNA virus with a tri- egmented genome that belongs to the orthohantavirus genus of the Hantaviridae family. PUUV is carried by the bank vole Myodes glareolus , a small rodent species that inhabits in most of Europe, Balkans, and Russia, as well as some parts of Asia. It was first isolated in 1979 from bank voles in Puumala, Finland. PUUV is the most commonly occurring hantavirus infection in Europe due to the extensive reservoir of the bank voles throughout the continent. The genome of PUUV is composed of three negative-sense, single stranded RNAs segments L large of 6.5 kb, M medium of 3.7 kb, and S small of 1.8 kb, which encode the viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase L protein , envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc, and nucleocapsid protein N , respectively. The nucleocapsid protein is the prime viral component in the infected cell and is the major target of immune response of the host. The diagnosis of PUUV is determined through the parallel detection of PUUV-specific IgM and IgG, which inflate with the appearance of PUUV in the cells and can be located in the serum.I was able to conclude that the genomes adopt its RSCU to their host whether its a homo sapien or myodes glareolus. I also concluded that the genomes have a different RSCU even if theyre from the same country but different parts, and if theyre from different countries.
580 3105 Testing the Effectiveness of UVC Light for Disinfecting Samples Collected From Shoe Soles Biochemistry & Microbiology S UV light allows for the disinfection of bacteria by creating changes in the DNA and RNA structure of the bacteria which causes the microorganisms to be unable to replicate. A study was conducted to test the effectiveness of this type of disinfection on bacteria found on the bottoms of shoes and investigate the minimum optimal exposure time of bacteria to UV light. A set of six swabs were taken from each of 3 shoes, creating a total set of 18. Each swab was spread on a petri dish and assigned an amount of time of exposure to the UV light, including 0 seconds Control , 10 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes. The samples were then placed in an incubator and the growth was observed the next day. The results of this study demonstrated that as the time of exposure to the UV light increased, the number of bacteria colonies observed decreased. This is represented through the collected data which shows the approximate number of bacteria colonies observed at each time of exposure. This study provides research that can be used to create more sterile environments in various facilities and allows for a better understanding of the effectiveness of UV light on the types of bacteria commonly found on the bottoms of shoes. The next step of this project will be to engineer a device that would disinfect an individual s shoe soles prior to entering a building, which could help decrease the potential for disease illness.
581 3106 Bye Bye Bacteria Biochemistry & Microbiology S In my investigation I chose to make two mixtures, containing two natural preservatives each, that will prevent the strawberry from getting contaminated. I first made petri dishes with agar. Then I started my experiment by cutting off a piece of strawberry and placing it into a petri dish. Next, I collected bacteria off a keyboard with a cotton swab and placed it on the opposite of the strawberry inside the petri dish. I taped the lid on and placed the dish into a plastic bag labeled Constant with two more trials of the constant. I repeated this procedure using strawberries soaked in honey and lemon and then strawberries soaked in coconut oil and sugar. After two days, the plain strawberries had a lot of green bacteria on them. However, the strawberries with the honey and lemon mixture had bacteria grow around the strawberry but not on it. Meanwhile, the strawberries with the coconut oil and sugar were starting to get more and more contaminated by the day. Not as much as the plain strawberries but the bacteria seemed to gravitate to the strawberry instead of avoiding it.In conclusion, the experiment proved my hypothesis correct, the strawberries with the honey and lemon mixture lasted the longest. In the end, it seemed as if some of the information that I had found was inaccurate but the honey and lemon mixture turned out to be a good preservative for the strawberries.
582 3107 The Role of the Fanconi Anemia Pathway in the Repair of DNA-Protein Crosslinks Biochemistry & Microbiology S The goal of this experiment is to determine the role of Fanconi anemia FA pathway in the repair of DNA-protein crosslinks DPCs , a bulky and common DNA damage. DPCs are associated with tumorigenesis, mutagenesis, and lethality but have been under investigated because of technical limitations. Currently, only one FA component gene has been investigated and found to be essential to DPCs repair. To address the potential concern that this finding is a result of cross interactions with other protein networks, it is necessary to demonstrate that other components of FA pathway display similar findings using knockout cells. With the advanced ARK assay and availability of isogenic mutants, five components of FA pathway in two cell lines HeLa and HCT116 were analyzed. The data show that the FA pathway is an essential mechanism for DPC repair. A clonogenic survival curve for wildtype and mutant HCT116 cells showed that the survival patterns of different mutant cells is largely associated with their capacity to repair DPCs after exposure to environmentally and endogenously prevalent DNA damaging agent formaldehyde. The potential application of this study is to provide new druggable targets for cancers.
583 3108 Does dog/cat saliva kill germs, and does toothpaste effect the saliva? Biochemistry & Microbiology S AbstractIt is said that dogs and cats lick their wounds to help heal and clean them. In this project we are trying to see if dog and cat saliva can kill germs, and if pet toothpaste has any effect on their saliva. We did this project because we both have cats and dogs, and it would be interesting to know the results. Our hypothesis is that if the saliva is added to bacteria and the toothpaste is added to the saliva, then they will both kill the bacteria. For our procedure we covered petri dishes in E.coli then placed the saliva on top of the E.coli. We also covered petri dishes in the animal s saliva then placed the pet toothpaste on top of the saliva. We put the petri dishes in an incubator for them to grow the bacteria. The saliva did not end up killing any of the bacteria, it actually added more. On the other hand, the toothpaste stopped some of the bacteria growth in the saliva. It is good to know that the toothpaste has a positive effect on the animal s saliva. The toothpaste helps to keep their mouth cleaner.
584 3109 Testing Mouthwash Biochemistry & Microbiology S This project is about several mouthwash brands and their ability to eliminate germs in your mouth. In order to test this, I had the subjects swab their mouth after using different mouthwash brands. They tried Crest, Colgate, Act, Dr. Tichenor s, and Listerine mouthwash. The best one is Crest, followed by Act and Colgate, then Listerine then Tichenor s. This did not support my hypothesis, which was that Dr. Tichenor s would do best due to the fact that it is so powerful that it must be diluted with water. The reason for this experiment is so that my family and I can know which mouthwash brand is the best for us.
585 3110 How does the killing ability of "natural" disinfectants compare to chemical disinfectants. Biochemistry & Microbiology S During this experiment, I was trying to find out the effectiveness of two disinfectants made from natural ingredients aloe and tea tree oil , and the effectiveness of two disinfectants with chemical ingredients 100% Bleach and 100% Lysol , and comparing them. I believed aloe would be the strongest natural disinfectant for its use in bruises, small cuts, and sunburns , and Bleach would be the strongest chemical disinfectant due to its potency . For the actual experiment, I simply created 6 different plates. Two as a control with no treatment , two for the natural disinfectants aloe and tea tree oil , and the last two for the chemical disinfectants bleach and lysol , with four zones of different bacteria concentrations each. I then created four wafers for each disinfectant, these wafers would be submerged in the disinfectant, and then placed in the week-long old colonies. I then observed the growth, or lack of, in the colonies. Aloe, had little to no effect on inhibiting growth. Bleach left condensed colonies of bacteria, though this could be from using 100% Bleach, the results are unreliable at best. Lysol, had a zone-of-inhibition of around 1.5 inches in diameter. And Tea Tree worked the best, with only highly condensed colonies remaining. In the end, Tea Tree oil was the best disinfectant. The only growth present is on the wafers themselves. I do believe however, the Bleach would have been superior. I do believe the only reason it wasn t is because of how it was 100%.
586 3111 Applying External Stress to Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Model for Tumor Growth Inhibition in Homo sapiens Biochemistry & Microbiology S It is estimated that one-third of people will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime and that number is only rising. Associated with cancer is tumor growth which, if left untreated, leads to organ failure and death. This project aimed to deduce the outcomes of osmotic and temperature stress on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell growth, as a model for tumor growth inhibition. In order to do so, temperature and osmotic stress were applied to the sample groups and cell viability was measured over specific intervals following the stress. Following experimentation, statistical and overall cell viability tests were conducted for each stress group, and the control group, to determine which stresses achieved the greatest success. Data suggested that a solution with a higher ratio of solvents to solutes water to glucose than the optimal ratio of the organism being modeled was the most effective at inhibiting tumor growth as well as higher temperatures. Overall, the research pointed towards osmotic stress working more accurately in inhibiting cell growth versus temperature stress as well as a greater ratio of solvent than solute being beneficial for cell growth inhibition. This research has the potential to be beneficial in tumor growth research and points toward the use of greater solvents and higher localized temperatures being applied to areas with tumor growth to inhibit the growth. This research possesses benefits for cancer patients by serving as information on certain possibly effective preventative measures an individual can take to inhibit tumor growth.
592 3117 Coated Phase Change Materials (PCM) particles for Light-to-Heat Conversion and Heat Storage Chemistry S The conversion of sunlight into heat is an effective way to utilize solar energy. PCM s, such as waxes or fatty acids, are able to store heat at high temperatures and release heat at lower temperatures. The aim of this project is to prepare particles of PCM with a photothermal layer for the extended purpose of capturing and storing heat generated from solar radiation . The experiment was successful the particles can convert infrared light to heat whilst also increasing the temperature of the particles to above the melting point of the PCM without leaking. It is expected that this type of novel particle can be employed in various applications, e.g. improving the heat insulation of rooftops, and the construction of ice-free pavement, etc.
593 3118 bed liner bomb proofing Chemistry S Our project is about the effectiveness of bed liner and how it can prevent serious damage against bombings. This is important because there are many terrorist attacks across the globe, in which this could help reduce the damage done towards the attack and to the country. This could be sprayed in building s walls all across the globe as a precaution for if there was a situation that occurred. For Example, In the pentagon, there is a similar substance to bed liner, that helps provide a cushion against bombings. Some of the major procedures we take are coating the objects to make sure they can withstand the firecracker, lighting the firecracker, observing the damage on a scale of 0-10, where 0 is nothing and 10 is completely destroyed, then finally putting it into a table. The most important observations that we made is that the bedliner actually muffled the damage by almost 50% on every object .Also when when tested the lightbulb without bedliner the glass shattered everywhere and it was completely destroyed, but with the bedliner, the lightbulb only had a burn mark from the explosive and everything inside of the lightbulb was in tact. Our conclusion is that bedliner can provide extra strength that can withstand serious power and that it reduced about 50% of the force from the firecracker. This is significant because in bombings and other attacks this means that more people can survive the situation and less damage will be done to our country.
594 3119 Oil's Well That Ends Well Chemistry S Pipes have existed for 6,000 years. Clogs have too. Millions of people annually have their pipes clogged from buildups, organic matter, and throwing FOG fats, oils, and grease down the drain. Clogs are a costly hassle. But there are so many ways clogs can be removed, right Well, most methods are either risky physical options or toxic and unsafe chemical options. What if there was a way to use natural drain cleaners, such as lemon juice or baking soda Is it possible that a palatable substance like Coke or water could dissolve solids like oils and grease This project tests which fluid can reduce or remove clogs from pipes. The obstruction samples were peanut butter, hazelnut spread, cream cheese and lard, which were tested with Sprite, Coke, lemon juice, saltwater, baking soda, water, vinegar, and apple cider vinegar Independent Variable to see how much of the blockage would be removed within one hour Dependent Variable . A vinyl PVC pipe was used to simulate an actual pipe. My hypothesis was that Coke would eliminate the most cream cheese and lard, and vinegar would eliminate the most hazelnut spread and peanut butter. The experimental results showed that vinegar eliminated most of the three types of clogs, and baking soda and Coke tied for the other. This partially supported my hypothesis, but baking soda was unexpectedly tied at first. Future research topics would be testing different locations in pipes, different clogging agents, and the development of an effective, all-natural formula to combat them.
595 3120 Cost Effective Reverse Osmosis System Chemistry S One of the most popular methods of cleaning water is Reverse Osmosis, but due to the materials required, this method is not widely available in developing countries with high water pollution. Therefor the need for a cost-effective method of Reverse Osmosis is necessary. For reverse osmosis, a semi-permeable membrane is necessary. Banana peels would be the ideal membrane for this, due to their cost and their porous surface. To achieve the osmotic pressure required, I used the liquid head. Liquid head is the height difference from the top of the water to the bottom. For the water, a salt concentration of 0.00119 g L was used. Four reverse Osmosis chambers were created, the first with a U tube using PVC pipes using the RO membrane. The second was a water bottle with a banana peel at the head.The third was the same as the second except with filter was coffee filters with dried banana peels. The last one was a U tube with a pump attached. The membrane was a sandwich of plastic netting, coffee filters, and banana peels. After the water was filtered out, it was determined that the banana peels do filter out the water, but not as well as the RO membrane. Therefore, the banana peel method requires a lot of pressure and a low salt concentration. This project would be good for puddles and other water sources with low salt concentration. This project would help developing countries find an easier way of getting clean water.
596 3121 Synthesis of 2,2'-Bithiazole Ligands and their Complexation with Various Lewis Acids Chemistry S Bithiazole-containing compounds and complexes hold much interest in various fields and applications. Transition-metal bithiazoles are most commonly studied, with close to no work done in p-block complexes. In this study, various 4,4 disubstituted 2,2 -bithiazole compounds were synthesized and reacted with various p-block Lewis acids as to determine complexation behavior. Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR was used to verify the identity of the various bithiazoles, and X-ray crystallography was utilized to characterize any potential coordination compounds. Overall, ligand synthesis was generally successful, with only one failed reaction, but complexation yielded more mixed results. X-ray crystallography was only successful for a handful of the reactions, as most reactions did not yield suitable crystals, but this does not necessarily eliminate the possibility that many of the reactions were successful thus p-block bithiazole complexes hold potential for further study.
597 3122 Drip or Drown Chemistry S Our question which type of water is best for the human body based on pH We chose this because water is extremely important to our health. Not only is it responsible for keeping us alive, but as well as help fight against disease. According to the U.S Agency, the best pH level is 7.5, right in the middle of 6.5-8.5. We hypothesized that if we were to test the pH of Evian water, it would show the best level due to its natural purification and extensive marketing . To test it, we needed 6 types of waters, pH meter, and pH drops. We tested the pH of each type of water using the meter and drops for 3 trials. Afterwards, we compared data to see which type could get closest to a pH of 7.5. As expected, the results observations show that Evian had the closest pH to being perfect. Using the meter, Evian had an average pH of 7.4. Using the drops, it showed Evian had developed the darkest color meaning closer to a 7.5 8. Both of those facts indicate that Evian has the most beneficial pH for us. In conclusion, our hypothesis was correct Evian brand water is at the top! This experiment opened our eyes to the fact that we need to be more aware of what goes into our body, especially on a regular basis. The experiment was successful, and we hope it provided people more insight on the chemical composition of common water s .
598 3123 Home V.S. Store-Bought Shampoo Chemistry S We decided to make our experiment off of the problem of would store bought or homemade shampoo work better Our hypothesis was that If you were to make your own shampoo at home from ingredients purchased from a local store rather than purchasing a cosmetic brand then the homemade shampoo will be more cosmetically efficient, will have to be left in for less time in the shower to get efficient results, and will cost less than the store bought brand. The results were that the homemade shampoo stayed efficient throughout the whole time, and the time it had to be left in for this efficiency was way less. The only thing that we failed at in our hypothesis was the cost, because it was way more expensive then we imagined. The next year we expect to find a way to figure out how to reduce the cost that was shown.
599 3124 Compost vs. Fertilizer Chemistry S The main purpose of my project was to top determine which organic substance compost or fertilizer would have the biggest impact on a bean plant. I was curious to know are their any methods to speed up the plant growing process. So I decided to put the 2 substances to the test by using their growth as a sign of development over a period of 4 weeks and attempting 2 trials. In the end, compost that was made of organic items triumphed over fertilizer.
600 3125 Ph Level Chemistry S In my experiment, I wanted to know what the Ph level is safe for our bodies to drink. In order to test this, I decided to use cabbage as my test subject in this testing. I used different types of brands in this testing. Towards the end of my experiment, I saw that none of my water brands followed with my hypothesis of seeing which brand had the purest of water. To change the world and to make my experiment better, I suggest that there should be more substances added and not just have water as a substance in the Ph level.
601 3126 How's the air in there? Chemistry S Photosynthesis is the way that plants breathe and the way that they produce oxygen and filter through carbon dioxide. The object of this lab was to determine which leaf length is the best at filtering CO2 and creating oxygen. I decided to do this project because I ve started seeing things in the news about how greenhouse gasses are being created more and more. I have also been seeing things online about global warming and I m worried about the environment but also about the human race as a whole. After seeing all of this, I knew that I wanted to do a science fair project involving keeping your house full of oxygen.What I did for my project was I used a bag, tape and rubber bands to seal a bag, the plants, and the CO2 inside. I tested them on different days but using the same materials and the same amount of time. After testing, I found out that my hypothesis was right. The plants with larger leaves had less CO2 in their container. I had done one test inside far away from a window, and this lead to cell respiration happening in the plants. By the end of the 24 hours, I came back to the lab to test the plants. The results show there was more CO2. Like I stated earlier, the concept that backs up my testing, is the concept of photosynthesis. After my two tests, I discovered that photosynthesis and cell respiration were both in play.
602 3127 Flood be gone Chemistry S By creating a hydrophobic substance to paint or apply to drywall, we could save homeowners thousands of dollars in the event of a flood. We fabricated three different solutions comprised of four different naturally hydrophobic substances lanolin, lard, linseed oil, and beeswax. We coated the drywall with the three different solutions and poured 1.5 cups water on it 3 different times on each section of drywall. We found that the solution of lanolin, beeswax and lard held up the best to the water. This project could be applied when a flood strikes and homeowners need something to protect their drywall. A way we could extend this research is we could try different mixtures of hydrophobic materials and figure out a more accurate way to measure how much water the drywall absorbed.
603 3128 AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Chemistry S AQUEOUS SOLUTIONSDivine-Gift OkelekeHightower High School This project in its present form is an experimentation of the best type of water based on its pH level. The initial idea was to compare the quantity to the quality of aqueous solutions. The idea of trying to determine the quality of water was more fascinating than testing the effects of different types of water on myself. I always wondered why there are so many different choices of water so I decided to test the pH level of the four main types in order to determine the best water to drink. pH measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. It s based on a scale where 7 is considered neutral. Solutions with a lower concentration of hydrogen ions have a higher pH basic , and those with a higher concentration are low pH acidic . The highest pH level was what I used to discern as the best choice of water, which was the Fiji Artesian water. I also did a social experiment because I was curious to know the most preferred water. The social experiment proved to me that most people are aware of how the pH level of water benefits their health depending on whether or not it contains more alkaline. Ultimately, the pH level of water does not really matter because most uncontaminated water won t make you healthier or sick as long as its pH level is within the range of 5 to 8.
604 3129 Making Non-Volatile Paint From Plastic Chemistry S Paint is necessary to protect structures against the weather and give buildings a nice look. However, many paints emit volatile substances that damage the atmosphere and can cause health problems. To counter this problem, paint was made through a mixture of polyethylene terephthalate PET , peanut oil, and polycaprolactone PCL since they don t emit volatile substances. Six different paints were made with different mole ratios. It was predicted that a mole ratio of 1 1 2-with order PET, peanut oil, PCL-would have the best qualities flexible but not breakable. The paint mixtures were made by melting PET and PCL in peanut oil in a beaker on a hot plate. Once the mixture was melted, the solid paint was preserved in a plastic bag and part of the paint was spread onto a wooden stick. Paints A, B, and C had similar qualities. They were all hard but a little flexible. Paint D reached the solubility point of PET and came out as part liquid and part solid. Paint E was the most flexible. It had a thin spread but good qualities. Paint F was the softest paint and was able to be broken. All of the paints were oily and easy to remove, and they had a high freezing point. This is due to the lack of a binder and water. Future experiments could include school glue in the mixture to account for the binder.
605 3130 pH, juice Chemistry S The purpose of conducting this experiment is to observe the pH level of orange juice once it s exposed for a certain amount of days to determine whether it still has benefits for the body. The hypothesis I created was If orange juice is exposed to room temperature for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days, then the orange juice exposed to room temperature for 5 days will be the least acidic. My approach for investigating this project wasn t complicated as I stared out with pouring 60 ml of orange juice to three cups and then leaving it exposed at room temperature for one day then measuring the pH level of the orange juice. Then, I left it exposed for 2 more days and then measured it with the pH meter again. Lastly, I left the three cups of orange juice exposed for 2 more days and measured the pH level with a pH meter. The results showed that the average pH level for day one is 3.81 pH, for day three it is 3.94 pH, and for day 5 it is 4.06 pH. In conclusion, my project contributes to the field I worked in as it provided information on whether orange juice s pH level changes drastically over days if exposed at room temperature and if the acidity decrease would drop health benefits.
606 3131 Tap That Water Chemistry S Distillation is the action of purifying a liquid by a process of heating and cooling. When you distillate, you are separating elements of a mixture based on different boiling points. Water distillation is significant since billions of people lack water. The purpose of this experiment is to find an efficient way to distillate water.For this experiment, three different methods were tested to see which one would be more efficient in producing water with a pH level close to the pH level of distilled water, 5.8. The three different methods used are the Bowl Method, Joseph s Bottle Method, and the Conversion Method. By boiling water in a pot in different ways, water gets evaporated into water vapor and then condenses to be precipitated and stored.The Conversion Method produced the most amount of water, although, this method wasn t able to produce distilled water. Joseph s Bottle Method produced distilled water with a pH level closest to 5.8, however, this method produced the least amount of water. The Bowl Method produced the second most amount of water that was also close to the pH level of normal distilled water, making this method the most efficient way to distill water out of the three methods tested in this experiment.
607 3132 Color Fading Chemistry S Light-fastness is the property of a colorant illustrating the resistance to fading when exposed to sunlight. Color fading is when the pigment in the garment loses its molecular attraction with the material itself. I chose this experiment because one of my friends shoe started to fade after about 2 months of having band practice in the sun which made me curious. I desired to find out which fabrics are more resistant to fading as I was in the sun a lot after school. I predicted that cotton will fade the most out of the 3 fabrics.I got 3 different fabrics, which were cotton, poly-cotton, and denim, and I placed them outside to be revealed to sunlight. I had the fabrics exposed to sunlight for 44 days. Each week I would compare the fabrics to the blue wool scale to see for any change. I identify the level of fade from the scale.My results proved that my hypothesis was wrong. The poly-cotton faded the most, and then cotton, and the denim did not change at all. With this data, I realized that with less cotton it will fade more. I can be more careful with clothing that has less than 100% cotton or if fabric is mixed with another type of fiber in the garment.
608 3133 Another Source of Fuel Chemistry S Ethanol, a biofuel which is produced from non-starch items and everyday objects, could reduce greenhouse gas GHG emissions by 18%-29% as compared to petroleum fuels. If successful, this project would show if ethanol could be produced using a nature-friendly process and if it could replace petroleum in the long run. Using a water bath, newspaper strips, orange peels, and grass went through acid hydrolysis and fermentation, with hydrochloric acid aiding the acid hydrolysis. Orange peels came the closest to producing ethanol with a pH of almost 2 as compared to newspaper strips and grass with a pH of 1. Not only did orange peels have a higher pH, they also showed glucose breaking down along with the orange peels themselves. The higher the pH level and glucose content, the closer it became to ethanol. Although ethanol traces were barely seen, if left in the fermentation state longer, orange peels would have inevitably produced more traces. The results could be solidified by multiple trials and testing more non-starch items, which would lead to better chances of producing a biofuel capable of replacing modern day fuels.
609 3134 A Silent Source of Sugar, Fruit Chemistry S This project aimed to find changes in the sugar content of fruits as they ripen in three locations to test the effects of light and temperature. By comparing results of sugar in fruits stored in the pantry, counter, and refrigerator, consumers can make an educated decision about the healthiest way to get their daily servings of fruit, without unnecessary sugar. This project s goal was to inform the population about making healthier choices in the fruits they eat and ways to reduce their daily sugar intake.To find the sugar content in ripening fruits, eight different types of fruit were stored in homogeneous sets of 4-8 in the pantry, counter top, and refrigerator. Tests were conducted daily to test sugar percentages throughout ripening. A clear fruit juice was extracted from blended fruit and tested on a refractometer to find the sugar percentage in the solution.Throughout testing physical changes in the fruits were observed, proving they did ripen.Tomatoes had the lowest sugar increase, closely followed by strawberries. In contrast, grapes and bananas had the highest sugar increase. Overall, the refrigerator stored fruits had the least sugar increase compared to pantry, and counter stored fruits. It can be concluded that consuming refrigerator stored fruits early in their ripening stage can reduce unnecessary sugar in diets. The results of this research can be used to allow people to make better informed decisions about the fruits they eat and associated healthier diet choices that may prevent disease in the future.
610 3135 Permanent Ink or Temporary Stink? Chemistry S Permanent markers are often used by teachers, government officials, CEO s and engineer in order to secure documents over extended periods of time. Thus I believe it is important that permanent ink can withstand, not only the test of time but wear and tear as well. This lead me to the question my experiment is based off of, How Permanent are Permanent markers , and it will use a washing machine to test if permanent markers can handle some water. In order to do this experiment you need a few different brands of black permanent markers, some cloth, scissors, and a washing machine. I hypothesized that the Avery marker would remain the darkest after the experiment and the results proved my hypothesis correct. I then concluded that the type of tip may affect how the ink is percieived and that all of the markers were excellent and worth using.
611 3136 Neutral Grounds Chemistry S Do you feel sick from drinking coffee with too much acid Is it hard for you to know what type of coffee brew method to use Although there are many coffee lovers, a majority have trouble drinking coffee due to the high acidity level. This experiment will help find a brew method making it possible to get your daily boost of caffeine, without feeling the pain of it later. This experiment tests the ph levels of French press coffee, cold brew coffee, and drip coffee, to see which is the least acidic. The results of this experiment showed that the cold brew coffee had a higher Ph level than the drip and French press methods. The higher ph means it has a lower amount of acidity. For example, the average Ph level amount for the cold brew was 5.34, drip coffee was 5.14, and the French press was 5.25. This verifies my hypothesis that cold brew would be the least acidic coffee. This experiment is easy to try and very beneficial for coffee lovers that are ready to get rid of the pain caused by high levels of acidity.
612 3137 Concrete Permeability Chemistry S In recent years, sand has been in a decline, and building unsustainable concrete can contribute to this problem. The purpose of this project is to determine the effect of different types of crystallization technology on concrete permeability. The goal is to see if crystallization technology reduces water permeability in concrete, then sodium acetate will reduce water permeability in concrete the most. This experiment was tested by pouring distilled water into divots of concrete covered in sodium acetate, sodium carbonate, and sodium citrate. The control had no crystallization technology on it. They were all outside and covered by Saran wrap to prevent evaporation for 2 days. The data that was collected shows that the concrete with no crystallization technology had the lowest average of 7.8 tbsp. The concrete that absorbed the most amount of water was sodium citrate with 10.6 tbsp. as an average. Sodium acetate concrete is the ideal concrete additive to improve the environment because the amount of water absorbed will decrease. The results of this experiment are significant because they reduce water permeability and can allow concrete to be more sustainable which decreases the amount of sand needed to build it.
613 3138 Baking a Bomb: Measuring Explosive Forces in Basic Ingredients Chemistry S Many of the common substances we enjoy the use of daily are in the form of powders. Their conveniences come with deadly consequences any kind of combustible powder can trigger a phenomenon known as a dust explosion when dispersed in the air and exposed to an ignition source. Since such occurrences endanger industries such as manufacturing, this study aimed to find which out of six flammable powders commonly found in the domestic environment could fuel the strongest dust explosion. The researcher constructed a testing container for the study from a two gallon bucket, four meters of flexible tubing, and a manual bicycle pump. Explosive strength was measured by how far each powder could launch the bucket s lid. It was originally hypothesized that cinnamon would fuel the strongest explosions due to particle size and its containing flammable vapors. The study suggested that cornstarch and sugar caused the strongest explosions. Errors in this study may have occurred from a lack of climate control and human errors. If the results from this study were validated with additional trials, substances, and better controlled environments, it could allow people and organizations involved in activities conducive to dust explosions to better protect themselves from the dangers of dust.
614 3139 Hydroxide Carbon Capture Chemistry S The abundance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is one of the biggest environmental problems we are facing causing events such as the globally increasing temperatures, extreme weather events, rising seas, and shifts in wildlife populations and habitats. Scientists have invented different ways to capture that carbon dioxide and then turn it into something else in order to turn the abundance from harmful to useful. I investigated which of four metal hydroxides barium, calcium, sodium and potassium was the most cost effective to use for carbon capture in order to see which one companies were most likely to be willing to use, since a metal hydroxide and carbon dioxide make a metal carbonate which can be used for profit. I made carbon dioxide by combining hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate, and then combined that CO2 with the hydroxide solutions. I had ten trials for each hydroxide, and another ten with water as my control. The data I gathered from the experiment showed that barium hydroxide produced the largest amount of precipitate but was also the most expensive. Potassium hydroxide produced the least but had the second largest theoretical mass, while also costing $1.35 less than barium hydroxide. My experiment can be used as data to support a proposal to companies that are interested in helping the environment but don t know what to start with. The data I gathered can be used as an incentive to guide them towards carbon capture using metal hydroxides since the products can be profitable.
615 3140 Creating a Compostable and Biodegradable Substitution for Zip Top Plastic Bags Chemistry S Conventional ziplock bags take approximately 10 to 100 years to break down in ideal conditions. These conditions include frequent and consistent exposure to UV radiation from sunlight and fresh air. If one of these conditions is not present then the plastic bag will remain indefinitely, this poses a major problem due to the way that our landfills are setup and maintained. Most landfills cutoff waste from both air circulation and UV radiation causing a vast majority of plastic waste to never breakdown. The solution to this problem, biodegradable, compostable imitation plastic products. During the duration of this experiment I tested five different bioplastic formulas and attempted to create ziplock bags that are biodegradable and compostable. Three of the tested formulas dried out to be a powder and were not able to be used to create bags with, while two formulas were relatively flexible and dried down to a sheet rather than a powder. All of the formulas were tested to find out if any formula dematerialised when in extended contact with water and moisture. Each sample was then scored on a scale of zero to five in five different categories, this information was then imputed into multiple graphs and a grid chart to be more easily compared against the other samples.
616 3141 Paint Mayhem Chemistry S Over the years, many murals, or paint portraits are being damaged, and destroyed due to temperature. This causes many pieces of art to be lost to temperature damage. Which is why I tried to create an eco-friendly, organic, and homemade paint that is well preserved against temperature.For this experiment, I decided to test what homemade paints can best withstand temperature. Therefore, I created four different kinds of paint, paint one control group containing Eggs, Milk, Sap, Water, Strawberries, Cherries, Beets, and Hibiscus. A second paint with Eggs, Water, Strawberries, a third with Sap Syrup, Water, Cherries, and a fourth paint having Milk, Water, Beets, and Hibiscus. Next, I gave each paint for each trial their own wood plank, and sectioned the wood planks to observe how much paint was preserved against temperature. Then I place them on a wood plank inside a fridge and in front of a heater for 3 hours, and 3 trials for both the heater fridge. Which then I found that paint 4 was the most effective paint against both hot, and cold temperatures.
617 3142 Which acids dissolve copper the most efficiently? Chemistry S In the experiment, we tested which acids dissolved copper the most efficiently. We used nitric, sulfuric, acetic, and a mixture of sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. Our hypothesis was if we used nitric acid, then the copper would dissolve in under a minute. We weighed each copper rod, ruled out the copper rods with abnormal weight, put on safety equipment, poured equal amounts of each acid and distilled water in each flask, inserted magnetic strips, labeled each flask and copper rod, inserted copper rods one at a time, began using timers, turned on fume hood and maintained an equal amount of heat in each flask, recorded observations, poured liquid down drain when done, and rinsed flask for each trial. Only nitric acid successfully dissolved the copper rod, in an average of 21 minutes and 30 seconds. Our hypothesis was partially correct, if we used nitric acid, then the copper would dissolve in under a minute, the nitric acid did dissolve the acid the fastest, but not under a minute.
618 3143 Home Remedy Paint Remover Chemistry S We first started off this project with making a hypothesis as to which one of the 3 mixtures we thought would best remove paint. We predicted that the mixture containing baking soda would do the best, the mixture containing vinegar in 2nd, and the mixture containing hairspray in 3rd. After doing this, we started our physical part of the experiment with putting on all of our protective gear such as goggles, gloves, and being in a well ventilated area. We then grabbed 3 small spray bottles and filled each of them with 4 tbs of rubbing alcohol and 2 tbs of water as a base. Then we filled each spray bottle with 1 tbs of a different substance. 1 spray bottle contained vinegar, another baking soda, and the last hairspray. We then grabbed our 3 items of clothing that had dried paint on it and scrubbed each solution on a separate item of clothing with a sponge until fully drenched scrubbed. Then we proceeded to wash our 3 items of clothing in the washer,with no detergent, and dried it in the dryer. When we finished washing and drying the clothing, we noticed that mixture containing baking soda did the best in removing the paint stain with the mixture containing hairspray coming in 2nd and the mixture containing vinegar coming in last. In the end, our hypothesis was proven correct for first place but incorrect for the rest as we thought the hairspray would make the clothing sticky rather then clean.
619 3144 Is Caffeine An Agent? Chemistry S Caffeine is a type of drink that is consumed daily by a majority of people and those with braces. Given the idea that caffeine is acidic, this may influence the braces. To have a person wear braces for a constant amount of time while bearing in mind that it holds the chance of producing a result is severely grave. It poses a health hazard to whoever has braces. The purpose of the research is to find out if the different concentrations of caffeine will have any effects on copper or nickel. The experiment was performed with quarters as they contain both metals. After each coin got exposed to coffee for a minimum of 72 hours, they will be left isolated in a room temperature room for a minimum of 5 days. Then they will be weighed. Data was transparent as results show the quarters being affected. The project is to see if the same components of both quarters and braces will react.
620 3145 Drag Free Recovery of Oil Chemistry S The global demand of oil and gas contributes to rising costs in the oil field. In the oil field, it is a challenging task to manage the movement of huge amounts of crude and purified oil in pipelines given the turbulent flow. The fluid experiences hindrances due to turbulent flow, flow velocity, and pressure given frictional losses. This turbulent flow makes process energy inefficient and cost intensive. Turbulent flow in pipelines can be managed to organize flow of oil streams by injecting small amounts of high molecular weight polymers. This is known as polymer induced drag friction reduction. Such polymers are classified as drag reducing agent s DRAs . Managing turbulence flow in lines increases energy efficiency and throughput of pipeline for transportation. This project offers an opportunity to study the effect of various types of initiators on the emulsion polymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid.Polyacrylamide emulsions were prepared using types of initiators and their performances were studied. Polymer samples were prepared by a reaction of 50 % w w aqueous solution of acrylamide and sodium Salt of acrylic acid. The aqueous and oil phase were homogenized to achieve acceptable viscosity and polymerized using five different initiators. Resulting emulsions were subjected for performance testing in a flow loop simulating their application in oil field for drag reduction.Polyacrylamide, prepared using sodium metabisulfite, showed the highest drag reduction 70 % . Therefore, the hypothesis was correct about polyacrylamide emulsion prepared using sodium metabisulfite showing the best drag reduction when measured in a flow loop.
621 3146 Enzymatic Browning Chemistry S A lot of fruits are produced, processed, and shipped on a daily basis to be purchased fresh. However, a lot of the produce don t make it to the stores because they turn brown or spoil over time. The purpose of this experiment was to test out which liquid can keep the apples still looking fresh. My question was, which liquid can keep apples from turning brown and my hypothesis was, if an apple is covered with lemon juice, then it will prevent the apple from turning brown. I went on and tested out my hypothesis, letting the apples stand for 5 hours and wrote my results on a table. In conclusion, my hypothesis was correct. The lemon juice was the best liquid to keep the apples from browning, second was the saltwater, then milk, water and last the control. Lemon juice keeps apples from turning brown because it has a lot of ascorbic acid, vitamin C, and a low pH level.
622 3147 Measuring sugar content of a liquid with a laser pointer Chemistry S This project is important because it can help determine sugar levels in liquids by just using a light source. I am basically using a laser to determine if the sugar affects the laser passing through the two sodas which are one diet cola and one cola. Coke has 25 grams of sugar while Diet coke has little to no sugar. The hollow acrylic prism when empty the laser point will go straight through and will not be refracted. The laser point that is not refracted, is known as the original point, and is marked on the wall. The degree of refraction of the laser point is greater with a high sugar level beverage than with a non-sugar beverage. The Coke had 25 grams of sugar and a higher level of concentration and the diet coke did not have any sugar and has a low level of concentration, so it was basically the same thing as water.
623 3148 Analysis of a Food Protein Concentration Assay Chemistry S Phenylketonuria PKU is a genetic disorder that inhibits the metabolism of the essential amino acid phenylalanine, which accumulates in the bloodstream and at high concentrations causes seizures, intellectual disability, and numerous other detriments. To avoid phenylalanine s harmful effects on health, PKU patients must maintain a low protein diet throughout their life however, many foods contain inaccurate nutritional labels or lack them altogether, creating a need for a handheld device that can estimate the protein content of foods. Most current methods of food protein determination require complex digestion processes, which are infeasible for such a device. This study focused on the biuret method, a simple spectrophotometric assay, and determining its accuracy across different types of proteins.Serial dilutions were created for three different types of proteins whey, soy, and casein, and the samples were measured at 540 nm. A calibration curve was generated using a serial dilution of egg albumin and used to convert absorbance values of all the proteins to concentration. A prediction of the amount of protein in a sample of known concentration was generated from the concentration data and used to gauge the accuracy of the assay.For a 30-gram protein sample, the assay predicted on average 33.893 grams, an overestimation of 12.98%. A Chi-squared test conducted between the known and observed protein content values yielded a p-value of 0.03353. The accuracy exhibited is sufficient for the application in a device to efficiently estimate the protein content of foods, aiding PKU patients in low-protein dieting.
624 3149 Stain out! Chemistry S Does one buy a laundry detergent based on price, smell or previous performance As a consumer, one thinks that a detergent s performance is usually based on its price. In this experiment, we came up with the idea of determining if a detergent s performance is based on its pricing and how well it can clean the clothes we washed, and finally, if the dirt is transferred to a redeposition swatch. We used unstained cotton and cotton polyester blend swatches as our redemposition study, three different stained cotton and cotton polyester swatches, and three different laundry detergents. We used cotton and cotton polyester because the difference between them was that cotton was more durable and breathable while the cotton polyester blend repelled water and isn t durable. The purpose of testing these two types of materials was to see if it showed different results. By using a light spectrometer, we can measure the before washing and after washing of each swatch. The program associated with the light spectrometer measures and calculates the delta changes for each swatch. Thus, we can observe the performance results of all swatches. Based on all the data gathered and multiple trial washes, results showed that the Gain laundry detergent worked best on all three stained swatches and as well as on the cotton and cotton polyester blends. Furthermore after examining the redeposition swatches, Gain did transfer the least amount of dirt to the redepostions. Therefore, Gain performed the best versus the more generic priced detergent Arm Hammer and the luxury priced detergent Diva .
625 3150 Potassium Extraction Chemistry S In this project I collected various food products and by-products to turn into potassium hydroxide. I collected banana peels, potato skins, and dried apricots and dehydrated them, after that I burnt them down into ash, boiled and filtered them to get potassium carbonate. The potassium carbonate was mixed with calcium hydroxide and made solid into potassium hydroxide. With the potassium hydroxide I compared the various foods with the initial amount as well the other potassium hydroxide I collected.
630 3155 The File That Never Disappeared Computer Sciences S Imagine spending months working on an important business proposal for a company that is bidding for a multi-million dollar project, and one day, the proposal document that was stored on a computer disappeared and was nowhere to be found and finding out that no data was backed up. How can the lost document be recovered without having to recreate the work again and not have a major impact on the deadline The objective of this project was to show that a file can be recovered from a storage drive using custom Python programs. The first program was designed to read and interpret the MFT table in order to determine the location of the file on the storage drives. Once the location of the file was determined, the second program took that information and used it to read and restore the file. Files of 1 MB and 100 MB of size were deleted to later be recovered on both hard disk drives and solid state drives. The file recovery process was successful when a file mapping existed in the MFT table. This can be useful in real world situations where a file could be corrupted due to hard drive failure or unintentionally deleted due to human error.
631 3156 Detecting Deepfakes by Using a Convolutional Neural Network Computer Sciences S Recently, the spread of fake news has been promoted by fabricated, easy-to-make videos called deepfakes. Deepfakes can make it appear as if someone has made a statement that they actually have not through the use of machine learning. As the quality of deepfakes improve, the need for a deepfake detection software becomes more urgent. In order to create a deepfake detection device, a convolutional neural network CNN was created. The programming language Python, with Python extensions such as Keras, Matplotlib, and OpenCV, were used to make the CNN. The CNN was trained on the FaceForensics++ benchmark dataset which had 1000 real videos and 1000 deepfakes. The 2000 videos were broken down into frames, cropped so that each image contained only the face, and layered on top of each other to create an average image for each video that was then passed into the CNN. To validate the accuracy of the CNN, a 20 question assessment was given to human participants in which they had to differentiate between real and deepfake videos. The CNN M 85.46, SD 0.67 performed substantially better than the human participants M 67.55, SD 14.88 at detecting deepfakes t 198 12.0241, p 0.00005. Research from this project can be applied and commercialized by producing a plug-in with the weights of the CNN as an extension for Google Chrome. The code can also be integrated into social media platforms in order for the platforms to detect a deepfake video and tag it.
632 3157 Using AI to Differentiate Writing Styles Across Various Time Periods Computer Sciences S Historians are constantly looking for new and accurate ways to observe and analyze ancient documents. Even though humans spend time going through book by book trying to determine the year it was written, it is highly inefficient and unreliable to have a human being be in charge of such a task. So, how accurately does an AI predict the year a document was written This project observed the fact of how a computer can find the year written of the document by simply comparing it to some of the same year s work. To have a well-trained AI you need a plethora of documents. In this case, I have used over 60,000 e-books from the Gutenberg project to train my AI. My hypothesis was, if the dataset is input into the AI, then the overall average testing accuracy will be 50% correct. My experiment concluded that my hypothesis was heavily incorrect because the real accuracy was 19.66%. This number, however, shows a slight correlation between year written and the writing style. Statistically, since we use 23 different years, we should get around 4.34% with no correlation. Therefor with fine-tuning, the accuracy of the program can be dramatically increased in the future.
633 3158 Developing Machine Learning Models For the Diagnosis & Prognosis of Brain & Lung Cancer Computer Sciences S Glioblastoma is the most aggressive type of brain cancer and can be extremely lethal, with just 5% of patients surviving for 5 years post-diagnosis. Current options for post-diagnosis treatment assessment include brain biopsies for determining tumor characteristics and manual tumor segmentations for surgical planning. However, biopsies are invasive, can result in complications, and require visual inspection, while manual tumor segmentations are time-consuming and subject to significant variability between clinical experts. This project aimed to expedite this post-diagnosis treatment determination process utilizing machine learning techniques. First, a machine learning model was developed for classifying gliomas based on tumor progression. Next, the researcher developed a model that could accurately segment brain tumors into the tumor core, non-enhancing core, and peritumoral edema. Lastly, a support vector classifier was developed utilizing radiomic features for classifying tumors based on 1p 19q codeletion and methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase MGMT methylation status, which can indicate increased patient survival rates and sensitivity to treatments such as chemotherapy. All models were implemented in the Keras library in Python and were trained on MRI scans from The Cancer Imaging Archive and the MICCAI BraTS 2019 dataset. All three models performed comparably to clinical experts, suggesting their viability in a clinical setting. The contributions of this work allow for automatic assessment of post-diagnosis treatment determination for brain tumors.
634 3159 Can a Computer Predict Plant Growth Computer Sciences S The project I did is about if data online plugged into a formula ran by exel will accurately project plant growth. I chose this project because I have experience doing plant projects in the past, and I feel comfortable in that category. If the formula has an 85% ratio compared to the plant growth, then it will be successful. I filled the soil in 3 pots to the same height, and then placed 3 seeds and put 1.5 inches 4 cm. of soil on top of the seeds. Everyday at around 7 30 p.m. I watered the plants. For that day I would record the sunlight for every plant, the height, the computer generated height and the ratio for the computer to plant growth. Repeat this for the next 30 days. A significance of my project was see if info online transfering into a formula would accurately predict growth. Unfortuantly my project resulted in the computer passing 1 3 times, meaning it failed. If I continue this expirement I might ask an actual soybean farmer ,and add in more variables.
635 3160 Cracking the Code- The importance of cyber security in todays time Computer Sciences S Cyber Security has become increasingly important in this era as everything moves towards technology. With this transition comes the issue of keeping your data safe online. Millions of people often use the same passwords every day and this proves easy for hackers to exploit. To raise awareness I have coded 4 methods to crack common passwords used on the Internet. Each method has been coded to break a specific type of password whether it be a combination of letters, numbers, lowercase, and upper case characters. Through this project, I will examine just how easy it is for hackers to not only access your information but just how quickly they can do it through basic python programming.
636 3161 Stress Detection Using Deep Neural Networks Computer Sciences S Over 70% of Americans experience stress stress is deeply detrimental to physiological health and psychological wellbeing American Institute of Stress . Studies found that chronic stress results in cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, and diabetes. Thus, it is of paramount importance to develop robust methods for the rapid detection of human stress. Prior research showed that physiological signals can reliably predict stress. Researchers have attempted to detect stress by using machine learning methods that analyze physiological signals. However, results have been mixed.To address this deficiency, this project develops two novel deep neural networks, specifically, a multilayer perceptron and a deep convolutional neural network, that analyze physiological data collected from wrist-based and chest-based sensors to detect stress.The networks were trained and tested on publicly available data collected in previous studies, yielding respective 99.12 and 99.32 accuracy rates. To demonstrate the project s practicality, an iOS app running the multilayer perceptron network was developed. Testing the app on an iPhone 8 revealed that the network consumed 1.8% of the device s computational resources. Furthermore, a real-time mobile stress monitoring system composed of a wearable wrist sensor, a mobile phone, and a cloud-based service was proposed.Accurately and promptly detecting stress has significant ramifications for health and wellbeing. This project provides a novel and promising method that detects stress in a reliable, real-time, and nonintrusive fashion, holding significant promise for the early, continuous, and objective detection of stress. This research could lead to interventions that address the myriad negative consequences of stress.
637 3162 From Telegraph To Telepath: Using Neural Oscillation To Develop A Brain Operated Telecommunication Device Computer Sciences S According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, an estimated 7.5 million people in the U.S are unable to, or have significant trouble when speaking. Without clear speech, communication can become difficult, and in some cases, impossible. In response to this issue, we developed a device that can send messages using only sender s brain. This was done by using an electroencephalogram to read the sender s neural oscillations, commonly referred to as brain waves , and convert them into Morse code. Those Morse code Values were then converted into English text, which was read by a text-to-speech software and sent to a receiver circuit via bluetooth. The person receiving the message could hear it through bone conduction, allowing conversations to stay private. Due to unforeseen technical difficulties, we were unable to gather data from this device, but theoretically it does work. Possible applications for this device include equipping people with severe spinal cord damage or congenital disorder resulting in paralysis of the face and body with this device. This would allow them to communicate with medical professionals, greatly improving the quality of the care they can be given.
638 3163 Utilizing Thermoelectric Coolers to Cool Computer Processors Computer Sciences S The goal of this project was to design a CPU cooler that takes up the same space as a 120mm AIO, but provides better cooling performance than a cooler of the same size. We designed a cooling system that uses thermoelectric coolers TECs integrated into a liquid cooling system to provide higher performance cooling at the cost of using more power. Two coolers were tested, our solution and the 120mm AIO. Both coolers were applied to the same computer processor under the same environment and the computer was put under an artificial workload to stress the processor. The workload test was run for 25 minutes for each cooler and temperatures were recorded for each to see which one kept the processor cooler. In our testing we found that the TEC cooler achieves lower temperatures than a 120 mm radiator cooler of the same size while drawing 100 more watts of power. This cooler has many applications, such as in server rooms, powerful computers and on overclocked processors. The main area you would see this cooler be applied is in small form factor, high performance desktops. Computers like these have very powerful processors crammed into small areas making it very hard for them to be sufficiently cooled. Our solution could help cool powerful computers like these while still keeping them small.
639 3164 Analyzing and Predicting Stock Price Movements using Machine Learning Techniques Computer Sciences S Public stock markets enable investors to make financial investments through buying and selling company equity. More and more people globally have some sort of investment or holding in the stock market in someway, be it mutual or index funds, taxable accounts, or even retirement accounts, all with the potential to yield greater investment gains by recognizing market trends. However due to the various factors that influence the stock market, predicting stock price movements is challenging. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate how well machine learning algorithms could predict the price of selected stocks over the course of five years using historical stock market data for the top twenty technology stocks based on market capitalization. The data was filtered by year and technical indicators were calculated, most notably Relative Strength Index, Volume, and Moving Average which provide indication of the price trajectory of a stock. The Random Forest and Two Class Neural Network algorithms were used to predict the daily change in closing price for each of the stocks. Results showed that the Two Class Neural Network consistently had a higher area under the curve, accuracy, and precision in predicting the closing prices using the indicators as the independent variables. The Results showed that the model is reasonably accurate in predicting stock prices with the limited data used in the study. The study can be expanded to consider other technical indicators, sentiment data regarding the companies, and other algorithms to potentially increase the accuracy of the model s predictions.
640 3165 Using Artificial Intelligence for Asset Performance Management Computer Sciences S In this work, a mathematical model is developed using R open source software which will enable the monitoring of an asset in this system, a cooler on a continuous basis. We will be using the data from multiple sensors which measure temperature, pressure, vibration and power to evaluate how each of them a combination of them affect the cooler condition. We start with a single variable, simple linear regression model and advance to multi-variable models. A total of 15 models are developed, which are then evaluated for accuracy. We then calculate Root Mean Square Error RMSE and Mean Absolute Error MAE for each of the models that are developed to identify which would be the most accurate model we can use to identify failure. The final model is now able to take inputs variables and determine cooler condition, upon which we can take definitive action related to maintenance of the asset.
641 3166 The Effects of Overclocking on CPU Performance Computer Sciences S A lot of people who do high-performance computing attempt to overclock their CPUs to get the maximum performance. The downside is that the CPU can get too hot and either throttle itself back or stop working. For most personal computers, there are three different methods of keeping the CPU to the proper temperature. These being air cooling with a CPU heatsink and fan, heat pipe, and liquid water cooling. If a good compromise between overclocking parameters and the proper type of CPU cooler, the computer can operate at high speeds, use less energy, and cost less to produce by using a less expensive CPU and CPU cooler. Benchmark programs put the computer through some aggressive scenarios while recording the performance specs of the computer. This is then ranked with the fastest available computers for comparison. The computer used in this experiment ranked in the low 60% range, whereas a great computer would be in the high 90% range. Since the processor used in the experiment include the graphics, the graphics is the limiting factor. during a lot of the benchmark testing, the graphics were maxed out at 100%.
642 3167 Engineering a Cost-Effective and Intelligent Kinematic Tracking System Utilizing Machine Learning Computer Sciences S As the Baby Boomer population has aged, healthcare costs and needs have continued to rise, with modern medicine being left to adapt. One industry that has answered the call has been the physical therapy industry. It has grown 20% in the past 5 years and is projected to grow even more the next 5 years. However, the industry currently has two key limitations a lack of affordable in-home options, and a lack of quantitative data. To solve these issues, this project focused on the engineering of a novel kinematic tracking system, consisting of parts totaling under $10. With only two inertial sensors, the engineered system was able to accurately and reliably map an arm s motion in 3d-space in real-time. On top of this, using the same two sensors, various machine learning models were built that could distinguish between a jab, hook, and uppercut punch, three similar but distinct motions. Traditional models were used, but novel models were made by converting the numerical data into image data, giving each motion an image signature that could be recognized in the future. These models were able to reach accuracies of up to 99%. Overall, the effects of this project are many and far-reaching. Physical therapy clinics will be able to reach a greater number of patients by offering an affordable, portable system that can model a patient s body from the confines of their home. And the novel motion recognition can be used to autonomously detect incorrect postures in patients, and springboard new research.
643 3168 Global Warming: The App - A Novel User Facing Application Predicting and Mapping Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health Powered By Back Propagated Artificial Neural Networks Computer Sciences S Climate change is, without question and without argument, the biggest, most looming threat facing humanity in the near future. At the International Climate Summit last year, scientists issued a statement to politicians across the globe calling climate change irreversible and a problem that can only be lessened at an impact level . Thus, the problem shifts from trying to reverse the trend of climate change to predicting where its impacts will land, and how to intricately tailor policy to solve for that. The best way to do this is with an artificial neural network ANN that uses forward feed layers and back propagation training methods. This project, Global Warming The App uses ANNs to achieve the trifold purpose of predicting future impacts of climate change on human health, factor in prerequisite conditions of human health, and prove the dire need for shifts in policy. Along with the neural networks, a user-facing application was developed to allow people to actually see the effects in their locale. The app allows them to see various outputs on how climate change will affect them, in terms of temperature, sea level change, and weather phenomena, with health readings on disease, heatstroke, and food and water security. The accuracy rate was around 90% for the highest states and 70% at the lowest level, exponentially outclassing the other networks, and making a very useful tool for prediction.
644 3169 Different Cooling Devices Affecting CPU Temps Computer Sciences S My project was Different Cooling Devices Affecting CPU Temps. In this experiment, I was attempting to find out which type of cooling device is the most effective at lowering CPU temperatures during stress. I originally believed that the liquid all-in-one cooler would be the most effective because it costs the most and involves water to cool the CPU. And I believe the Peltier Module to be about a little better than the air cooler.The methods I used to complete this experiment were to start by letting the cpu idle with each cooler for 10 minutes then do a series of benchmarks. During each benchmark I would record the highest and lowest temps using software and an Infrared thermometer. This was tested with the base clock and while overclocked 3 times for each device.The results of my experiment were partly the same as my hypothesis. The liquid cooler was the most effective at cooling, but the peltier module was the worst. During the base clock testing, the peltier module was barely less effective than air cooling. However, the peltier module fell behind significantly during the overclocked testing.In conclusion, water cooling is the best consumer option for cooling a CPU. Air cooling is the best all around option for cooling and using the peltier module is the least effective. Later on I could continue this by using more powerful components to see if the quality of the cooling device affects anything.
645 3170 Reinforcement Learning Controller for a Walking Robot Computer Sciences S Utilizing tools from MATLAB and reinforcement learning, a robot model was constructed mirroring a primitive construction of individual rectangular prisms. The model was designed to simulate a human s walking motions through reinforcement learning, and on the analytical level, went through the same process of what a normal human infant would go through trial, reward, and repeat. This process was carried out using a block template provided by MATLAB and modifying the individual blocks to be more reminiscent of a real human being. Most noticeable in these changes were the implementation of joints and a smooth rigid body. The terrain had no bumps, was completely flat, and provided a spline, or one-dimensional path, to which the robot followed. After training, the robot could walk briskly for a short period of time. Extensions of this work can follow the reinforcement learning paradigm to create a functional robot for repetitive labor.
646 3171 The Visualization and Processing of Data For Flash Flood Warnings Computer Sciences S In the 1980s the National Weather Service NWS began deploying the Next-Generation Radars NEXRAD Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988 Doppler WSR-88D around the country. They work by sending pulses of microwaves at varying degrees from the ground while rotating 360 every 5 minutes. These microwaves hit targets and are then reflected back to the radar to be analyzed by a computer, the strength of the microwaves determine its reflectivity. This information can be used to determine the location and intensity of precipitation. It is also possible to determine the movement of precipitation by taking advantage of the doppler effect to calculate the radial velocities of a weather system. The question here is, How can we visualize and prepare weather radar data for AI to train with The purpose of this project is to prepare data to train artificial intelligence to identify precipitation and warn against natural disasters such as flash floods. At its current state, our python program can accurately map the locations of stations and warnings. In addition to drawing maps, it can determine whether what type of phenomenon is occurring and if a station is within the warning area. The program can create a JSON file from ASOS-AWOS-METAR data. We decided to focus on August 28, 2017, when hurricane Harvey struck. We took a look at the precipitation values, temperature, wind direction, and wind speeds from KHOU which we determine was within one of the warning areas during August 28th using another function we created.
647 3172 Artificial Neural Network for Programming Language Processing (PLP) in Programmatic Generation and Classification in Python Computer Sciences S Programmers are needed more than ever to bring new products to life, however, there are around 500,000 unfilled computer science jobs in the United States, n.d. . Using an artificial neural network, this project aimed to make existing workers more efficient through detection, and ultimately production, of computer code by training a network on different sorting algorithms. The researcher used GitHub s API to obtain thousands of code samples labeled under different algorithms, such as bubblesort. Using Python s ast module, the researcher was able to convert this into node representations via a NodeVisitor. Then, to make it readable to a network, this was all vectorized and its dimensionality reduced to ten, with one label. The code was then run over a dense, multilayer artificial neural network and results were documented. The first few iterations of the network were unsuccessful in learning due to the inability to take in varying input shapes, but a final model was eventually produced by reducing dimensionality to ten. Using a confusion matrix and classification report, the researcher found that, while the network was able to recognize some properties well, the data was too similar to each other for it to accurately tell them apart or be useful in everyday jobs, obtaining a 46 macro accuracy versus a 17 random. Though this model was unable to differentiate far enough for practical use, it serves greatly in displaying that a model can learn from named nodes, and with more information fed it should be more successful.
648 3173 ECGNet: A Machine Learning Model for Portable Devices for Identifying Arrhythmia from ECG Images Computer Sciences S Arrhythmia are abnormal heart rhythms. Some arrhythmias are severe, leading to loss of consciousness and even death. Therefore, identifying the type of arrhythmia accurately and in a timely manner is critical to patient care. Having an automated tool to identify arrhythmia from ECG signals is useful for first-level defense and for use in remote areas where medical help is not readily available. To be accessible widely, the tool should be easy to develop on an inexpensive laptop and usable on portable devices. In this project, a convolutional neural network CNN ECGNet was designed and trained to accurately identify the type of arrhythmia merely from the image of a single ECG beat. 105,484 heartbeat images for 13 types of arrhythmia were extracted from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Images were grouped as follows 80% for training, 10% for validation, and 10% for testing the model. To overcome imbalance bias, image augmentation techniques were used to oversample underrepresented classes. ECGNet was trained for 1400 epochs or about 5 passes on 83,204 images. Training took under 15 hours on a $600 laptop with a 7th generation Intel processor. On training and validation data, ECGNet achieved 98.9% and 98.5% accuracy respectively. On test data, ECGNet achieved 98.3% accuracy, with precision, recall, and F1 scores for the 13 arrhythmia types ranging from 96% to 100%, 94% to 100%, and 95% to 100% respectively. On the entire MIT-BIH database, ECGNet achieved 97.5% accuracy. Overall, ECGNet compared favorably to standard CNN architectures for ECG image classification.
652 3177 The Cosmic Catapult: Testing the Penrose Process Earth & Space Sciences S Since space was first discovered, we ve been searching for a way to escape our small planet and go beyond the stars. Unfortunately, the Sun s gravity restricts our abilities to leave the Solar System. However, with the use of the Penrose Process, it is possible to turn this dream into a reality. Using Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation and the Penrose Process, a simulation was created in which a ship the Falcon Heavy was shot around a black hole V616 Monocerotis with varying angles of deviation the amount of degrees away from the black hole the ship is facing and starting distances. There were three phases to this test, each with varying starting distances from the black hole. The first phase started from 10,500,000 miles away far , the second started 10,000,000 miles away mid , and the last phase started 9,500,000 miles away close . It was found that, while the far phase took 70% longer than the close test and 32% longer than the mid test, it allowed the ship to have a larger final distance. The highest final distance in all phases was exhibited with an angle of deviation of 70 to 80 . In conclusion, the data showed that the most efficient angle and distance in terms of final distance was 80 with a starting distance of 10,500,000 mile. Aside from the desire to know about our universe, the penrose process opens up the ability to colonize exoplanets to satisfy our growing population.
653 3178 Is using Solar and Lunar Movements a reliable method to tell time? Earth & Space Sciences S This experiment was designed to test if solar and lunar time are capable of being used as an accurate and reliable method to tell time. A moondial based off the design of a horizontal sundial was built to test the accuracy of lunar time. The moondial s accuracy was compared to the accuracy of a sundial to see how the performance of the two dials varied. This comparison would show which dial performed with higher accuracy. In order to test the Moondial s accuracy the difference between lunar, and mechanical time was recorded.My hypothesis was that the moondial would not be an accurate or reliable method to tell time due to the uncontrolled variables that affect the gnomon s shadow. The uncontrolled variables affecting the moondial s performance were poor visibility, inclimate weather, light pollution, lack of moonlight.The moondial was tested during different moon phases waxing gibbous, full moon, and waning gibbous. A slight pattern was seen between the moondial s accuracy and the days till the full moon As the moon continued waxing and more light was available, the moondial s accuracy increased each night by one hour until the night of the full moon. Lunar time is only 100% accurate on the night of the full moon. The data collected supports that lunar time is not capable of being an accurate and reliable method to tell time, while solar time is constantly near accurate and can be used at all periods of the days to tell time.
654 3179 An Analysis of Decanoic Desalination Earth & Space Sciences S Concerning the production of freshwater, the oceans are an indefinite supply. Although water is a fundamental resource, the most important factor determining the best method of desalination is the ultimate measure of feasibility. Directional solvent extraction provides a uniquely simple and economical solution. This method utilized decanoic acid because of its unique structure and ability to homogenize with water at low temperatures. This method dissolves water in the directional solvent decanoic and by increasing its temperature, rejecting all contaminants and recovering water once cooled. It was hypothesized that higher application of temperature would result in lower salinities. The decanoic desalination process was carried out using brine water and decanoic acid at 40 , 50 , and 60 . The resulting average salinities respectively were 0.0116%, 0.82%, and 0.72%. Lower salinities indicated that the ability of the directional solvent extraction method to desalinate water was effective. The subsequent t-test resulted in a p-value of 0.0010 enabling the hypothesis to be accepted. The analysis showed clear evidence that decanoic acid desalination is an effective and affordable method of seawater desalination. It is able to utilize cheap and abundant resources at the expense of low temperatures to meet the demand for freshwater for a growing industrial economy and increasing population.
655 3180 Shook: Earthquake Buildings Earth & Space Sciences S In this project i ll be testing different building types against earthquakes. My hypothesis is if buildings are tested against earthquakes, a building of high stature with base isolation will hold up the best. I chose this project because my area was once hit with an earthquake, and because I have a mild interest in engineering. So my approach toward this was a lego tower mounted onto a simple shake simulator. I d change the heights of the buildings and engineer the most common earthquake techniques. I d then see how many shakes it took for the building to fall. And then repeated the process two more times.In the end, the tallest building configurations weren t ideal. Short configurations also struggled.. Ideally, the building should be a median height and use base isolation. Earthquake engineers may keep this in mind for the future.
656 3181 Eruptions and Effects Earth & Space Sciences S Over the past 200 years, volcanic activity has increased. The objective of this project is to perform a statistical analysis using the Tableau Public to examine the trends and relationships of the number of eruptions over time, frequency of eruptions across the globes, types of volcanoes, elevation and Volcano Explosivity Index VEI between 1719 to 2019. The data was gathered from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA , consisting of over 500 significant volcanic eruptions. In order to perform this study, the data was filtered to cover the last 200 years and broken down into different analysis, performed by comparing the number of eruptions vs. years, types of volcanoes vs. years and elevation vs. VEI. Further, a map was generated using the latitude and longitude measures to examine the occurrence of volcanoes globally and determine the countries with the greatest number of eruptions. The results showed that there has been an overall increasing trend of eruptions, with Indonesia and Japan being the most common countries for eruptions. Moreover, while stratovolcanoes were the most frequent type of volcanoes to erupt, cinder cones, calderas, etc. had minimal eruptions. Lastly, the VEI value tended to be higher as the elevation increased, although most volcanoes were at lower elevation, thus with lower VEIs. It can be concluded that there is an overall increasing trend in volcanic activity, predominantly in the Far East, with low intensities, commonly as stratovolcanoes.
657 3182 This Project Lit, Like Actually Earth & Space Sciences S This projects relevance is because Texas had the highest acres lost due to forest fires in the United States in the last few years. We decided to use dried flora as the burning material,because it d be the probable cause of most fires.To do this we made the S.S.B the specialized burning box to conduct the experiment. Its a plexiglass box with a water heater core and grating to better the flow of the heat to the flora. We placed died leaves on the grating and slowly but surely increased the temperature. Then we recorded our one successful test so not an average.The experiment came up non conclusive because every time we tried the water heater core would break. How we would fix it if we tried again later we would make our own heating element that would be able to withstand the tests we put it through.
658 3183 From Salty to Fresh Earth & Space Sciences S The purpose of this project was to make salt water have less salt by using non-toxic plants. There are so many people in the world who struggle to have access to fresh and clean drinking water, which is why this is a good project to choose. The hypothesis was, If a non-toxic plant is used to desalinate water, then water will be safer to drink. In this project a non-toxic plant was put into salt water to test the salinity of the water after the non-toxic plant was put in and to see if it was safer to drink. The three plants used we locus roots, taro, and jicama. Each of the three plants were test 10 times. The conclusion is that locus root made the water safest to drink since it had the lowest average of salinity and jicama was the least safe to drink since it had the highest average salinity. The hypothesis has been supported. The significance of this project was that you could make salt water drinkable using resources that are easily accessed.
659 3184 Reducing Acidity in Soil Earth & Space Sciences S In this experiment, I tested different methods of reducing acidity in soil to see which was the most efficient. I did this by testing each method on soil, and then measuring the pH of the soil over a 3 week time period to see which method increased the pH of the soil effectively. I chose to do this project because of a previous science fair project. Although it wasn t a continuation of the project, I had an interest with testing soil and its properties in a way, and through further research, the pH of soil popped up so I decided to test which method could reduce acidity the most effectively. In this experiment, I predicted that the dolomite lime would be the most efficient, due to the extreme use in the gardening industry. For this experiment, I took 4 different methods potassium carbonate, dolomite lime, baking soda solution, and wood ash to reduce acidity in soil, and applied it to 4 containers of 100 grams of soil. At every 3 day mark during the 3 week time period, I recorded the pH of each soil for my data collection. After the data collection, the potassium carbonate was found to be the most effective, which did not support my hypothesis. With this data, farmers and or gardeners can find the most effective way to reduce acidity in soil, so they produce better crops gardens which then allows for better produce and or more profit being made because of better quality.
660 3185 A Novel Way To Prevent Scaling In Salt Water Through Reverse Osmosis On The Moon Earth & Space Sciences S The project s purpose is to provide cosmonauts with a purified drinking water solution for future lunar explorations. NASA s goal is to land the first woman and next man on the moon in 2024. Many lunar craters are in direct alignment with the sun except for Shackleton crater which possesses ice to be used as a viable water resource and sustainable outlet for the cosmonaut s habitation. Utilization of reverse osmosis RO conducted by NASA has proven to be the most efficient filtration systems for cosmonauts lunar workspace. Reverse osmosis removes contaminants from feed water when pressure forces it through a semipermeable membrane. Water flows from the more concentrated side of the RO membrane to the less concentrated side to provide clean drinking water. The application of graphene oxide coated on the membrane allows the semipermeable membrane to filter feed water at a higher efficiency while allowing scaling to decrease. According to the data, the hypothesis for preventing scaling through reverse osmosis was accepted. Results indicated that the permeate declined which was lower for the coated membrane than the bare membrane. The addition of influent ESPA2-GO-PAA did not show any decrease in permeate flow after 2 hours, and simultaneously for ESPA2 the permeate decreased to 90%. ESPA2-GO-PAA had a higher permeate flux 45% throughout the biofouling experiment compared to ESPA2 65% . These results provided evidence that coating the commercial membrane with GO and PAA improved its antibiofouling property.
661 3186 Planet's Atmosphere Earth & Space Sciences S This is a theoretical project on approximating how much longer the atmosphere will be available for humans to breathe from and what factors can increase this process. The goal was to find an approximation of how many years there are left for humans to breathe. This was calculated through the application of the Boltzmann-Maxwell Distribution on Earth to describe the particle speeds in idealized gases. Then Earth s escape velocity, mass, radius, surface temperature, surface gravity, gas molecule velocities, heat capacity ratio, and speed of sound were all calculated through complex equations. The same process was applied to the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune to compare the escape of each atmosphere. Through this, it was estimated that mankind will only have 34,000 years left to breathe on Earth. Moreover, considering that the Earth s population has grown in the last couple hundred years at a rate of 1.5 % per year, in only 700 years there will be nothing left for humanity to breathe, in the year 2719. Factors such as solar heat, nuclear war, and mankind can lead to an increase in Earth s atmosphere disappearing. In conclusion, this project can help scientists visualize the rate at which the atmosphere escapes and think about factors that could lead to an increase in the atmosphere escaping. It can also help address and raise awareness of the very air that humans breathe, is slowly slipping away due to humanity s own fault.
662 3187 Nature Made Earth & Space Sciences S Around the world water pollution is the cause of many deaths. One water pollutant, nitrate, is a major pollutant due to its use in inorganic fertilizers, which many farmers use. Even though these problems are widely known, some countries do not have the money available to fix the problem. So, for this project, four different materials were tested as natural water purifiers. These materials were bamboo, cilantro, coconuts, and pine tree branches. Each of these was put into water containing 500 PPMs parts per million of nitrate. The water was then tested once every day, for seven days, to see the new PPM. Also, throughout the experiment, a new compound, nitrite, was formed. This compound is also unsafe to consume, so its growth or decrease was noted. For the experiment, it was hypothesized that the coconut would be the most effective material for getting nitrate out of the water, due to the fibers in its shell however, after seven days, this was proven incorrect. As seen on graphs and data tables, the material which showed most effective was cilantro as it removed 96.667% of nitrates. This plant had a sudden fall in nitrate and nitrite. The next most successful materials were bamboo and pine tree branches, which both decreased the PPM of nitrate by 80%. Lastly, coconuts showed to be 0% effective for the PPM of nitrate and were least effective.
663 3188 Water Filtration Without Modern Technology Earth & Space Sciences S The public may not be as educated about there water safety and their water sources because they could possibly contain dangerous pathogens that could potentially harm one s health especially if they re swimming in a pond and accidentally swallow the water. Other ways could include those who have older water well systems that are deteriorating causing sand and dirt to enter the water source in the community with could later lead to an epidemic. To inform the community about checking their wells or city water every few months to make sure the water is safe to drink. This can be done with posters that encourage residents to stay alert and on top of their health. With this information, researchers can use this to their advantage to go further and expand this project to more natural and man made water sources for dangerous pathogens and high turbidity.
664 3189 Conveying Away Catastrophe Earth & Space Sciences S In this experiment the cross-sectional area of a drainage channel was varied to evaluate the potential impacts on channel flow rate and channel conveyance. The evaluation examined three different unobstructed channel configurations referred to in this analysis as small, medium and large and then evaluated the three channels with a 50% obstruction. In the experiment, I measured each of the three channels to calculate the channel cross sectional area which is sometimes referred to as the flow area. Using three different size rain spouts that maintained the same channel profile.The hypothesis as stated in the beginning was correct. Increasing the channel cross sectional area directly increased the velocity, flow rate and conveyance. The increase from the smaller to the medium profile for the unobstructed channel product the best results, a 2 1 increase in performance. The small to large profile increase results in parity 1 1. This experiment clearly illustrates that there are many factors that must be considered when designing a drainage channel for optimal performance. The cross section of the channel is by far the most important factor as this element directly impacts the desired channel profile, the flow rate, and the conveyance required to avoid flooding. Bigger channels are usually more expensive to construct, publicly intrusive and while they may reduce flood risk there Is a long term cost associated with the maintenance that must be considered. Designing for the channel optimization always works best.
667 3192 engine-ous combustion: fuel efficiency of household products Energy & Transportation S This experiment is very important to me because it lets me acquire more skills on how to take household products to the next level. Based on my research gasoline comes from crude oil. To get crude oil you have to dig wells underground to obtain the oil. At times, this is a problem because oil spills happen in the ocean, which affects the environment around it. For example, it harms the animals,kills plants and damage water treatment plants works . This supports my research because it backs up why we should come up with new ways on how to replace gas with products that could possibly be in your house. My research question is what s another way to power an engine without gas or electricity. Since an engine runs on gasoline that means that what ever other fuel I compared gas to the energy density has to almost be the same for the fuel to be able to combust In the engine. I chose this project, because cars are my passion and I want to expand my knowledge about alternative fuel sources.
668 3193 Power of Desalination Energy & Transportation S Currently, only 2% of the world s water is safe to drink. This percentage has steadily reduced in recent years due to the fact that we have been using this water faster than it can reproduce. As a result, some people don t have access to clean water and are forced to drink seawater, which can be extremely dangerous. Some governments have recognized this as a problem and have installed desalination plants which are devices to transform seawater to water. These devices can also have a negative impact due to the fact that they emit carbon into the environment. This experiment involved modelling the devices that governments use without emitting carbon. My model uses the process of multistage flash rather than osmosis. My model uses a can of sterno to heat the water to separate it from the salt multistage flash and cool the water vapor back down with a fan powered by a solar panel. This process is extremely eco-friendly compared to the desalination plants used by the governments. This experiment tested the salinity levels vs the water purity levels before, the water purity levels after and the amount of water produced. The data showed that when the salinity levels were high there was a high level of purity both before and after and the amount of water produced would be decreased. This means that my model was efficient, viable and healthy to an extent. This proves that a desalination plant can be efficient, viable, healthy and environmentally friendly.
669 3194 Shine Bright Like A LED Energy & Transportation S There has long been an assumption about how LED is so efficient that it produces the same amount of light over time. Not many know that LED uses its energy for both light production and heat emission. This experiment was aimed at proving if the popular assumption about LED light efficiency is correct and from that knowledge, informing consumers to make a better judgment when it comes to deciding if LED is the correct light choice for them. For this experiment, 3 LED light colors, white, green, and red where put to the test for light brightness over 30 seconds increment until it reaches 4 minutes inside an enclosed box. A multi-color LED flashlight was used to shine on a lux meter sensor to measure the light output over time. Each color was put to the test 4 times for the most accurate light measurement. From all the trials of the 3 LED colors, a declining trend of brightness overtime was present for all three LED colors tested. The declining trend in brightness reached after conducting the experiment shows that LED is not as energy efficient as may people thought because as time passes, more energy is lost as heat than used to produce light.
670 3195 Harnessing Wasted Wind Energy from a Residential HVAC Unit Energy & Transportation S The purpose of this project was to find a way to conserve energy that would otherwise be wasted. One of the places where energy is lost, is the HVAC unit outside residential homes. That is why a small wind turbine was created to be able to recover energy by putting the turbine over the HVAC unit to generate energy back into a battery.I hypothesized that the wind turbine would be able to generate 600 mAh into a smartphone battery.Next, I created a working mini wind turbine by first connecting two wires from the motor into the wind turbine controller, which ensures that energy will not flow backwards into the motor. After that, two wires continue down into a voltage regulator, which ensures that the battery does not receive too much voltage at a time. Finally, the two wires connect into a smartphone with a 2000 mAh battery cell.I ran three trials, each 3 hours long, by turning on the AC and setting the turbine over the HVAC unit.The wind turbine was able to charge the battery 400 mAh in the first trial, 460 mAh in the second, and 380 mAh in the third, meaning that my hypothesis was wrong as it was about 200 mAh off the results.Throughout this project, I learnt that there are many potential ways people can save energy, not just by reducing energy consumption, but also by recovering used energy through similar methods like shown in my project.
671 3196 Train Systems for Texas to Lower Carbon Footprint Energy & Transportation S Trains- subways and commuters- are affordable alternatives for transportation. If a train system were implemented in Texas, how many people would ride it and how much would the CO emission levels be lowered If large cities in Texas had a train system similar to large New England cities and at least 40% of the population used the train once or twice a week, then the overall CO emissions would be lowered. A survey will be given asking if the participant would use a train system if created in Texas and would the participant use it mostly for work or leisure. The data collected will be compared in proportionalities to the population of Texas, the average driving population and the average amount of CO emitted per kilometer. The data stated 76.4% of the participant would be willing to use the train system, and that would mean that 22,516,833.38 people of out 29,472,295 of people would possibly ride the train. With that, 202,915,898.3 kilograms of CO are emitted per day by licensed drivers. If a train system where in place, then 100,685,626.7 kilograms of CO will be emitted per day by licensed drivers. The total CO emission per day was lower by 102,230,271.6 kilograms of CO in Texas. Furthermore, there would be a 50.38% decrease in emissions of CO among drivers if a train system were implemented in Texas.
672 3197 A Breeze of Energy Energy & Transportation S Windmills are used all over the world and are a great source of energy, but they are sometimes too big to put anywhere you want them. Our project was used to see what type of material is best for creating energy the most efficiently and effectively so you could maybe use it in your own home. We hypothesized that cardboard was going to be the material that produced the most energy because it seemed to be a little sturdier than all the other materials. We anticipated that cardboard would be the best because it would collect the most air pressure and spin the fastest, which would produce the most energy. We used regular printer paper as a control group because the printer paper was the base of all the types of paper. The experiment consisted of cutting out triangular blades, gluing them on popsicle sticks, and putting them on the motor to test. From the motor, we turned on a fan to make the blades spin and record the amount of lux light energy the blades produced for the LED light. We then recorded our results and averaged out the lux generated, which came down to Card stock- 89.2, Cardboard- 65.8, Construction paper- 49.3, and Printer paper- 55.9. In conclusion, our evidence didn t support our hypothesis. The card stock was the material that produced the most energy. We found out that card stock produced the most energy because it wasn t as dense as cardboard. Both are still excellent materials, though.
673 3198 Improving the Efficiency of Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators for Power Generation Energy & Transportation S Can changing the focal point or having multiple focal points of a parabolic trough solar collector make the energy efficiency better Parabolic trough solar concentrator power plants create energy by focusing the sun s energy on a tube of fluid using a parabolic mirror. If there is a way to increase efficiency by either having a more optimal mirror shape or even by having multiple focal points with additional solar energy receivers, then more energy can be produced in the same amount of surface area. This experiment shows that efficiency can be improved by changing the focal point of the parabola by using a varying radius parabolic mirror design. This allows the sun to still have a well defined focal point when not aimed exactly at the sun. It can also be used to have multiple thermal receivers. However, in this experiment, a varying radius is used to focus the sun s rays when the sun is not lined up exactly.Two parabolic trough mirrors were made using sheets of plexiglass, reflective mylar film and some wood for the frame. A copper pipe was placed in the focal point and a digital thermometer was used to measure the amount of heat being generated. This experiment shows that the varying radius mirror does a better job of focusing the energy of the sun on the copper pipe.
674 3199 Fabrication of an updraft gasifier for wood biomass production of syngas and the impacts of temperature variations. Energy & Transportation S The use of wood biomass gasification has been proven to be an efficient way to produce high-quality synthesis gas. Gasification is the process of using biomass to create renewable energy by heating to high temperatures without combustion. To determine the influence temperature has on syngas, or synthesis gas consisting of primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. an updraft gasifier was designed and fabricated to produce biofuel. Woodchips are heated and charred in a gasification reactor to create gas production. A comparison was performed to find the optimal thermochemical reaction for biomass output and determine whether oak or pine composed more gas. Varius temperatures were recorded to allow the mesurement of syngas thru a SCFM standard cubic feet per minute flowmeter. In contrast between the two types of wood findings show the affecting parameters temperature has on performance of the gasification process. other research was conducted and reveiwed on the impact temperature alters biomass composition as it is heated.
675 3200 Polydimethylsiloxane microlens-enhanced flexible gallium arsenide solar cells to increase driving range of electric automobiles Energy & Transportation S An untapped technology to increase driving range of electric cars is solar cells to provide auxiliary power output. But, the limited power output of conventional silicon panels and their inflexibility make them unsuitable for electric cars. It is possible to double the power output using gallium arsenide GaAs solar cells and with concentrated light. But these solar cells are expensive also concentrated light requires complex and expensive optics.A two-part solution has been developedflexible GaAs microcells and inexpensive Polydimethylsiloxane PDMS microlens. GaAs microcells 250 m diameter were fabricated on flexible substrates using photolithography.The photovoltaic parameters of the GaAs cells were determined from current-voltage characteristics at 1 sun with and without PDMS microlens and at 10 suns with conventional concentrator. Experiments were also done at different light incidence angles 060 to simulate sunlight conditions during day-long drive.The results show that the simple and inexpensive PDMS microlens increases the power output of GaAs microcells 8 times before anti-reflective coating ARC and 10 times after ARC. The enhanced power output with PDMS microlens persisted even at large light incidence angles. Even at 45 , the power output from a PDMS microlens-enhanced GaAs microcell was 82% of the maximum power. At this angle, its power output was 83% higher than that obtained using a complex and bulky light concentrator.GaAs microcell arrays using PDMS microconcentrators offer the combination of flexibility, lower cost, and higher power output that can enable roof-top photovoltaics for electric automobiles and extend their range as much as 50 miles.
676 3201 How do different pH levels and sulfur as a micronutrient affect the electricity production of bacteria in lake soil? Energy & Transportation S The purpose of this experiment is to increase the electricity production of bacteria in lake soil, using microbial fuel cells. The idea was to determine how different pH levels and sulfur as a micronutrient affect the electricity production of bacteria in lake soil. The procedure involved constructing 14 microbial fuel cells. Lake soil was sent to the A M soil lab, in order to test for the sulfur content. In each microbial fuel cell, one container was filled with water and one was filled with soil. 2 of the containers filled with soil were left untreated. The other containers filled with soil were treated with independent variables, which were different pH levels and different amounts of sulfur. It was inconclusive as to whether or not the samples with changed pH performed better than the controls. The samples with 3000 ppm of sulfur, which exhibited the largest voltage production, performed better than the samples with 500 and 1000 ppm of sulfur. The samples with 500 and 1000 ppm of sulfur had higher peaks than the controls, however it was inconclusive as to which performed better overall.This project showed that pH has an effect on the electricity produced by microbial fuel cells, and the addition of sulfur has a positive impact on voltage production. A possible extension of this investigation could be to connect a small load, in order to measure the actual power.
677 3202 The Effects of a Boxer Crankshaft in a V-Engine Energy & Transportation S The creation of the automobile has resulted in a variety of variations regarding automotive parts. From different transmissions to different suspension types, there have been an assortment of types of parts. However, one component of the automobile has been driven to a common standard. Typically, most vehicles nowadays use either a boxer engine or a V engine with industrial vehicles mostly using inline engines. Generally, boxer engines have better performance while V engines have better efficiency.My project s goal is to create a hybrid engine which is a boxer crankshaft in a V engine. By fairly testing the V, Boxer, and my hybrid V Boxer engine, I can determine whether or not a boxer crankshaft in a V engine has any effect on performance. I predicted that the V Boxer engine will obtain the performance of the Boxer engine while maintaining the form factor of the V engine. Each engine will use the same car chassis, transmission, and axle configuration. This will allow me to obtain data regarding the performance of each engine.The results of my project were successful and my hypothesis was correct. The Boxer and V Boxer engine had significantly higher speed and torque than the V engine, indicating that the boxer crankshaft in the V engine proved to increase performance. This means that it s possible to create Boxer engines which are suitable for V engine mounting. Realistically, a V engine in practical use could be improved in performance simply through a crankshaft change.
678 3203 How to Grow Algae Fast Energy & Transportation S Bio diesel is an alternative to petrol-diesel, meaning that bio diesel its renewable and cleaner for the environment. Furthermore switching to bio diesel would be a boost to our economy since we wouldn t have to depend on foreign oil as much, However the question is how can we make it a commercially stable market what has to happen for the price of algal bio fuel to go from $33 per gallon down to the equivalent or a lower price of what regular diesel costs per gallon In conclusion, there was a significant statistical difference between the Algae in the growth medium treatment and the two other treatments throughout the 3 day period. Therefore, the data did not support the hypothesis in which the chicken manure was going to be significantly different from the rest. When growing algae as bio fuel on a larger scale, as an alternative for fossil fuels, this study indicates it would be best to use a growth medium rather than using cow or chicken manure as fertilizer. Based on the data shown here, the use of cheaper cow and chicken manure as fertilizer does not promote significant algae growth, making it more challenging for the price of algal bio fuel to decrease from its current value.
679 3204 Using Water and the Sun to Power the Future Energy & Transportation S This experiment tests the efficiency of water electrolysis using a cobalt based catalyst. Water electrolysis is when hydrogen and oxygen atoms are split apart by running an electrical current through a molecule of water. The experiment was conducted by using a breadboard to make an electrochemical cell and measuring the voltage change when cobalt is added to the buffer solution. This process will power the future by the usage of hydrogen fuel cells which utilize the high reactivity of hydrogen to generate electricity. The initial electricity needed to perform water electrolysis can be generated using a solar cell. The process proved to be roughly 76% efficient and produces little to no waste which makes the process an efficient, renewable, and clean source of energy that will power the future for generations to come.
680 3205 Advance All-Solid-State Battery Design using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks Energy & Transportation S In this work, a convolutional autoencoder model that is able to segment solid-state battery microstructures across the 3D domain is presented. In contrast to liquid-electrolyte based batteries, which have flammability and leakage issues, solid-state batteries can become much safer as well as increase energy density stored within cells. However, quantitative understanding of the microstructures of solid-state batteries can be difficult given the lack of technology to analyze its microstructure through segmentation of the components in microstructure images. Optimizing the proposed model, we can predict microstructure components with greater than ninety percent accuracy. The model solves crucial problems in the area of 3D convolutional networks, namely the issue of memory explosion. This research produces in-depth understanding which will allow us to effectively predict and optimize the electrode coating process for batteries with enhanced performance.
681 3206 Go Green With Solar Energy Energy & Transportation S This experiment tested out the efficiency of different types of homemade solar panels. In this solar energy observation, data was collected from the number of watts each solar panel generated using a multimeter. Three materials were utilized a CD, a regular glass slide, and conductive glass. Out of these three, the conductive glass proved to be the most capable energy source, capturing an average of 30 watts. This was done using titanium dioxide, which is a whitening agent found in sunscreen and powdered donuts. It was also done using ethanol, found in high proof alcohol, and anthocyanins, naturally found in fruits such as blueberries and blackberries. This proves that UV rays can be absorbed and converted into electricity without the assistance of advanced technology. Overall, the use of typical items found in a home can be used to benefit the spread of renewable energy resources over fossil fuels, allowing a cleaner and bio-friendly environment today.
682 3207 Solar Panel Directional Efficiency Energy & Transportation S This experiment was conducted to figure out which direction was the most efficient to place solar panels. To conduct this experiment I used a compass to set the correct direction and a digital multimeter to measure the Volts and Ampere output of each solar panel. I then calculated the energy output of each solar panel and averaged the data. Southwest was the direction that produced the most energy out of all the directions.
683 3208 Engineering a Cost-Effective Shipping Vessel that Utilizes a Dual Rotor Design to Maximize Fuel Efficiency Energy & Transportation S One industry that contributes significantly to worldwide pollution is shipping, with estimates performed by the International Maritime Organization postulating that approximately 2.2% of global emissions of carbon dioxide in 2012 were the byproduct of shipping related activities, equating to around 800 million tons of harmful gasses. One proposed solution to mitigating the amount of pollution is the adoption of Flettner Rotors, revolving cylinders that utilize the Magnus Effect in order to provide ships with an additional, more sustainable source of motion. However, the adoption of Flettner Rotors by shipping vessels has been minimal, as deck space is exceedingly valuable. By engineering a model shipping vessel through the use of CNC milled acrylic, 3-D printed parts, and DC motors, the researcher was able to test the efficiency of a vessel with Flettner Rotors positioned in different orientations on the ship. Three orientations were tested, the first with both rotors positioned next to each other at the front of the ship, the second with both rotors at the back of the ship, and the third with one rotor centered at the front and one centered at the back.Average speeds for each orientation were calculated and were compared against the amount of available deck space. It was determined that an orientation with both rotors adjacent to one another was approximately 85% as efficient as an orientation with rotors positioned along a central axis, while only taking up half as much deck space, making it a viable option for shipping vessels.
684 3209 Effectiveness of Biofuel: Is it worth it? Energy & Transportation S Recently, there has been major concern for the effects and progression of climate change over the past few years. Politicians and leaders alike have been turning to a seemingly promising energy source bio fuel. This kind of fuel has already been implemented, but there are still improvements to be made before it can be incorporated into more general use. There are speculations of issues concerning land use and competition, as well as sustainability. In this project, I explore the current faults of bio fuel systems through research and experimentation, and conclude possible solutions to these issues so that we can fully implement a cleaner energy source and reduce the global carbon dilemma once and for all.In this experiment, I researched the faults of bio fuel and created a small sample to test at home by growing algae and separating its oils. I chose algae because, after researching, I concluded that it would be one of the best sources because it does not compete with crops used for agriculture and it does not pressure the arable land. I then tested it against vegetable oil another form of bio fuel to measure its power by using the substances to light candles.. I found that vegetable oil was far more powerful and consistent. I concluded that bio fuel from algae was unsustainable and currently not suitable for general use. Using this information along with my research, I decided that a solution was to use it as a supplement along with other sources.
685 3210 Piezoelectric Tiles Energy & Transportation S In modern times it has become an augmenting problem in finding new energy alternatives. The experiment was designed to create a piezoelectric tile model which would be used to calculate a theoretical energy production in order to help combat this problem. The construction of the piezoelectric tile was first needed and was built by proper wiring and a ceramic tile. Data was then collected through finding the voltage and amp of a step on the tile. Calculations were made in order to find watt production in a hypothetical sense if the tile where to be implemented in a school over a year. Examining the data collected it was found that the school would produce an estimated amount of 34,224,575,284.224 watts in a school year. This was from the estimation of student and staff members producing 5,247,152,352W and 237,555,225.6W respectively in one year not taking into consideration absence or transfers.This technology would be a long term investment and would aid renewable energy necessities. Although the data was made for a school environment, it would assist in helping reduce other big buildings in that nature on electricity billing. The model was proven to function and serve as a form of converting the pressure of stepping into energy. The methods used to calculate the energy produced, however imprecise, provide a way of demonstrating the applications of the technology in a real-world example. The piezo element is versatile and can serve in many scenarios where walking is involved.
686 3211 Heat/Solar Energy Solutions Energy & Transportation S During this experiment the efficiency of a thermoelectric generator and how voltage decreases when the temperature difference becomes less present was tested. I chose this experiment because I wanted to stop the growing problem of burning fossil fuels. This is an issue because the earth has limited resources, and they are declining quickly. My hypothesis was if a thermoelectric generator was used to its full potential, it could charge an iPhone. First, I built a thermoelectric generator using a piece of sheet metal and thermoelectric plates which produced an average of around 7 volts over a 35-minute period. Also, using a solar cooker and a small rectangular bucket of ice water I was able to charge an iPhone from no charge to 38% after 35 minutes. This one result alone proved my hypothesis to be correct, and I extended from there to measuring the voltage decrease over time. When the data was collected some surprising results arose, the voltage does not decrease linearly furthermore, the data decreases in a quadratic fashion. Although it seems to take a linear path, more than 55% of the decrease in voltage occurs in less than 30% of the time which is from 15 to 25 minutes. However, after and before that time period the data almost plateaus. Assuming the data continues in this fashion, I am almost certain the generator will produce a significant amount of electricity for longer than the 35 minutes that were measured.
690 3215 Rocket Aerodynamics Engineering: Aerospace S The performance of three different types of fin designs on rockets were tested to determine which shape fin would give the rocket the greatest maximum height using a mobile flight recorder. The tapered swept fin design was predicted to have the best performance. The tapered fin had the greatest maximum height of 160.2 m, followed by the trapezoidal fin 103.8 m , and the rectangular fin 87.1 m . A secondary experiment was performed to test what fin angle would increase the performance of the tapered fin design, it was determined that by slightly decreasing the angle, this would increase the max height of the rocket by an average of 3.04 m. On the other hand by increasing the fin angle this would slightly decrease the overall rocket performance. This project was continued by experimenting whether if cooling the engine s of the rocket using ice packs, prior to launch, would impact its performance. It was found that this temperature change had no significant affect on the rockets performance with the limited resources used. However, if better equipment was available, more varied results might have been found. This experiment could have real world applications for rocket aerodynamics and aerospace engineering.
691 3216 Designing a Low-Altitude Parachute Engineering: Aerospace S Parachutes are designed to slow ones descent from great heights, but how would it fare at lesser heights Tests will be conducted to see if the change in the speed of the fall would be enough to save someone from dying or getting injured. The lowest height that a person can fall from and still be severely harmed is 5 meters, but if a parachute can work from that height, as in slow the fall speed drastically then the person would be relatively safe from harm. Using a running parachute, it was tested to see if any significant change was made. This was tested and the increase ended up being noticable but not by enough to allow safe usage by people. It was observed that the parachute at that height was unable to use its full ability until the last milliseconds.
692 3217 Building a More Aerodynamic Missile Casing with a Raindrop shape Engineering: Aerospace S Air-to-surface missiles are used in the military to strike targets from planes, usually moving targets, meaning a need for speed, precision, and aerodynamics. The airfoil is the most aerodynamic shape, making it an intriguing design for missile applications. An experiment was performed to observe drag performance of the airfoil model relative to a Hellfire missile model, in which the Hellfire missile, the primary air-to-ground missile used by the US military, served as the control. The goal was to observe the performance from the airfoil shape and whether it is aerodynamically superior to the Hellfire. The models were printed using a 3D printer and tested in a wind tunnel. Drag coefficients were determined and speed of movements were compared. The obtained results are promising and show that the Airfoil is aerodynamically more favorable than the Hellfire. However, results were found to not be significant.
693 3218 Wing Designs and Lift Engineering: Aerospace S Aircraft is extremely crucial due to the fact that it transports people, and for many years have completely dominated our world. The purpose of this project is to create wing designs that will have a positive outcome in lift. If I have a rounded wing or thinner wing, then more lift should be produced. Each testing consisted of a different wing design. The wings were each fabricated to have a different outcome. The individual testings included a tilt on the placing of the wings, their own weight, and their own unique design. Individually, they were tested for their weight on a scale that reads grams. They we re then balanced on the scale and would be identified in their success by how much the weight would go down. Elliptical rounded wings we re a huge success, and we re able to lift in 6 seconds. Tilted wings had a huge impact, due to the fact that most of the air went to the bottom and not the top. Delta wings we re hard to balance, and would easily be kicked off the scale. These results are relevant because they show how important a small change can completely alter the outcome.
694 3219 Fin Configurations on Rockets Engineering: Aerospace S Fin Configurations on Rockets Since the beginnings of rocket construction there have been many debates about what fin will keep a rocket the most stable and provide the most forward lift. The purpose of my project is to help find the most efficient fin configuration. I created three identical rockets but with different types of fins. Square, parallelogram, and elliptical After construction, I launched the three rockets using an altimeter to measure the maximum height and to calculate the speed. I found in my procedures that there was a measurable difference between the three types of fins. The square fins were the easiest to construct and attach to the rocket and in turn they were able to keep the rocket steady and straight as it flew upwards. When creating elliptical and diagonal shapes it is much harder to keep a straight line, and as a result, the fins had minor differences which made the rocket less stable and unable to fly straight up for a long time. My findings show that square fin configurations lead to max height, faster speeds, and more stability.
695 3220 Cycloid Propulsion Engineering: Aerospace S My aerospace engineering project is about finding the perfect curve that can propel an object at the fastest speed possible using an equilateral triangle cyclogon, brachistochrone, and square cyclogon. What I had planned to do was find a fuel-efficient curve for airplanes as they take 10% of their fuel to take off. My materials were wood, screws, and nails for the base construction needs, Styrofoam for the curves, and golf balls to roll down the curves. After construction, my data was collected by rolling a golf ball down each curve to get the order of the balls landings and the order of the balls height of each land. Then, I scored each curve by adding up its place in the order of the balls landing and order of the balls height. At the end of it all, the ball rolling down the square curve was the least reliable with eight total fails, but it had an average score of 2.5. The best overall curve was the brachistochrone with an average score of 2.9 and it was the most reliable with only one fail.
696 3221 Analyzing the Effect of the Shape of Airfoils on the Lift Generated by Them at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds Engineering: Aerospace S Wings on modern planes are specifically tailored for the planes wanted abilities, whether that be lift, speed, or other. Modeling different wings with variable sweeping angles in ANSYS Fluent and running calculations with different airspeeds allowed data to be collected on the lift and drag forces acting on certain NACA airfoils. The NACA 1610 airfoil had the lowest drag at every sweeping angle although the NACA 6412 airfoil had the highest lift and drag at every sweeping angle. Overall, as sweeping angle increased, drag decreased for NACA 6412 from 1,241 to 1,056 newtons at 1300 km h, and lift decreased from 52,209 to 36,651 newtons at 1300 km h. Although the hypothesis can be accepted for the trend of drag, the trend of lift cannot be accepted and has been shown to lower with sweeping angle, not remain constant. Not using the correct airfoil can lead to enormous problems of speed and lift especially with modern-day aircraft that require very precisely made parts in order to get the best qualities for the aircraft. This experiment couldn t model an entire wing and aircraft due to limits imposed by the license and could not model shock waves, reducing the accuracy of the data in practice. This project could be expanded upon by understanding the structural stresses expressed by the wings at higher speeds and understanding how induced drag and other types of drag can limit the aircraft, while also understanding how angle of attack changes the dynamic of fluids around the wing and airframe.
697 3222 Aerospike : The Nozzle of the Future Engineering: Aerospace S Bell nozzles have been used universally across the rocket industry for decades but due to their design become inefficient as the rocket rises through the atmosphere. An alternative nozzle is the aerospike nozzle that uses the lowering air pressure to form a wall that will automatically adjust the rocket s exhaust so that the engine stays at its most efficient. Computational Fluid Dynamics tests were done on a bell nozzle and an aerospike nozzle designed to have the thrust of a model rocket B6-0 engine powering them. The models represented the efficiency advantage of the aerospike. A vacuum chamber was also built and a B6-0 engine was fired in it in 25 in Hg vac, to test the thrust produced and to ascertain and represent the loss of efficiency at high altitudes. Test results from the Computational Fluid Dynamics test indicated that the aerospike nozzle was able to be much more efficient over a wide range of altitudes. The tests results from the vacuum chamber show the loss in efficiency of the bell nozzle when compared to atmospheric testing data with maximum thrust forces of 9.8 N in a near vacuum and 12 N in 1 atmosphere. With new rockets like the massive reusable rockets like the B.F.R. and New Glen, an engine that is just as reusable and is even more efficient throughout the atmosphere would allow similar rockets to fly higher and farther than ever before at a much cheaper cost than ever before.
698 3223 Aerodynamic Objects Engineering: Aerospace S The study of aerodynamics within our experiment is important to science as we further expand upon the effects that act upon objects in motion as they fly through the air. It also provides an impact as our experiment can be further expanded to be able to provide information on how objects can be affected and the type of purposes that can be provided within our study. Study the aerodynamic factors that act upon different objects in flight motion and its application on how the forces differentiate based on how the object is shaped and other components within the object.Calculate the area of the paper airplane and the circumference of the other objects. Find the weight of the different objects. Apply an equivalent force and launch angle from a standard height on all the different objects. Then calculate how far the objects traveled and the amount of time the object was in the air. Then we use the total speed of each object to study what kind of influences acted upon the object. Distance Traveled Farthest to Least Frisbee, Dodgeball, Paper Airplane, Football, Basketball, Soccerball. Time in Air Longest to Shortest Paper Airplane, Frisbee, Soccerball, Basketball, Dodgeball, Football. Overall Speed Fastest to Slowest Dodgeball, Football, Frisbee, Basketball, Soccerball, Paper Airplane. From our data in the experiment we managed to conclude how the forces acting upon the objects varied based on their structure and how those forces had become affected. Overall, Frisbee had shown to have the best performance in factors.
699 3224 A Novel Approach to Aerial Environmental Reconnaissance with Public Awareness Engineering: Aerospace S With the growth of nuclear research and development of power plants across the globe, the safety of the workers and people nearby these plants is the most important factor to consider. After a nuclear power plant explosion or excessive litter pollution, radiation levels and various pollutant levels are unsafe for people in that area. In the status quo, researchers use rovers or radiation drones to collect data. However, these rovers and drones are expensive and individualized to a certain task such as radiation detection or pollution measurement. As a result, a method to quickly collect data on pollution and radiation and then output it into a user friendly interface is vital in public awareness and research in environmental issues. With most pollutants and heavy radiation staying close to the source, yet above reachable scope for a rover, an unmanned aerial vehicle is the only viable option to successfully accomplish the goals of low cost, accurate measurement, and easy obstacle avoidance. Consequently, this project involves a large drone that is capable of temperature, radiation, and pollution measurement. These values would then be inputted into an application that will use an algorithm to figure out whether the environment is safe and provide actions to be taken to help the specific scenario. After analysis, these values are uploaded into a cloud for further research. As researchers receive valuable data for studying, normal civilians receive access to cost-effective and user-friendly information on their environment.
700 3225 Using Modified Wing Design to Unlock More Efficient Flight III Engineering: Aerospace S Air travel needs to become more efficient. One potential innovation is the box-wing design, which is derived from the biplane. The box-wing has two airfoils on either side of the fuselage, creating more lift with less drag than a conventional design mono-wing . Yet, these advantages are counteracted by higher weight and construction cost. The purpose of this experiment was to compare aerodynamic efficiency between box-wings and a conventional design. Aerodynamic efficiency is the ratio between the coefficients of lift CL and drag CD .The researcher tested the conventional and box-wing at Angles of Attack AOA , from 0 to 30 degrees, measuring CL and CD in both Computational Fluid Dynamics CDF software and a research grade wind tunnel at a velocity of 100 mph or 44.7 m s. In a simulated cruise flight 0 AOA , the box-wing model was 6% less efficient than the conventional model. However, the box-wing model performed better than the conventional model at from 2 to 25 degrees AOA while the airfoils are the same at 30 degrees.Thus, the hypothesis was validated as the box-wing model had a higher L D ratio in 87% of AOA positions tested. The higher efficiency is caused by box-wing s lower drag 2-12 degrees AOA or higher lift 12 -25 degrees AOA .There are multiple uses for a box-wing model augment existing conventional design planes with a second airfoil or a plane that needs to fly at slow speeds for long durations.
701 3226 Critical Locations of a Lunar Constant Altitude Descent Maneuver as an Effect of Thrust to Weight Ratio Engineering: Aerospace S As more efficient and less powerful engines are getting more popular in the aerospace industry ion, Rocketdyne etc. , prices of space missions beyond low earth orbit will decrease. One flaw these types of engines possess is the tendency to decrease thrust to weight ratio TWR . This can significantly affect the constant altitude approach to lunar landing because burns are no longer instantaneous and the pitch required to maintain a constant altitude is no longer negligible. These factors will significantly affect the total delta-V spent in the lunar landing. This study aims to examine the effect of varying TWR on the distance required to deorbit angle and distance of the constant altitude descent and the height to commence suicide burn. These variables are analyzed both quantitatively through spreadsheets and qualitatively through simulation via Java. Results suggest a non-linear decreasing relationship between TWR and the examined variable. This can have a significant effect on the precision required for low TWR lunar landers and the graphs can serve as a guide to programming auto-land algorithms.
702 3227 Hovercraft model Engineering: Aerospace S Our expierment was testing how far a hovercraft model could travel on a flat surface. We glued a pop lid to a CD then blew up a balloon and put it on the lid. We relased the pop lid and used a yard stick to measure how far it went. We repated the expierment two more times then recorded the information. Next we did the same expierment but this time with sticky notes around the disc and recorded it after three trials.We concluded that the balloon with the sticky notes traveld further because of the law of physics says the more surface covered the more the air relased from the balloon has to lift up the hovercraft model.
705 3230 From Grey to Green Engineering: Chemical S During this experiment I tested if a filter which was coated in algae could bring down the carbon dioxide output of a vehicle. I created a filter using a length of metal pipe, a cloth coated in algae, a solid hose clamp, and a hand-held LED flashlight. Using a Vernier CO2 gas probe I measured the carbon output for a 2-minute duration and compared the average output ratio of two different rpm, 800 and 1500 both with the filter and without the filter. Once I put the data into a spreadsheet, I found that the algae filters had a decreasing output. This proved that the algae could function and actively reduce the carbon dioxide output. Knowing this it could be applied to a better version of the filter one that could cool down the exhaust and provide a better light-source so that the algae could perform optimally.
706 3231 3D Printing of Lithium-Ion Supercapacitors Engineering: Chemical S The novel technology of 3D printing has provided scientists with the capability of fabricating complex three dimensional structures that have wide-ranging applications. One of these is the construction of electrodes with highly precise and tailored geometries using materials with unique properties. Activated carbon is one of the most frequently studied materials for supercapacitor applications. Boasting high surface area, it exhibits excellent supercapacitance performance even at high current rates. In this study, activated carbon electrodes have been fabricated via a direct-ink writing technique. The activated carbon ink was developed using an N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone NMP and graphene mixture, needing multiple iterations for optimal rheology. The printing process was optimized for suitable printing of thick electrodes with thicknesses of up to 400 microns, which had correspondingly high mass loadings. These developed electrodes were then tested at current rates up to 5C. It was observed that the supercapacitor using the printed electrode performed excellently at rates up to 2C, following which there was a drop in power density. These thicker electrodes show a reduction in capacity at high rates due to slow electrochemical kinetics, a by-product of the increased thickness of the electrodes. Initial performance of these 3D printed electrodes using activated carbon shows great promise for supercapacitor development, and further research using modified printing methods and slurry composition are likely to yield more efficient electrodes that can be commercially produced.
707 3232 Bernoulli's Boxes Engineering: Chemical S The purpose of the Bernoulli s Boxes project is to design an apparatus to capture CO2 arising from the burning of natural gas and coal which comprise the largest fuel sources for power generation in the U.S The CO2 sequestered by injection into a water solution can be used for industrial applications such as in algal-bioreactors. The apparatus has several stages integral to CO2 sequestration. Note that a bio-reactor was not constructed for this project due to time and budgetary constraints. The apparatus burns propane fuel, channels the exhaust in a smoke stack designed to induce turbulence to increase rate of heat exchange of the flue gases, cools the exhaust in a cooling manifold, filters and finally compresses the gas mixture for injection into a water tank with the aim of maximizing CO2 capture in a water tank. Testing was done using a CO2 sensor in two chambers of the apparatus both before and after injection to assess CO2 concentration. The mean ambient concentration of CO2 within the compression chamber baseline was 26,180 ppm, and the mean concentration of airborne CO2 after compression and injection into the water chamber was 14,530 ppm a difference of 11,650 ppm . The likely reason for the observed decrease in CO2 concentration is CO2 dissolving in the water. This is supported by pH tests that indicated increases in acidity of the water after exposure to CO2 due to carbonic acid. Overall, the project was highly successful, though further research and development would be beneficial.
708 3233 Sleep De-Lighted: An Environmentally Friendly, Plant-Derived Flame Retardant Solution Targeted Towards Usage in Open-Cell, Flexible Polyurethane Foam Engineering: Chemical S The threat of fire is one of the most impactful adversaries terrorizing life on Earth today. Polyurethane foam, a common residential construction material, is typically embedded with toxic, brominated flame retardant chemicals that are extremely harmful to humans and the environment. In order to solve both of these momentous issues, an environmentally friendly, plant-derived flame retardant solution has been proposed, developed and tested. The phosphorus triethyl ester of methyl 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate was synthesized primarily through a Fischer esterification and a modified Ferro s preparation of aralkyl dialkyl phosphonates and was employed in 500 samples of open-cell, flexible polyurethane foam at varying additive concentrations 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8%. The specific heat capacities of each sample, in J g C, were found and calculated through isobaric calorimetry. A one-way analysis of variance ANOVA test was performed and the differences between the means of the specific heat capacities of each chemical concentration were found to be highly significant, with a p-value less than 0.00001. A Fisher s Least Significant Difference post-hoc test was performed and the differences between the specific heat capacities of each individual concentration group were found to be highly significant as well. The phosphorus triethyl ester of methyl 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate is proposed chiefly as an insulator, with strong prospects in flame retardancy and fire resistance. As an additive in open-cell, flexible polyurethane foam, the developed chemical possesses good flame-retarding characteristics and therefore could be used in a large variety of applications as one of the world s most promising environmentally friendly, plant-derived flame retardant solutions.
709 3234 Comparison Of Hydro-gels For Water Transport Engineering: Chemical S Comparison Of Hydrogels For Water Transport Abstract This project is about providing purified water to the percentage of our population that don t have sanitary drinking, bathing, or farming water leading to about 315,000 deaths every year. I chose this because I wanted to help people remain together as well as having my own family in the farming industry. The purpose of this science fair project is to determine which hydrogel would be able to absorb more water with less need for salt, in order to dispense a greater amount of pure water. My hypothesis is that the hydrogel crystal balls would be more capable of achieving the purpose of my experiment. Using hydrogels I recorded their water capacities along with the amounts of salt needed to dispense of as much possible water. Then using the dispensed water, I observed the effect on three plant s growth. Finally recording all data and creating graphs tables, photographs were taken to record visual progress. Data analysis has shown me that the more salt used the less pure the water will be when dispensed. Even though guar gum hydrogels were composed with water, unlike the traditional, it required a smaller salt which made dispensed purified water actually taking less time as well. The plant receiving this dispensed water had grown the most every week showing it helps life thrive. The convenience and efficiency of this experiment as well as the conclusion of it s drinkability shows the potential to promote more advanced water transportation.
710 3235 The Adaptable Generator To Provide Electricity III Engineering: Chemical S For the past few years I have been participating in science fair, I have been solely trying to build a generator that would be able to produce movement within still water to power a generator. So far, I was able to find the prime energy source and locations for the generator, as well as the shape of the generator within the previous stages. For this year, I am continuing onto stage 3 with is developing a more prime and efficient wiring for my specific generator. From a quick brainstorm, I was able to visualize a hydro-wire that, in theory, would be able to lower cost and resources in the production of electrical wires. Within this experiment, the tests conducted in testing the wires potential while being compared to its counterparts for me to decide how it fits into the generator I m designing. As for my hypothesis, I believe the ability for water to conduct electricity should be able to pull through against its metal counterparts.
711 3236 Fueling Green Engineering: Chemical S Fueling GreenThe Earth is continuously being polluted one thing that contributes is fuel. Currently, gasoline is the main fuel used in vehicles and the waste products from producing it contributes to air pollution. In addition to the damage done from the production, when gasoline is burned it produces several waste products including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and unburned hydrocarbons creates greenhouse gas. But, we can create Ethanol using biowaste. The Hypothesis is that if biowaste creates ethanol, then cardboard would produce the most Ethanol.By grinding the biowaste into small particles with a coffee grinder spice grinder. Then boiling the biowaste in the water at a temperature of 170 degrees F to open up the cell wall. Then adding cyclase diluted into a liquid form. Finally adding brewer s yeast. During this experiment, the glucose and ethanol with a glucose blood meter and ethanol probe levels will the taking and recorded along with photos.Data analysis shows that cardboard produces the most ethanol but, out of the five Types of biowaste, all of them create Ethanol showing that the majority of biowaste can help create biofuel. The significance of this experiment was that it is possible to create Ethanol using biowaste, this gives biowaste another use before it goes to waste and helps in stopping in contributing to global warming.
712 3237 Recreating the Electrolyte II: Refining and Applying the Battery Recycling Method Engineering: Chemical S Alkaline batteries are vulnerable to the leakage of their liquid electrolyte, potassium hydroxide, during corrosion. While studies have been conducted on the recyclable components of alkaline batteries, such studies involving the electrolyte are less common. This project addresses this by building upon a recycling method from the previous year s research and applying it to the common household. This was accomplished by combining 26 grams of potassium carbonate, the chemical excreted by corroded batteries, with 200 milliliters of calcium hydroxide. After allowing it to sit in a room temperature space for twelve hours, the mixture was filtered to remove the calcium carbonate crystals, leaving potassium hydroxide. A paper separator was soaked within this electrolyte, then placed between a cathode mixture, composed of manganese dioxide, and an anode gel, composed of zinc powder. These components were encased within a stainless steel foil covering, then tested for electric charge with a multimeter. The mean voltage of 1.50 V was remarkably close to the 1.60 V of an Energizer D-cell battery. A set of recycling appliances were then designed and 3D printed to bring the recycling process to the common household. In conclusion, not only was the effectiveness of the electrolyte recycling procedure reinforced, but it was also shown to be possible for common people. This could spur further development of battery recycling methods, minimizing the disposable nature of alkaline batteries.
716 3241 Solar Powered Urban Farming Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S An urban farm in Houston had a goal to stop using tap water in line with its goals of promoting sustainability and eco-friendliness. We achieved this goal by implementing a system where solar energy is used to pump water out of a local lake and irrigate the farm. The plan is to monitor the reduction in tap water consumption and after verifying effectiveness, implement a similar system on a larger scale.
717 3242 Hammer Gauntlet Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Giovanni Cortes, Leonel GironAbstractHammer Gauntlet My partner and I attempted to make a prototype for a portable tool that can increase the force of a user s punch. The device would be used by emergency services such as law enforcement and firefighters break down doors, windows or other objects when needed. The tool is a gauntlet powered by two pneumatic cylinders that is held together by a 3D printed frame that is worn on the user s forearm. Pneumatic cylinders use compressed air to fire a metal rod at high speeds. The greater the pressure, the greater the force it exerts. We used a 100PSI compressor that was connected to the cylinder via an air tube. Our goals were to find the highest amount of force in Newtons and Pounds the cylinder could exert, how many times it could be fired until the compressor ran out of air, and how reliable it was. For testing, we repeatedly fired the cylinder until the compressor ran out of air, refilled, and repeated the process ten times. With an expression using the squared area of the cylinder and the PSI used, we were able to calculate the force in Newtons exerted. A single factor ANOVA took all of the data to find that the cylinder is stable and reliable during use, meaning that there are no severe fluctuations in how many times you can fire the cylinder.
718 3243 How paintball barrel size affects speed Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S My project is about how different paintball barrel diameters affect the speed of paintballs coming out of the barrel. This is important because most people match their barrel to their paintballs. My hypothesis is that paintball barrels affect the speed and consistency of speed of paintballs leaving the barrel.For my project I would change out the inserts in a paintball gun barrel to change the diameter of the barrel. I would then shoot 25 reballs out of the paintballs gun and measure their speed in feet per second. Reballs are rubber paintballs that are reusable and function the same way as normal paintballs. I started at a barrel that measured .695 inches in diameter and worked my way down to a barrel that measured .677 inches.I found that as barrel size gets closer to the size of the paintball speed goes up and is more consistent. This shows how important bore matching is and why you should always match your barrel to your paintballs.
719 3244 Insulation vs flood Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Ever since the earth s climate has been getting worse many hurricanes have struck many cities, states, and countries.Houston has gone through several floods throughout the years up to the point where the entire city was underwater such as Harvey, Katrina, Ike, etc. Schools, homes, buildings, malls etc were ruined due to water getting into the buildings including the walls. I ve set my experiment to find out the best type of insulation that would be much more efficient during these situations. My contestants being spray foam, wood fiber, and fiberglass insulations, these being some of the most used insulations world wide including here in Texas. As well as some tips that could also help prevent interior structural destruction of a building.With research done about each insulation and the type of material they are made from, as well as the overall pricing points for a beneficial recommendation. By placing each material and water and letting it sit for a full day, 24 hours to see how each material reacted based on its absorbing amount of water as well as observing every couple of hours to note water absorption. By the end of the experiment I was able to figure out the best insulator as well as I requested a couple of quick recommendations while a house in under construction and installment. Floods are unstoppable, which is why we should act quick by choosing the correct housing materials that is able to fit our environment, and save many houses
720 3245 Hindenburg Jr. Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S In automotive technology and engineering there are many types of fuel sources. Some of these fuel sources are much cleaner for the environment than others, with one such example being hydrogen, that is not only cleaner for the environment, but much more abundant as well. This brought us the engineering goal of converting a gas powered internal combustion engine into a hydrogen powered internal combustion engine. Procedures Acquire 2-stroke internal combustion engine from a leaf blower or any sort of device that contains a two-stroke engine Pull apart internals and locate carburetor and or locate the fuel pumpPurchase make Hydrogen and contain it properlyBuild wiring system from the hydrogen container to fuel containerOnce all modifications are complete test engine in proper environment and confirm if it works properly
721 3246 Water Conservation Method Through an Automated Irrigation System Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S In order to mitigate the gross amount of water wasted in commercial irrigation or lawn maintenance, an automated irrigation system was designed and created, relying on mesh networks to communicate the hydration needs of specific areas of a pasture or lawn. A soil moisture sensor, a flowmeter, and a solenoid valve were programmed to communicate with a Particle Xenon board using the Internet of Things. The moisture sensor uses a set of parameters to output a reading of very wet, wet, or dry to describe the soil moisture, and the solenoid valve is programmed to respond accordingly. When the sensor reads the soil is dry, the solenoid valve opens, allowing water to travel through the flowmeter for a five minute cycle before the moisture sensor reevaluates the state of the soil. The flowmeter measures and records the amount of water used in each cycle, allowing the user to effectively determine which sections of property require the most maintenance. In addition to the programmed settings, users can manually input the parameters for soil moisture as well as duration of the watering cycle. Because of the versatile nature of the system s design, the developed technology could be applied to virtually any sprinkler system and still serve toward the goal of effectively reducing water waste. Extension of this project would include testing of the application in order to best estimate exactly how much water can be expected to be saved over various types of land using the developed system.
722 3247 Draining Houston's Problems Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Houston is one of the biggest cities in America and floods should not occur consistently. The purpose of my project was to find the perfect drain design for Houston to prevent future hurricanes from destroying the city and its inhabitants. I hypothesise that a large drain will allow for the output of water to be greater than the input.In order to even test my question, I had to build the drains. Wood was used to construct the drains and four small rectangles were cut from each to the four pieces of wood to represent the drains which are usually seen it the neighborhoods of Houston However for Model 2, a different design was created so two long and thin rectangles were cut.After all the trials were completed, I finally was able to observe my data and it was clear that Model 4 had the fastest removal of water or a greater output of water than the other drains so it was clear that Houston should redesign their drains like Model 4.Houston s flooding problems could be fixed by redesigning the drains. The best design would be one that is similar to Model 4 based on my results. The cost will be very high especially because a strainer will be placed under the drain and technology will have to be used to allow for all the litter collected to be pushed away.
723 3248 laser Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S My project is building a burning laser. It needs a laser driver, laser diode, laser lens, laser module, wires, wire caps, and a voltage meter. The wires need to be with certain other wires, negative with negative, positive with positive. Put wire caps on the negative wires. The positive wires are for the switch to the power source. Plug every thing in then boom a burning laser. If you don t use the right voltage you will either blow up the laser or have a weak laser.
724 3249 Distilling Water Using The Sun Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Finding renewable clean water sources has been a problem for as long as humans have been around this is where the idea of water distillation comes from. Instead of finding new clean water sources, one can acquire dirty water and make it drinkable. The purpose of my experiment was to construct a cheap and practical solar distillation device that can safely make clean water using solar energy. To complete my goal I performed experiments on two groups in a self-constructed solar distiller. The distiller was constructed with a simple perspiration-condensation-collection system. I then took the distiller and performed two experiments using outside light and artificial light. Then I recorded measurements of the average temperature, the amount of dirty and clean water, and the time exposed to light. The experiment was a success with temperatures ranging from 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit, distilling about 120 ML of water from about 400-500 ML of brackish water. This project can be applied to many sectors of the world as it uses the sun to distill and heat materials instead of harder to obtain fuels. My system could be implemented in a less developed area of the world or could be used to develop a more cost-effective way to make clean water commercially.
725 3250 Improving Wheelchair Mobility: A New Affordable and Unassisted Stair-Climbing Technology Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S The wheelchair is a device essential for providing mobility to its disabled users.While there are stair climber devices available to allow one abled-body person to help a wheelchair up down stairs, they can have costs ranging in the thousands of dollars. These prices coupled with the low average income levels of wheelchair users make it challenging for most to acquire an expensive stair climber device or stair-climbing wheelchair. The purpose of this research was therefore to design and test a low cost technology that could be installed on a standard wheelchair and operated by its adult occupant to climb up down stairs safely, without the assistance of another person. A new technology comprised of a lifting mechanism fitted with a pin-guided system was developed to enable a controlled ascent of stairs. The lifting mechanism was composed of two wooden crutches, placed parallel to the length of connecting boards attached running vertical on each wheel. The guided-pin system within this lifting mechanism involved a pin fixed to the bottom of the connecting board, with a corresponding guide cut out in each crutch tracing the projected path a wheelchair user would take to climb a single stair step. Testing of this finalized design validated the technology through manual operation, the device performing as desired. These findings may form the basis for further work on the mechanization of the pin-guided lifting mechanism and for its commercial integration.
726 3251 The Utilization of a Flex-Sensor Glove to Measure Rehabilitation of Patients Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and the fifth major cause of death in the United States alone. A stroke can cause the functionality of many body parts to be negatively affected. One such body part is the hand, which is essential in order to complete paramount daily tasks, including driving, eating, and maintaining proper hygiene. During the stroke rehabilitation process, it is a challenge to measure the progress that a patient has made, especially in relation to their hand movement. Therefore, this project uses a flex sensor to document the patient s range of hand motion as they as they recuperate. This design focuses on accurately measuring not only the rehabilitation of a patient, but also the effectiveness of stroke recovery treatments through the quantitative assessment that the glove provides. The procedure included the employment of a flex sensor affixed to a glove, that had the ability to record the degrees of movement. Through this, it can be deduced that the utilization of such a glove during therapy treatments for recovering stroke patients could prove beneficial in order to encourage the patients and provide the doctors and therapists with accurate data. In the future, the scope of this project would be extended to a larger scale in order to measure rehabilitation of other body parts that may face the detrimental effects of a stroke, such as the wrist and elbow, in order to continue to capture the potential that technology has in this field of health science.
727 3252 An Encapsulated Filtering Device for Microplastic Removal in Water Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Billions of microplastics plague the waters of the environment and communities. Today there are over 51 trillion individual pieces in the world s oceans. This causes a variety of issues, namely the fish and organisms ingesting these plastics. This is not only harmful to them, but it can also cause health issues for humans as they consume these fish. This threat is only growing due to the rising use and dependency on plastic. Because of this, the need for a microplastic filter couldn t be greater. The end goal of this research is to reach a fully functioning microplastic filter. The stage completed was finding the best medium and design for removing microplastics. Asymmetrically layered micro mesh and activated carbon granules were tested individually and combined. After the findings revealed that the combination of the two worked best, a finally design was created with modifications. Implementing both mediums, the design consists of the asymmetrically layered micromesh pocketing densely packed carbon granules. This method was able to achieve a mean efficiency rate of 96%. Ultimately this research was able to establish a vital component of the filter. Moving forward, this medium design will be combined with a detection method to be implemented into a functioning system. The end goal is an encapsulated device that can filter microplastics in the environment and communities without disrupting wildlife elements. However, the medium design created can still have universal applications to filtering other small particles in different situations.
728 3253 Efficacy of Concrete Curing Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Concrete is one of mankind s greatest infrastructural engineering projects that still lasts to thisday. Today, concrete is found in almost every process of construction throughout the world. ThisProject experiments which commonly used curing methods is ideal for concrete strength andlongevity. Concrete curing is the process in maintaining certain properties such has moisture toreach overall design strength. This experiment was conducted by pouring the concrete mix intoseveral plastic and wooden molds of cylinders and beams. Each sample was then applied withone of the seven curing compounds Chemical Curing, Cotton blanket, No curing, Burlap bag,Under water, Water mist, Soaked Sand with a time period of one week. After that one week,each cylindrical sample is crushed in a hydraulic press calculating the Psi required to crush thesample. The Second test conducted is called The Beam Test. The Beam samples were laidacross two pieces of wood perpendicular with a bucket above which fluctuate in weight due tothe amount of sand that was poured into it. This amount of sand was then weighed andrecorded to see the beams break under a pin point load. The chemical compound was thestrongest curing method for compression representing an average of 2,466.295 PSI and Burlapbag was the strongest for the pinpoint load at 11.4 PSI. This project determined whichcommonly used curing method is ideal to a realistic approach in determining the best strength ofconcrete for todays infrastructure.
729 3254 Developing A Wearable, Long-Term, Body Sensor Network for the Prediction of Cardiac and Neural Diseases Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Cardiovascular and neurological diseases encompass an enormous proportion of the world s current health crisis, yet there is a distinct lack of a proactive solution in today s world. Hence, the goal was to create a system that would continuously monitor the user and inform them before episodes occurred. A system of long-term, cost-effective, and wearable sensors were built to continuously monitor the user s EEG and ECG signals through Printed-Circuit-Board PCB design in KiCad. By costing $95.84, the two sensors proved viable as cost-effective monitoring systems. Two machine learning models were created to analyze the biosignals from the sensor in real-time and accomplish the task of disease prediction. The ECG analysis process involved the following key steps ECG Denoising, GLCM Feature Extraction, Support Vector Machine, and Convolutional Neural Network. The SVM determined if the beat was abnormal, and in testing, it maintained an accuracy of 93.7% for binary classification. If the SVM classified a beat as abnormal, the CNN classified the type of abnormality and tracked abnormality patterns to predict heart attacks. The CNN had an overall accuracy of 98.3% and led to heart attack prediction 23 minutes in advance. As for the EEG model, two different SVM models were implemented to predict Epilepsy and detect Alzheimer s. The Alzheimer s model had an accuracy of 91.6% while the Epilepsy model maintained 96.7% accuracy while predicting epilepsy 16 minutes prior. The data was relayed to the user via a mobile app which had wave signals, notification setting, personalized health advice, and EMT contact.
730 3255 3D Printed Wind Turbine Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S There is a constant need for energy in this world. We use fossil fuels everyday, and the problem is that one day we will run out. Lucky for us, we have wind energy which isn t something that will run out. The purpose of this project is to create an efficient vertical axis wind turbine from a 3D printer that can produce enough power to run small appliances in places that have little wind.In this project, we designed three different blade shapes for a wind turbine. Once they were printed, we put a fan on it to test the RPM. After finding the shape that had the most RPM, we adjusted the thickness of the blades to change the mass. We did this to see how the mass affected the RPM. The results of the test #1 showed that blade shape A produced the most RPM. From test #2, the blade that had a mass of 21g, also produced the most RPM.
731 3256 CPOCD II: A Novel Protective Bi-functional Apparatus to Prevent Child Fatalities in Overheated Cars Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S A significant move toward reducing the number of children lost in hot car fatalities requires immediate attention both by parents as well as by the car manufacturers. Children left accidentally in locked cars have the risk of death due to a 200F increase in temperature during a ten-minute interval. One significant step forward toward reducing the fatalities would be to devise a car accessory detector system. We used a rational approach to develop a bi-functional safety alert system fitted into standard car seats, which not only can issue an auditory alert system but also features a passive cooling system designed to keep a child s core temperature below a critical point. The device is designed to have four components 1 temperature sensor, 2 weight sensor containing four load cells, 3 an HX711 load amplifier and 4 relay and the key to complete the circuit for the remote start of the engine and the car alert system. The scientists used a calibration code for temperature and a weight sensor. This device will sense the temperature variation in a heated car, turning on the air conditioner of the car creating a cool environment for the child s safety. The system will also alert the surroundings using the car alarm that can act as an emergency backup to extend the infant s chance of survival. In this project, scientists have made an effort to design a device to protect young children s deaths due to heat strokes by using a protective alert device installed in the car.
732 3257 A Renewable Energy Source by Storing Wind Energy: For Engineers. Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S As of now, there is no cheap and viable method to store wind energy and yet it is capable of powering 15 million houses in the US. It is absolutely unnerving that there is so much electricity through wind and yet we are not able to harness it effectively because there is no way to store it. Due to this, it either gets wasted immediately or gets used up. This is especially unfortunate as most wind energy is produced at night when the energy demand is very low. To solve this issue my project has looked to find a cheap, viable method to store wind energy in a battery. In addition, it will be paired with solar energy as solar energy is most prominent during the day when winds are not as strong and vice versa. Furthermore, there are many places that have the conditions that require a model like this, a model that can not only help the kids in Africa with a shortage of power due to drought and sandstorms but also a model that can take a large step towards a cleaner environment.
733 3258 Battle of the Bridges Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Earthquakes are very devastating to their environment and bridges are impacted. The importance of this experiment is to try to find out if different types of bridge structures can withstand earthquake forces better. Four different bridge types will be tested Mono cabled-stayed, Harp cabled-stayed, Fan cabled-stayed, and Beam . The four bridges will be built out of Legos. A Shaker table will be used to test each bridge by accelerating the structure in two directions. Each bridge has characteristics that make it an appropriate choice for an engineer to use to span a waterway. In addition to earthquake forces, a bridge must withstand wind loads, live loads, dead loads, and be economical. The hypothesis that the Harp bridge would be the best of the four for earthquake loading was incorrect. Within just the earthquake design cases, the Fan and Beam bridges seemed to withstand a wider range of acceleration forces compared to the Mono and Harp. Beam bridges, although very robust, are not good choices for long span ways given complexities in construction. From our experiment, Fan bridges performed well in acceleration cases by transferring loads to its foundation. This may not be a a good choice for weak soil conditions at the shoreline. In these cases, the Harp or Mono bridge could be a superior overall selection. Thus, a bridge engineer must balance many factors when selecting a bridge design to execute of which earthquake loading is just one consideration.
734 3259 Heat Exchanger Surface Cleaning Using Foam Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Cleaning technology that uses foam versus high pressure water jets is used when the high velocity of high pressure water jets can destroy the delicate thin metal fins of heat transfer surfaces of heat transfer equipment and has to be avoided. When using foam cleaning technology on domestic air conditioning surfaces the results are not extremely important but when used on industrial heat transfer surfaces the cleaning efficiency of the foam can significantly change the heat transfer data and the industrial output. This industrial production output drives the demand for high efficiency cleaning which in many cases can only be accomplished with an optimized cleaning process using dense high viscosity foam. To produce such a cleaning foam three nozzles were tested, two of them available on the market and one of them enhanced with injection of compressed air. The hypothesis was that the enhanced nozzle would remove the most debris. The result confirmed the hypothesis but only by a small margin. More research would be necessary to enhance the process and to get more accurate data but good nozzles are making a visibly better foam with higher viscosity and smaller dense bubbles which proved to be more effective for cleaning.
735 3260 Treximo: A Smart Sole to Predict Muscular Injuries in the Foot via Pressure and Heat Mapping Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S In America, three in every four people experience a foot injury at some point in their life. These injuries usually occur due to wear and tear and cause unusual stress distributions in various parts of the foot. In order to detect and prevent foot injuries, a smart sole was created in order to differentiate between the user s pressure levels and the normal pressure levels. The foot was divided into nine sections the medial calcaneus, lateral calcaneus, medial arch, lateral arch, first metatarsal, third and fourth metatarsal, fifth and sixth metatarsal, hallux, and toes. Five nano pressure sensors were placed in strategic locations in order to get the most relevant information for diagnosis. The sensors were placed in between the medial and lateral calcaneus, the lateral arch, in between the second, third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals and the toes, and in between the medial arch and first metatarsal. The Arduino microcontroller was programmed to record this data and find the difference between the upstep and the downstep force values. Using a programmed algorithm, these force values were converted into BW In2 values which were sent to the Android application via Bluetooth. The application compared these values to that of the normal model in order to obtain the mean difference from expected. The device was tested on five people to ensure its durability and usability. The device worked as expected and recorded substantial values to determine that the device was successful.
736 3261 The Walk for Power - The Race for the Future Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Owning the ability to generate electricity in a remote location could mean the difference between life and death in many situations. The problem that many engineers face is developing a compact design that generates a sufficient amount of electricity. The scientist in this experiment found that the most effective way to complete this task was to harness mechanical energy released by human movement. The experimenter designed and tested a power generating shoe that uses triboelectric nanogenerators to convert mechanical energy released from walking into electrical energy that could be used to charge any product. The experimenter used Polytetrafluoroethylene and Kapton Tape to create a nanogenerator in the insole of a running shoe. This prototype was built off the principle that when two materials touch, they transfer electrons from the negatively charged substance to the positively charged element. Electrodes that were attached to the insole of the shoe harnessed these electrons and used them to produce a voltage. The testing of the power generating shoe was done through a multimeter that measured the voltage of the circuit. The experimenter recorded the readings of the multimeter on data tables that were used to organize the voltages. Additionally, a graph was formed to visualize the data in a useful and relevant way. The data from the triboelectric nanogenerator shows that there is a potential for an alternative energy source produced from human movement. This invention will promote an active lifestyle as well as giving people the electricity they need.
737 3262 A Concrete Solution: engineering efficient water usage goals in Texas concrete Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S The original goal of my project was to reduce water in the concrete sample making procedure while still maintaining the expected PSI of the final product. During my experimentation, I was unable to get the results I wanted, and so through research, I decided to include another test. By removing weak points in the concrete that would be made with less water, I hoped to have an equal or higher PSI through strong binding in the concrete made from these procedures. Using a vibrating table, I identified air pockets as a main weakness that may have been preventing the concrete from holding together under pressure, negatively effecting its PSI, and used the vibrating table to shake and further bind recently mixed concrete that had not yet dried, to remove any visible air pockets. The results of this were significant, the PSI of the concrete that underwent this extra step to their mixing process saw a significant increase in their PSI despite that less water was used in composition, and all the concrete with reduced water levels met the same levels and regulations as the control concrete sample made with normal levels of water. These samples also took increased pressure well, and an observable ability to fail to crumble and immediately fall to pieces even after the maximum pressure was applied to these samples was observed.
738 3263 Effects of Air Vacuum on Motor Efficiency Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S In recent years, global warming has become a crisis as energy usage is increasing rapidly. Many methods have been created to help reduce energy usage and sustain our energy supply. I hypothesized that my experiment could increase the output of energy from a motor by reducing the friction of the rotors against the air. For my experiment, I analyzed the performance of a direct current brushed motor by measuring the rotations per minute and temperature of the motor every minute for five minutes in different atmospheric pressure conditions. I constructed a vacuum chamber by putting a cooking sheet and plexiglass across the top of a saucepan and drilling holes in the plexiglass to hold the wires for the motor. The motor was housed inside of the sealed vacuum chamber, and the lack of air and friction made the motors speed and temperature increase. I used a tachometer to measure the speed and a thermocouple to find the temperature of the motor. After testing, the data showed that for every 25% decrease in atmosphere, the speed of the motor increased by an average of 68 rotations per minute and the temperature increased by 0.075 C. This shows a significant increase in motor speed as the vacuum level increased. It also shows an accelerated increase in temperature over time. This technology could be used in the future in large and powerful motors but the temperature should be monitored to prevent overheating.
739 3264 Bluetooth Connection Through Water Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Bluetooth devices that can effectively connect through water are beneficial because certain devices such as medical devices need to be monitored at all times, including being in the water. The purpose of this project is to discover if a device s Bluetooth connection through water is dependent on its categorized Bluetooth class by experimenting with multiple devices in the shower. Based on background research, the prediction of this experiment is that the devices with the longest range aka Class 1 will reach the furthest before disconnecting when in the shower.In this experiment, six different Bluetooth devices were tested. First as a control, each device was placed in the shower, the same spot where it would be experimented. Once connected to the smartphone, the smartphone was moved further away at a consistent pace till the device disconnected. The point of disconnection was measured from the device and recorded. The same process was repeated three times except with the shower on. In the end, results for each Bluetooth device were analyzed and compared.The conclusion of this project reveals that Class 2 Bluetooth devices on average obtain better Bluetooth connection through water. Looking at the results, Class 3 Bluetooth devices were significantly worse than the others, however based on the hypothesis that was predicted. Class 1 Bluetooth devices were not as consistent compared to the others, but performed well. The significance of the results show that medical devices should have a Class 2 Bluetooth connection for a safer and more reliable use.
740 3265 Creating a flood rescue vehicle Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S Throughout history, multiple places in USA and around the World have been affected by natural disasters, like floods, hurricanes and others. With climate change becoming more of a concern, preparation for the possible increase in these events is crucial to save and minimise the casualties due to the difficulties in providing aid during these catastrophes.The aim of this project is to make a model to demonstrate how current amphibious vehicle can be improved to help people during a natural disaster. This vehicle will be designed to provide aid, supplies, and rescue people when water levels make it difficult for other rescue vehicles to reach them. Apart from the vehicle being able to move on water, it is versatile allowing it to move on different terrains, due to its high-impact resistance tires and its suspension system.The model attempts to solve problems that current amphibious vehicles have, the main one being that the tires of an amphibious vehicle limit its motion through water, therefore making it difficult to pass through obstacles left by natural disasters. This project looks into creating retractable wheels to solve this problem, while still allowing its motion on land. The mechanism to distribute power from the motor to the wheels is also explored and integrated into the model along with the internal design and distribution. This project will support the mechanical engineering aspect in creating life saving inventions.
741 3266 How Different Materials Affect the Signal of a Wireless Router. Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S This experiment quantifies the signal strength from a wireless router measured in to a connected device, when the signal is blocked by various materials. After measuring the control no obstructing material , Boxes made of 6 different materials were used to examine the change to the dBm Decibel-milliwatts . the dBm was then measured for each material once every 20 seconds 5 times, this was followed by the dBm being averaged. Experiment results show that aluminum foil suppresses the signal the most, with an average of -69 dBm. Plywood had the least interference, with an average of -51 dBm. Although the aluminum foil is thinner than the plywood, the foil still suppressed the signal to a greater extent than the plywood. The purpose of this experiment was to provide insight on what materials affect the wireless signal that should be avoided, to help determine whether an extender may be needed.
742 3267 solar-wind GIS system Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S This wind-solar design is self-powered and aims to acquire environmental information in a certain area. Multiple high-performance sensors are integrated including video, image, sun intensity, precipitation, wind scale, soil temperature, air temperature, and humidity, and air quality. All the information is obtained and transferred to the data processing center where GIS information of this area is combined and analyzed. The data will be utilized for agriculture, disaster prevention, climatic change monitoring, etc. During the experiment, we found, as the propeller radius increases from 1m to 2m, the power it gained will increase quadratically. When the wind speed is 16m s and radius is 2m, the power it can gain is 3.5kW, which exceeds the demand. Therefore this system can be run individually since it has both the turbo and the solar panel as its power source.
743 3268 Wind Turbines Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S This project is determined to explore the harnessing of wind to generate electricity and we can evaluate wind turbines by testing which speed is the most effective on producing enough energy.Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind to mechanical power which can then be used directly for converting to electric power to generate electricity This formula can be calculated using power from the wind PW 0.5 R3 Vw3 CP , The angle at which it produces the most energy is 45 degrees when the turbine is set to perpendicular to the direction of the windThe purpose of this experiment was to convert kinetic energy to mechanical power.This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks such as grinding grain,pumping water or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity to power homes,businesses and schools.If the wind turbine starts to spin it will create electricity because the wind turbine blades will move in a circular motion and i want to test it at different speeds to see which speed is the most effective on producing enough energy.A wind turbine turns into wind energy and into electricity using the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades which will work like an airplane using the aerodynamic wing or helicopter rotor blade. When wind flows across the blade, the air pressure across the two sides of the blade creates both lift and drag. The force of the lift is stronger than the drag and this causes the rotor.
744 3269 Designing a Hydroelectric Barrier to Protect Coastal Cities From Storm Surges And Generate Environmentally Friendly Hydroelectricity Engineering: Electrical/Mechanical/Civil S AbstractAs global warming continues to advance, it is becoming more threatening to certain areas around the world. One of these areas is cities located at or below sea level. In an attempt to keep these cities safe from rising waters, storm surges, and hurricanes, researchers have begun to toy around with the idea of creating a coastal barrier that will be placed out in the ocean near these endangered cities. The goal of this project is to show that the idea of a coastal barrier would, in fact, be beneficial to its surrounding areas.A three-step test was run on the project to determine if the barrier would function as hoped. Three different weather forms were tested-mild, moderate, and severe weather-each with their own qualifications. A water-proof box was constructed to create a controlled test zone. In each test, pebbles lined one side of the box. After the test, pebbles that had moved from the side of the box where collected, weighed, and returned.These weights were recorded and sorted into their weather categories. T-tests were then run comparing the weights of the stray pebbles without the barrier to those with the barrier. All three weather conditions produced statistically significant p-values of 0.01, 0.005, and 0.001, meaning the barrier truly slowed erosion and stopped unnecessary damage to the coastline.The findings of this project can be used when considering whether or not a barrier should be built to protect a city in need.
748 3273 How Can The Materials Making an FRP Impact Its Properties? Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S My project is about how the materials involved in the creation of fiberglass reinforced plastics, FRP, can impact the properties of the FRP, and example of a property being changed is hardness or strength. This project is important and relevant due to the levels at which FRPs are being used in today s world. Nearly all new devices and creations have some sort of FRP involved in their creation, or in the device itself. I researched into what materials are involved in the creation of an FRP and how to create an FRP. I created a control FRP using a pure epoxy block, and inserted different fibers into four other blocks of epoxy. I drop tested the blocks from 2.1 meters 7 feet , to see which block would take the most damage from the fall. This project supported both of my hypotheses. This project will draw more attention to other sources of fibers, such as natural fibers. Human hair and coconut skin are some examples of viable alternatives to synthetic fibers.
749 3274 Which Starch Bio-plastic is the Strongest Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S In recent times there has been a trend to stop using plastics or to use bioplastics. One of the most promising types of bioplastic is starch based bioplastics. These bioplastics are both naturally made and biodegradable. Therefore it would be very beneficial to know which kind of starch makes the strongest and most durable bioplastic. A hypothesis is that if a bioplastic was made with tapioca starch it will have the highest tensile strength.For the experiment glycerin, vinegar, starch, and water was mixed together. Then the ingredients were heated up and stirred together till it became clear and transparent. Then the plastic solution was poured it into a silicon mold and let it dry. Finally the fully formed bioplastic was pulled apart with a spring scale and the final strength was measured.In conclusion the hypothesis was correct, tapioca starch overall had the highest tensile strength. After that it went potato starch, rice starch, wheat starch, and cornstarch. This overall is very useful data as it shows which starch will make the overall best bioplastic for future use in construction of plastic materials.
750 3275 Are eco-bricks durable enough to use in construction? Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S The purpose of my project is to determine if eco-bricks are durable enough to be used in construction. My research compares eco-bricks with standard construction wood and grout bricks. Durability is the ability to withstand elements such as wind, rain and heat. The eco-brick should meet local building code requirements while also being cost efficient. The methods I used to test these three material types were water absorption and compressive strength testing. Compression testing measures the pressure per inch for each material sample. Water absorption testing measures how much water each material absorbs. Grout and eco-brick samples were made and cured for 29-days. On each material type for each testing method, eight trials were performed. From compression testing, wood was the strongest followed by grout bricks then eco-bricks. The longer the brick samples cured, the stronger it performed in compression testing. There were greater variations in strength among the eco-brick samples resulting from the varying density of recycled plastics composition. Grout brick was the least water absorbent followed by eco-bricks and then wood. Wood being the most porous absorbed the most amount water. In conclusion, of the three materials the eco-bricks were the most cost efficient, had the lowest break point in compression testing and were more water-resistant than wood. Longer curing times for both grout and eco-bricks will allow these to surpass the strength of wood. Improvements can be made to eco-bricks to make samples more consistent and durable for construction use by melting or grinding the recycled plastics.
751 3276 Efficiency of Different Methods of Microplastic Fiber Filtration Utilizing New 3D Printed and Centrifugal Based Designs Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S Microplastic-fiber pollution is caused by the fibers released from fabrics such as acrylic and polyester. It harms our marine ecosystems through lower level niche organisms that suffer from microplastic overconsumption. It also affects humans diets since on average, every fish caught has 3 grams of plastic.Uniform squares of fabric were washed to test each filter external Lint-LUV-R, Prototype R.2 engineered centrifugal-design Prototype R engineered centrifugal-design internal Cora Ball, Prototype M.2 new 3D-printed design Prototype M new 3D-printed design . Using the mass of the fibers collected from the filter and sieved from the water, the percent efficiency was calculated.Our project tested the acrylic, polyester, and nylon collecting percent efficiency of our new microplastic-fiber filtration systems vs. the current available models. Our results showed the Lint-LUV-R had an overall greater acrylic microplastic-fiber collecting percent efficiency 11% , followed by Prototype R.2 7% , Prototype R 6.9% , Prototype M.2 5.7% , Prototype M 5.4% , and finally the Cora Ball 0.4% . Our results, also, showed that Prototype R.2 had the greatest polyester microplastic-fiber collecting percent efficiency 6.5 , then Prototype M.2 4.4% , Prototype M 4.2% , Prototype R 4% , Lint-LUV-R 3% , and finally, the Cora Ball 2.2% . However, even our best percent efficiency Lint-LUV-R , only collected 11%. Therefore, there is room for innovation in the field of microplastic-fiber filtration. Furthermore, the cost of production of Prototype R.2 was $14 and the production of Prototype M.2 was $12 the Lint-LUV-R retails at $140 and the Cora Ball retails at $38 , which makes it easily adaptable to the base design of washing machines to help save our planet.
752 3277 Concrete, Hard as Plastic: Effects of Implementing Whole Plastic Pieces In Concrete on Strength Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S Plastic is waste continuously growing in the environment as the use of plastic products and packaging expands. Recent studies have determined that implementing plastic into concrete magnifies both the stability and strength of concrete by 15% and reduces the amount of concrete used, along with 300 million tons of plastic waste produced each year Chu, 2017 . However, this requires reducing large pieces into tiny particles through the use of gamma radiation, requiring large amounts of energy. The researcher hypothesized that if whole pieces of plastic were mixed and sealed inside concrete, the changes to stability and durability would be insignificant as the plastic would be unable to break down. Concrete mixtures with plastic bag pieces, water bottle pieces and without to act as the control group were poured into PVC pipes and set to dry. The strength of the resulting concrete cylinder was determined by measuring how much mass was required to break the concrete. Results from the experiment showed that there were no significant differences in the amount of mass each group was able to hold, indicating that both concrete with and without plastic have similar strengths. This solution can be used throughout society in roads, buildings, sidewalks and any other use for concrete. Waste companies can begin to send their plastic waste to construction sites. There is a likely future for reductions in the costs for infrastructure, reducing the amount of plastic waste, and creating a more sustainable environment.
753 3278 The Effects of Polymers on Draining and Porosity in Pervious Concrete Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S Pervious concrete can aid in the reduction of flooding, refill groundwater more efficiently, and can even reduce sound pollution. It allows water to pass through its pores into the ground. However, pervious concrete has a major flaw its strength. Polymers, such as polyvinyl acetate PVAC and styrene-butadiene rubber latex SBR latex can be used to strengthen pervious concrete. This experiment tested the drainability of both of these polymers to determine the effectiveness of draining with the addition of polymers. Pervious concrete was created with cement, gravel, water, and in some cases, a polymer. Once dried, the cement went through the draining test. Two liters of water were poured onto the concretes at a constant rate of .05 liters second and the time it took for the water to stop dripping through the concrete was recorded. The amount of water left in the concrete was also measured measuring cups were used to measure how much water needed to be refilled to level off at two liters. Modified 1 PVAC took longer than the control while absorbing less while Modified 2 SBR latex took less time but absorbed more water. The differences in time from control to modified samples were found to be significant, with a p-value of 0.045 and 0.028 for Modified 1 and Modified 2, respectively. These findings can be used to create more durable concretes while not losing effectiveness in draining. Polyvinyl acetate takes more time and SBR latex less, but SBR latex absorbs more water than the PVAC.
754 3279 A Study of Binders for Graphene-Based Supercapacitor Electrodes Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S In this study, we analyzed the effects of different binders in graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes. The following commercial binders were studied with regards to the graphene electrodes Carboxymethyl cellulose CMC , polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF and styrene butadiene rubber SBR . Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy coupled with galvanostatic charge-discharge studies are utilized to evaluate the performance of various binders.
755 3280 Highly Porous Materials for CO2 Capture Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S There have been increasing concerns about global warming caused by greenhouse gases GHG particularly CO2. Globally, nearly 50 billion metric tons of GHG are emitted to the atmosphere annually. Of those emissions, about 37 billion metric tons are CO2. Even with various efforts in place to reduce GHG, global CO2 emissions increased by nearly 3% in 2018. To address the global warming issue, development of new methods for CO2 capture has become increasingly important. In this study, a number of highly porous materials were used to successfully capture a significant amount of CO2. Chlorophyll extracted from green plant leaves were able to act as micro bio-reactors to facilitate photo-synthesis inside the pores, greatly synergistically improving CO2 capture efficiency. Both algae and amine-group containing chemicals demonstrated potentials in combination with highly porous materials for efficient CO2 capture as well.
756 3281 Superhydrophobic surface design for practical applications Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S Heat transfer affects all aspects of engineering, and is a major design constraint when it comes to engineering challenges and product design. Currently, the engineers are examining how heat transfer rates of materials can be modified through coating applications to modify innate properties. Although this area of study is yet to be mass commercialized, the early work looks promising. This experiment examines the effect of a superhydrophobic coating has on heat transfer efficiency by measuring Nucleation time, Boiling time, and Evaporation time of water. This experiment was conducted by coating metal containers in a hydrophobic coating containers filled with water and measuring timing impacts against a control group. An appreciable difference between the experimental and control groups was observed. This indicated that superhydrophobic coating modify nucleation mechanics and thereby alter the heat transfer rate.
757 3282 Glass grains for energy efficiency Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S Large building absorba a lot of solar radiation that causes them to heat up and stay warm for long periods of time. Traditional insulation is not enough to keep buildings cool especially with climate change becoming a greater concern for temperature increase. To create a synthetic high albedo coating with insulative properties, I measured the properties of glass as its grain size changes. This experiment shows how light and temperature behaves through different sized glass grains. I was able to conclude that glass has an optimal size for the highest albedo, which is surprisingly not the smallest grain size. The glass bulk also follows a, rare, logistic growth pattern that shows how the rate at which the glass heats up starts out slow speeds up and then slows down again. The 1cm thick glass bulk is also able to prevent the transference of 50% of heat from one side to the other. Recycled glass has huge potential to become a thermal insulating coating for heat and sunlight which may be an essential material for a future with higher temperatures and greater solar radiation being allowed to pass through our atmosphere.
758 3283 SERS based Detection of Explosives using Au Nanoparticles Synthesized by Femtosecond Laser Ablation Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S Due to explosions causing a tremendous amount of damage to the surroundings, efficient detection of explosive molecules prior to explosion is imperative for the safety of the public. The Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy SERS technique was developed to enhance the Raman signal of various analytes through the high localized surface plasmon resonance LSPR properties of metal surfaces. The main goal of this study was to synthesize gold nanoparticles using femtosecond laser ablation and utilize them in the detection of ammonium nitrate AN and methylene blue MB . The nanoparticles were produced via femtosecond laser ablation of a gold target in water. Using UV-vis absorption data, the peak was found to be at 525 nm, which when compared to the characteristic 520 nm peak of gold, confirmed the presence of nanoparticles in the solution. The Raman spectra of the two analytes showed that the peaks matched well with known peaks of the two analytes with a percent error of 0.2% and 0.3% for MB and AN, respectively. The enhancement factor for the MB peak intensities was 1.73x107, 1.63x107, 1.79x107, respectively, with an RSD of 3.81%. The enhancement factor for the AN peak intensities was 6.97x104, 8.15x104, and 6.78x104, respectively, with an RSD of 8.28%, indicating that the gold nanoparticles helped enhance the signal and detected the two analytes. The applications of the study are numerous, ranging from detecting and identifying unknown materials, biomolecular sensing, and spectroelectrochemistry.
759 3284 Alternative To Current Padding Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S In my experiment, I was developing a new composite padded material for goalkeepers. In my experiment, I had hoped to out perform the leading pair of goalkeeping pants by developing superior protective athletic gear. To complete my investigation I dropped eggs upon the surface of the leading brand and my composite material of padding. I dropped the eggs from a height of 4 ft. half the height of a standard goal because the average leap or jump is started from 4 ft. off the ground. I observed the eggs being dropped from this height on the leading brand pads 7.38 mm thick and being busted or mildly fractured upon impact, but the composite material I made 16.42 mm thick held up and supported the egg more than the other padding because greater penetration implies smaller impact force. As opposed to the leading brand, only showing less leeway in the padding thus lower penetration and in turn higher impact force causing the egg to crack and fracture. I determined that my model of the padding is superior in the applied fields of testing. This set of padding proved useful for elongated tournaments and games for many goalkeepers constantly having to throw themselves down to block an impending goal, preventing the common bruising and even stone bruising on the hips, and knees. With a higher durability and shock absorbance my project was a success.
760 3285 Ultraviolet Penetration in Thermoplastic Sunglass Lenses Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S Sunglasses are designed to protect the sensitive eye area from the harmful UV emitted from the sun. In this experiment, six materials commonly used in modern-day sunglass lenses were tested to determine which thermoplastic or glass material provided the greatest degree of protection against the sun s UV radiation. The six materials being tested were clear polycarbonate plastic, grey tinted polycarbonate plastic, mirror coated acrylic, bronze-tinted acrylic, clear acrylic, and glass. In order to determine which material provides the least UV transmission, all six materials were exposed to the sun s UV rays on different days and at different times, and UV indexes were measured with a solar meter. Percentages were calculated based on the UV index without the plastic lens and with the lens. Clear polycarbonate plastic blocked about 96.87% of UV rays, meaning that only 3.11% of UV rays were transmitted. The glass sample experienced the most UV penetration, where only 89.97% of UV rays were blocked. Tints or mirror coatings didn t have a significant effect on the measurements. At the end of the experiment, the conclusion was drawn that clear polycarbonate plastic provides the least amount of UV transmissions and the greatest amount of protection for the human eye.
761 3286 PanOculus: A Novel, Multifaceted Diagnostic Tool for Ocular Disease Powered by a Variable Focus Liquid Lens and Deep Learning Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S In highly developed nations, skilled medical professionals and modern technology have eliminated the tragic ramifications of many ocular diseases. However, there are countless eye conditions which, to this day, devastate the developing world, and can cause permanent visual impairment when left undiagnosed and untreated. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide, and will affect nearly 80 million people in 2020. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults and affects a third of the world s 285 million diabetics CDC . Diagnosis for these maladies requires equipment such as ophthalmoscopes, retinal cameras, slit lamps, among others, which are extremely expensive and inaccessible in developing nations. The goal of PanOculus is to formulate an inexpensive, effective, and portable solution to the impediment of diagnosing and treating diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and other eye diseases in developing countries. The project consists of two parts. First is an inexpensive, lightweight phone attachment which works in tandem with a variable-focus liquid lens to capture a photo of the retina. The liquid lens permits adjustable focal length through manipulation of voltage, allowing it to be controlled by an Arduino board to control the magnification and focus of the image. Second is a mobile application enabled with machine learning diagnostics to instantly identify eye diseases from images, as well as cloud compatibility to contact doctors remotely for treatment plans. The ambition of the project is to pioneer a new forefront of medical technology, syncretizing life-saving medicine and cutting-edge technology to create an impact.
762 3287 Talus 7 Active Support Footwear Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S Consistent use of traditional foot and ankle braces can result in rashes and discomfort both during and between uses. To solve these common complaints and issues, the Talus 7 Active Footwear was created. The Talus 7 uses three main points of support a strap underneath the insole of the shoe to provide support to the arch relieving pressure on the ankle and top of the foot , a strap in the back of the shoe to provide lateral support to the ankle, and the lacing which provides constrictive support to the top of the foot to limit unwanted mobility. This allows for ease of application, use, and removal while providing excellent therapeutic function. Over the past several months, the Talus 7 has gone through multiple improvements to make it as comfortable and functional as possible. Utilizing the well-established Engineering Design Process the author identified the problem, explored multiple solutions, researched what others previously designed, tested various materials, created both drawings and 3-D models, used a plan to create a prototype, tested the idea, and improved it. This process to date has resulted in the current prototype a cost-effective, stylish, and comfortable ankle brace integrated into an athletic shoe. This design mitigates or eliminates many of the current drawbacks of existing orthopedic foot and ankle support.
763 3288 A Lab-On-A-Chip Approach for Rapid Detection of Mold Metabolites Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S The modern practice of food banking and storage facilitates the development of several types of toxin-producing molds in foodstuffs and livestock feed. The molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, for instance, produce a variety of toxins, among which are the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1 AFB1 is the most virulent of these aflatoxins it is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer because of its implication in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. There is therefore an urgent need for practical detection methods of AFB1.The lab-on-a-chip AFB1 detection approach developed in this project, in contrast to existing detection methods, is both convenient and comparatively inexpensive. A biochip specific to AFB1 was created using a nano-arrayer by printing aptamers onto a microarray chip. Fluorescent tags were attached to each aptamer, and a probe possessing complementary DNA to the aptamers was printed over them. The probe was fitted with a quencher this allowed the complementary DNA to neutralize the fluorescence from the aptamers upon their binding. Consequently, the biochip fluoresced in the presence of AFB1 due to displacement of the quencher by the AFB1 aptamer binding. Samples of moldy food were blended with a solution of 80% methanol and 20% water by volume prior to testing. The results of this procedure indicate a novel, efficient, and effective method of AFB1 detection.
764 3289 Formulating an affordable yet Medically administered 3D Printed Vein Reader for disadvantaged countries. Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S This project aims to successfully address the issue of the deficiency of medical instruments in thirdworld countries. Our project seeks to implement a low-cost, lightweight, 3D printed vein reader thathelps nurses visualize superficial veins underneath the skin. Additionally, it also is constructed as analternative yet safer device that is compact and portable, and allows a patient to quickly locate his hervein without undue hassle or trauma. While vein readers exist on the market, they cost upmost of $100.To create medical technology that can be readily available in third world nations we aim to create acompact 3D printed vein finder that functions similarly to real vein finders at much lower costs. Thedevice will use individual 620 nm infrared LEDs. This will allow the hemoglobin in the blood to absortthe infrared light so, when the invention is held above the skin, veins appear in contrast to surroundingtissue either darker or lighter depending . By developing an electronically operated device, we believethat with small adjustments and compact shape of the invention, the user will significantiy benefit fromthe invention without the hassle of the cost and portability of the device
765 3290 Engineering prototype that aids in detecting the Peripheral Neuropathy in diabetic patients Engineering: Materials & Bioengineering S In this research project, the primary goal was to create an effective engineering prototype that serves as an efficient way of diagnosing nerve damage through heat. The key question throughout the research project was what is the easiest and pain-less way to detect nerve damage without using other forms of test, such as nerve or skin biopsy. The approach regarding this engineering prototype was to identify the necessary machines and software that is used in diagnosis and how much heat is necessary to be able to safely detect the nerve damage. Regarding to the software used, in this research project it will demonstrate its value and function in the engineering prototype and a constant amount of heat is used to be able to visually demonstrate where there is a lack of response from the nerves in the foot. Overall, the implications of this research project were to aid in searching for a more effective and efficient way to detect peripheral nerve damage in the foot for diabetic patients.
771 3296 Analyzing the Mechanics of Pollutant Degradation Environmental Sciences S As pollution levels rise, the relationship between pollutant degrading proteins across various organisms is vital to create a synthetic microbe that mitigates substance toxicity. To understand this relationship, the programming language R was used to write a program that analyzed trends among proteins involved in toxic substance breakdown. Due to similarity of function across the proteins of various organisms, it was hypothesized that a strong relationship exists between the proteins. In order to analyze how pollutant consumption is related across organisms, a variety of methods from the Bio3D package under the computer language R were employed on eight specific proteins. Once these methods were called, it was found that sets 3, 4, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 17 contained cores, or areas of highly similar protein make-up. Sets 3, 11, and 12 exhibited particularly strong similarities. The normal mode analysis procedure quantified the structural variations between each protein of each set and organized it in a visual plot. These results supported the patterns from the core analysis and indicated a level of similarity in both amino acid sequence and structure among various sets of proteins, specifically, between proteins that degrade plastics, toxic chemicals and heavy metals, and hydrocarbons. These similarities signal the potential to create a protein complex that could attack multiple pollutants, specifically, hydrocarbons and plastics or heavy metals, herbicides, and hydrocarbons at once. As the proteins have little variance in structure, a small genetic change that adds the structures of the other effective proteins is plausible.
772 3297 Gauging the Levels of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Recently-Painted Room Environmental Sciences S Volatile Organic Compounds, or VOCs, are organic gases emitted from solid surfaces with a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperatures that can cause an array of adverse health effects in humans. Indoor air quality has been identified as an environmental, economic, and health issue around the world, and VOCs are often a factor in these declining conditions. VOC levels indoors can be anywhere from two to five times higher than healthy levels found outside. This project aims to analyze and identify a key source of VOC emissions and how these levels fluctuate over time. Through the use of an air-quality sensor in a recently-painted room, levels of Total Volatile Organic Compounds TVOCs and Formaldehyde a common VOC were collected and contrasted to levels in a control room over three days. The result of this experiment was a statistically significant relationship between the observed VOC levels and the acceptable levels in comparison to the control room. During the peak of emissions, the paint in the experimental room released VOC levels that were more than 33 times the healthy range of VOCs indoors. These results can be implemented and applied in the fields of environment and chemical research as many companies explore the idea of VOC-free products and manufacturing practices. More so, doctors can use similar data to analyze and solidify the relationship between VOCs, VCPs Volatile Compound Products , and human respiratory health.
773 3298 Decomposition Scenarios Environmental Sciences S Decomposition Scenarios is an experiment designed to test the affects of heat and light on landfill kitchen waste. The purpose of this experiment is to discover a situation that allows for the quickest decomposition of kitchen landfill waste. Another purpose of the experiment is to discover which scenario allows for the lowest amount of gas release. This is important because the gasses released by the decomposing waste are greenhouse gasses that negatively affect the earth by trapping the suns heat, and directing it towards the earth. This process contributes to global warming, which is killing the planet. To continue, the experiment was conducted by placing equal amounts of the apples into glass bottles, which were sealed with a balloon over the top. Based on research, a food containing high amounts of sugar, gala apples were used to conduct this experiment.. Based on further research, fruits going through decomposition would release a gas, and through this info the amount of decomposition would be recorded through the volume of the balloon and visual observations. The apples were placed in different temperature and light conditions, and a control group was placed outside, in the changing heat and sunlight. After a duration of time, the experiments results were predicted, besides the control group, whose balloons managed to tear down the middle of the bottle. The heat conditions balloons expanded the most, while as conditions got colder, the balloons expanded less and less. These results prove that heat conditions facilitate the most decomposition.
774 3299 Is Your Sunscreen Killing Fish? Environmental Sciences S Is your sunscreen killing fish in the ocean Abstract This project focuses mainly on how regular and eco-friendly sunscreens affect fish brine shrimp . I wanted to do this because sunscreens can harm fish in the ocean, and I wanted to find a sunscreen that won t harm them. I haven t heard many people talk about this, and I think it can really become a big problem. To test my experiment, I raised brine shrimp in petri dishes for two days. Then, I counted the original amount of brine shrimp so I could compare it to how many there were after the sunscreen was placed in the petri dish. I poured the sunscreens in and waited 24 hours. After 24 hours, I counted how many shrimp were still alive. I then compared the results from each sunscreen and did 2 more trials. The data I ve collected from this experiment proved my hypothesis correct. The eco-friendly sunscreens didn t affect as many shrimp, but not all of the shrimp survived. The eco-friendly sunscreens usually ended up with a 10-20% shrimp survival rate, while the regular sunscreens did not leave any surviving shrimp. This is because regular sunscreens contain oxybenzone, a harmful chemical that can harm, and ultimately kill fish in the ocean. This project is important because it can make people more aware of how harmful their sunscreen is. If everyone is informed about this, then maybe brands can figure out a way to make effective sunscreen that can also be safe for fish.
775 3300 Desalination and Purification Environmental Sciences S My project had one main limitation. The took I used to measure the salt content was not strong enough. Therefore limiting how much salt I could account for. The EC meter I used only measured up to 9999 ppm in salt content. Salt water is over 10000 ppm in and can reach 35000 ppm. Though I made progress and was able to find a method that was somewhat effective cloth trials . Really what this project was focused around is desalinating water effectively using readily available materials that could one day help those in third world countries access freshwater.
776 3301 Sulfuric Acid on the Bioluminescence of Dinoflagellates Environmental Sciences S Sulfuric acid is a widely used chemical among industries, but it has detrimental effects on ocean life. Pyrocystis Fusiformis uses bioluminescence as an indicator of whether the environment is habitable from sulfuric acid. This project looks at different concentrations of sulfuric acid to test how bioluminescent Dinoflagellates, Pyrocystis Fusiformis, is. The hypothesis stated that as concentrations increase, the bioluminescence will decline. From the trials, the data shows 0.01% concentrations have the highest bioluminescence of 3.70 lux, other than the control of 3.94 lux. While the highest percentage of acid, 1.00% had 0.0 lux. Therefore, the hypothesis was correct, and the bioluminescence indicates that high amounts of Sulfuric acid are unhabitable. So, for industries using acid, they should check Dinoflagellates as indicators to see how much damage the Sulfuric acid leaves.
777 3302 Dig those Hydrocarbons?! Environmental Sciences S Should hydrocarbons be in soil Soil is part of life for humanity. It is where food grows, where people walk and play. People dig in it with bare hands and walk in it with bare feet. In this community surrounded by oil industries, League City citizens like those in the controversial Magnolia subdivision are exposed to hydrocarbons. What is the effect of hydrocarbons on soil found at various distances from an oil-related business Soil near an oil derrick in the League City subdivision of Magnolia was tested for hydrocarbons at distances of 0, 5 meters, 10 meters, 15 meters, and 20 meters. If hydrocarbons are in soil samples, it will be greater closer to the oil derrick.Dry, crushed soil was placed into Oil-in-Soil test vials with warm water, a polystyrene ball, and a red azo dye cube. The samples were shaken until the dye cube dissolved, and then settled. The vials were analyzed for the presence of red dye, either on the sides of the vial or on the polystyrene ball. Each soil distance was tested 10 times.Of all the soil samples tested, 20 meters away tested negative for hydrocarbons. At ground zero, 80% of the soil samples were positive for hydrocarbons. Out of fifty soil samples, 32% were positive and 68% were negative for hydrocarbons.These soil sample percentages suggest hydrocarbons strongly present in soil closest to oil industries. The dangers of hydrocarbons need to be tested in communities where the oil industry operates closely to neighborhoods.
778 3303 Which Will Runoff The Least? Environmental Sciences S Fertilizer runoff is a severe environmental concern because of its adverse impact on water supply, wildlife, and health. Additionally, people can become ill from coming into contact with the polluted water through eating food from it or accidentally drinking it. Being able to find a viable resolution to a prevalent issue makes this project have significance as it does exactly that. For this project, I observed the changes that organic matter can make to the soil s structure, overall which in part led me to the question of if by adding organic matter to the soil, can it limit fertilizer runoff This project looks at three various organic matter and only one type of fertilizer that was applied to garden soil and measured using a runoff plot. I hypothesized that Compost would limit fertilizer runoff the most compared to the three soils. My experiment results ended up not supporting my hypothesis as I achieved a comparable result at the end of every trial for each organic matter except for one Pine Bark Mulch. My results ended up confirming that although the organic matter has a positive effect on strengthening soil when trying to see if the organic matter can overcome a well-known problem in the environment today, it fared incapable.
779 3304 Ocean Hazard!!! Environmental Sciences S The purpose of this project is to test how oil affects water temperature and oxygen level. What are the effects of oil for water. The temperature were measured through a thermometer while the oxygen levels were measured when sodium thiosulfate solution were added to the container and count how many drops were added until the color changes, Repeat the same steps for several hours and come back to both the container with oil and no oil the exact week later to test accuration. The container with the oil temperature increased and the container without oil decreased or stayed the same. As hours and days went by the oxygen level decreased little by little. After the seven days experiment, data shows the oil container oxygen level was 1 mg per liter while the no oil container resulted with 5 mg per liter. The container with oil temperature increased by three fahrenheit and the container with no oil, temperature decreased by eight fahrenheit.The results of the experiments shows that oil negatively impact the aquatic life since it decreases their oxygen level and changes their water temperature.
780 3305 Filter It Out! Environmental Sciences S The purpose of this experiment was to test which method of filtering water led to the water with the most neutral pH level using activated charcoal, coffee filters, and regular tap water. Which charcoal filtration leads to water with the most neutral pH level If different charcoal types lead to different filtration results, then a mixture of both types of activated charcoal will lead to the filtered water with the most neutral pH level. For this procedure, we used coffee filters and charcoal to filter out the water and test it using the pH strips we have been provided with. We did this by tying coffee filters on to plastic cups and placing our carbon on top. We proceeded to slowly add the water to be filtered on top to prevent leaking or overflowing. Three samples of our tap water had food coloring to simulate contamination. The powdered carbon ended up showing through in the water after the filtration yet, the granular carbon did not, and neutralized the water much better. In conclusion, our hypothesis was incorrect due to the fact that a mixture of the activated charcoal would still lead to the powder being filtered through. Our final thoughts were that the granulated carbon led to the cleanest, most neutral water when tested with a pH strip.
781 3306 The Viability of a Carbon Sequestering Bio-Concrete Being Used as a Man-Made Carbon Sink Environmental Sciences S Throughout the course of the 20th and 21st centuries, humanity has caused mass pollution on this planet in the form of greenhouse gasses. These pollutants have been gathering in the atmosphere, and have had global effects like climate change. In order to combat these changes, a bio-concrete has been developed in this experiment that regenerates itself with the purpose of sequestering a large amount of CO2 from the atmosphere. The concrete is made by using bacteria that produce an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase which uses CO2 to make bicarbonate. In the bio-concrete, the bicarbonate then undergoes another series of reactions with calcium lactate present in the concrete that produces calcium carbonate, or limestone. In this experiment, three different strains of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Citrobacter freundii, and Bacillus cereus, were tested in several categories, one of which was the price. It was found that bio-concrete was only 12% more expensive than regular concrete. The weight was also measured before and after testing, and it stayed the same, weighing a few grams more than regular concrete both times. The regeneration rate was compared between each block by taking pictures of each one daily, and it was found that each block fully regenerated by the end of the observation period. Carbon dioxide levels were also monitored, and it was found that the bio-concrete did not sequester a significant amount of CO2. There is a potential for bio-concrete that needs to be researched further before any substantial conclusions can be made on it.
782 3307 Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates 2.0 Environmental Sciences S Scientists have studied the effects oil spills have on large marine species for many years, but not on microorganisms like dinoflagellates. This gave me the purpose for a project, which was to test the bioluminescent reaction of bioluminescent dinoflagellates when exposed to oil and soap like the ones ones to clean up oil spills. However, I substituted oil for motor oil and oil dispersant for Dawn s original soap that is used to clean off animals affected by an oil spill seeing that the actual chemicals in oil spills are harmful and not open to public markets My hypothesis is if a jar of dinoflagellate organisms is exposed to motor oil, then its bioluminescent circadian rhythm will remain the same because the organisms will not know what oil is and continue on with their cycle. In this experiment I set up 8 jars that all had the same amount of dinoflagellates and seawater solution, but each jar had a different substance as my independent variable. Each jar either had seawater, soap, Penzoil, Mobil1, Valvoline, Penzoil and soap, Mobil1 and soap, or Valvoline and soap . I checked the pH level at the beginning of the experiment and on the second day. At the conclusion of my experiment I found that once all the substances had mixed together in the jars, most of the pH levels dropped in the jars containing soap. The dinoflagellates did continue to glow when shaken, but the glow was not as vibrant as before.
783 3308 SAVE OUR ENVIRONMENT FROM LEAD (Proactive Lead Poisoning Alert) Environmental Sciences S Lead poisoning is one of the biggest problems which people face each day. One of our family friends in California was affected by lead poisoning and it was too late by the time they became aware of it. The other incident that drew my attention to lead poisoning was the Flint, Michigan water crisis from Apr 2014 till date. If the pH meter is placed in an area with soil, then the device s reading will alert the resident of any possible lead concentrations in the soil. If the pH of the soil is above 6.5, there is a chance that lead composition in the soil is heavily clumped together, and the resident should begin a purification process as soon as possible. If the pH is below 5, then there is a chance that lead is very loosely clumped together, so there is no immediate danger to the resident.This project is to develop an app which will have a web service, and gather data from the cloud about the owner s pH Meter. Main goal is for the app to send a push notification when the lead level exceeds the threshold which the owner sets . The short term goal for this project implementation is to make our product available for many people in our own Houston community. The long term goal for implementation is for us to raise the awareness of Lead poisoning in different parts of the world and make the world free of Lead Poisoning!
784 3309 Not So Fun In The Sun: The impact of zinc oxide and oxybenzone on dinoflagellate bioluminescence Environmental Sciences S Dinoflagellates are a vital part of an environments equilibrium, because they are at the bottom of the food chain. Certain species are able to bioluminescence due to an enzyme called luciferase, which is sensitive to changes in light, temperature, pH, and nutrients. This project researched the change in bioluminescence and growth of Pyrocystis fusiformis when a drop of solution of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide was added to a dinoflagellate colony. The test tubes containing dinoflagellate colonies were divided into 4 groups, each containing 6 vials control group with seawater added, and groups with 1 drop of solution made from 10ml zinc oxide, 20ml zinc oxide, 10 ml titanium dioxide, and 20ml titanium dioxide. The test tubes were placed in a spectrophotometer to measure absorbance. Each grouping decreased in percent absorbance, as compared to the control and was extrapolated to represent decreased biomass. To test the bioluminescence, the test tubes were placed in an apparatus that flipped the test tubes four times to apply the same agitation and motion with each trial. The bioluminescence was subjectively scored on a 0-10 scale, with a 0 indicating no glowing and a 10 indicating at least 95% of the test tube was glowing. Test results indicated the most significant decrease in absorbance in the zinc oxide group, showing that it has a greater impact on the dinoflagellates compared to titanium dioxide. This project is helpful in preventing coral bleaching via sunscreens because it shows even safer sunscreen alternatives may still be harmful.
785 3310 Optimization of Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Titanium Dioxide Substances Environmental Sciences S Titanium dioxide is a material that is used abundantly in household items such as sunscreen or paint pigment but has become increasingly studied due to its properties as a photocatalyst, a substance that reacts abnormally when interacting with ultraviolet rays. When titanium dioxide interacts with ultraviolet rays, it forms particles that oxidize and purify the harmful substances in the air. It was hypothesized that the use of various metal oxides will increase the percentage of harmful volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxide particles in the air due to an increase in their catalytic properties in selective and total oxidation reactions. To find the effect metal oxides, sulfides, and sulfates had on titanium dioxides air-purifying capabilities, a liquid solution was made with titanium dioxide, and coated onto small pieces of cardboard. An air quality analyzer and a lit measured piece of paper were put in an enclosed environment to simulate a highly polluted area and the enclosed environment was then left alone for 12 hours. This process was done with a combination of different oxides, sulfides, and sulfates. The experiments concluded that the metal oxide solutions were more effective at filtering VOCs than the sulfides and sulfates.
786 3311 Bioinformatic and Statistical Investigation of the Effect of Cosmetics on Ecological Diversity of the Skin Microbiome Environmental Sciences S I studied the effect of sunscreen in a simple cosmetic product a face powder with and without titanium dioxide on the skin microbiome using a repeated measures analysis of variance design. Before treatment, the left and right sides of the face and one arm were swabbed. Plain face powder was used on the left side of the face, powder with sunscreen was used on the right side of the face. Repeated measures were made after treatment, with the arm and pretreatment measures serving as controls. 16S ribosomal DNA was isolated, amplified and sequenced using a MinION system from Oxford Nanopore Technologies. Over 2295 species were identified from 1.6 million sequences, with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus the most common genera. Rare bacteria identified from small numbers of sequences were important in driving the ecological diversity measured. The log series alpha diversity index was used for statistical comparison because it is not sensitive to different numbers of species and sequences in the different samples. The right face samples across all subjects had less alpha diversity post-treatment p 0.05 , however, the direction of the difference was opposite to the original hypothesis, so makeup and or sunscreen did not have the predicted effect. Overall, study was successful in understanding microbiome species richness and evenness commonness and rarity , and in comparing the effects of different treatments on the skin microbiome. DNA sequence identifications provided insights into the ecological diversity of the skin microbiome that could not have been obtained from traditional microbial culture techniques.
787 3312 Biodegradable items in nature vs. landfills Environmental Sciences S Our project was done to find out if biodegradable substances would deteriorate faster in a natural or landfill environment. Our hypothesis was that the apple core and the banana peel would decay at a faster rate in the natural environment. We simulated the landfill environment by filling two clear bins with soil and a mix of plastics trash. We simulated the natural environment by filling the other two clear bins with soil. We put a newly cut apple core with the plastics soil bin and an apple core with the soil bin. We put a fresh banana peel with the plastics soil bin and a banana peel with the soil bin.We recorded our observations for the next three weeks by taking photographs and writing down what physical changes we saw. We were only focusing on the visible differences such as color, size and dryness moisture. After all the data was collected, we organized it in two tables and eight pie charts. After three weeks, both the apple core and the banana peel in the bins with plastic broke down at a faster rate than the apple core and banana peel in the bins with soil. Because of these results, we came to the conclusion that plastic trash makes biodegradable items physically deteriorate quicker in a short amount of time. This proved our initial hypothesis to be incorrect. We would like to do this experiment again with statistical data and more trials to have better and more reliable results.
788 3313 Earthquakes vs Soil Environmental Sciences S The purpose of this project was to find out which soil, out of sandy, silty, rocky, and clay soil, would dampen longitudinal waves the best. The amplitude and frequency of the longitudinal waves were changed to mimic the different strengthsof earthquakes. The amplitudes used were 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 decibels. The frequencies used were 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 hertz. A decibel meter was placed at different distances from the speaker to mimic the different distances from the focus of the earthquake. For the amplitudes of 80, 85, and 90 decibels, at the frequencies of 100, 150, 200, and 250 hertz, sand dampened the waves the best, while at 300 hertz, clay dampened them the best. At the amplitudes of 95 and 100 decibels, at all of the frequencies, silt dampened the waves the best. The hypothesis was not supported because it said that clay would dampen the waves the best, and that did not happen all the time.
789 3314 Minimizing the Harmful Effects of Fertilizer Runoff Environmental Sciences S Maintaining sustainable practices in agriculture is essential for the environment and human health. During rain events, excess nutrients in fertilizer runoff can negatively affect habitat conditions and human health by causing eutrophication due to an overabundance of nutrients. Eutrophication can result in excess algae growth, oxygen depletion in water bodies, hypoxia, fish death, decrease in aquatic life, and the production of carbon dioxide that lowers the pH of seawater and causes ocean acidification, which can slow the growth of fish and shellfish. This can lessen the catches of fisheries, leading to more expensive seafood. Additionally, methemoglobinemia, a blood disorder involving abnormal production of methemoglobin, is caused by too much nitrate-nitrogen in drinking water.This project compared the effect of Organic and Inorganic fertilizer runoff on eutrophication. It also quantified the difference in effect of the two fertilizers through the use of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and pH tests. The experiment was performed using two apparatuses constructed to simulate a runoff event. Each apparatus was tested five times, with each test consisting of watering the soil with a water-fertilizer mixture. The water collected as runoff from the apparatuses was tested for pH levels and percent Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium. T-Tests between the Organic and Inorganic fertilizers resulted in a p-value of less than 0.05 for Nitrogen, Potassium, and pH, thus rejecting the null hypothesis. According to the results, the Organic fertilizer had a lesser effect than the Inorganic fertilizer due to significantly less Potassium and pH in the runoff simulations.
790 3315 Absorbing Oils Environmental Sciences S To start off, we wanted to figure out what is the most essential way to clean up oil spills. Generally speaking, it is significant because we need to find out the best way to reduce oil spill by performing an experiment using the basic key materials that can be found in our daily lives. Moreover, we are trying to see if the different types of materials have an impact on how much oil that it is going to soak up. We conducted the experiment by using three materials, sponge, paper towel, and cat litter for each of the five trials for a more accurate result. During the investigation, our methods was to make sure that we timed how long we left each material in the oil so it does not affect the outcome and so that it can be equalized. During the experiment, we observed that the sponge was not as effective as cat litter. Additionally, it did not support our hypothesis because instead of sponge absorbing the most, our data came out to prove that cat litter was most effective in picking up more oil. As a result, by having a greater density than sponges, cat litter allowed more oil to bond to making it more absorbent and a better strategy to clean up oil spills.
791 3316 sustainable vs non-sustainable soundproofing materials Environmental Sciences S The goal of my project was to test which material was the best soundproofing agent, sustainable or non-sustainable. For the sustainable material I used straw, and for the non-sustanible material, I used bricks. I created two fair experiments, and my conclusion was the straw was a better soundproofing agent. This experiment can be beneficial in the future by opening a gateway to a more sustainable future.
792 3317 Modifying Hydroponics to Grow Mint in Pure Water Environmental Sciences S There are many ways to grow plants, that don t just include using fertilizer. One way to grow plants is hydroponics. My experiment was modifying hydroponics to test if it was possible to grow plants, specifically the mint plant, in tap water without any nutrition given to it, not even fertilizer, and if the mint did grow in the tap water, what amount was most beneficial to the mint plant.This was done by putting three mint stalks in each water bottle bottom, which served as a container, and put tap water in of the containers, and put fertilizer in the other half of the containers.I chose the mint plant because if the mint did grow, then it would do so quickly, and in a three-week time period I would see a change. I tried to make my experiment ideal, but due to unexpected weather complications, the results of my data, not fully accurate, rejected my hypothesis proving that only tap water was not an efficient way to grow the mint plant.
793 3318 Water Quality in Rural versus Urban Environment Environmental Sciences S Water pollution can be caused by things such as agricultural runoff, chemical compounds from industries, gasoline, cleaning products and much more. The goal was to identify whether urbanization in the Houston area affects water quality. After collecting 5 water samples from urban water sources and 5 from rural water sources, the samples were tested for Nitrate concentrations ppm and pH levels. Comparing pH levels and nitrate concentrations between rural and urban water samples reveals the minimal difference between their qualities, proving our hypothesis wrong We believe that if water is in an urban environment, then it is more likely to be of lower quality than water in a rural environment due to pollutants from urban runoff. Because all water samples were within the normal pH range of 6.0 to 8.0, no determination can be made about pollutants effects on the quality of our water sources. Nitrate levels are considered safe when their concentrations are between 3 and 10 ppm and because nitrate levels do not naturally exceed 4 ppm, levels higher than 4ppm signify outside contamination from pollutants. Every sample tested exceeded 4 ppm, signifying some amounts of pollutants in each water source. Samples U3, U4, and U5, had nitrate levels that exceeded 10 ppm, signifying pollutants levels so high that they make the water source non-potable. Every water source had some indications of pollution runoff, but with the exceptions of Samples U3, U4, and U5, the water qualities were not considered harmful to humans or local wildlife.
794 3319 The Best Air Pollution Mask Environmental Sciences S My project is to test which mask can block the pollutions best. I chose several different mask to help with the experiment. I tested how the masks block PM2.5 and AQI. PM2.5 refers to atmospheric particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers. It is really small and light, it could stay in the air longer than other particles. Long term exposure to PM2.5 could the hardening of arteries and may lead to heart attack. AQI refers to air quality index. It is used by the government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is forecast to become.It could increase due to an increase of air emissions or from a lack of dilution of air pollutants. My hypothesis is if various types of air pollution masks are tested for how good it can prevent small particles for humans to breath in, then the masks with filters c and e will be the one that can prevent particles the most. I found a busy highway I did this experiment by testing the masks using a particle counter which could test the small particles in the air. Over all, the masks with filters c and e did make better than the other ones.
795 3320 Chemical Leaching Caused By Batteries And Its Effects On Plants Environmental Sciences S Batteries contain numerous harmful chemicals including manganese, nickel, cadmium, and zinc. These dangerous chemicals can damage plants which in return can affect humans and animals alike. This project aimed to find the effects batteries had on plants through the use of X-ray diffraction and observation. A cut battery was placed into a pot followed by the planting of a bean seed near it. Then over the course of several weeks, observations were made on the plant s growth and soil samples were collected from each of the pots. The plants were examined and the soil was brought to a lab for X-ray diffraction to occur on it. After using XRD to create peaks, using phase identification, chemicals such as cadmium zinc sulfate, alabandite, or manganese sulfate, and zinc-oxide were found in the soils. These chemicals, even though found in small quantities of 2% to 5%, did affect the plants. Several plants grew meagerly and more flaccid, as hypothesized, but some unexpected conditions did occur. Numerous plants grew at a more rapid and greater pace than their plant peers. Plant 6, for example, with over 50% zinc-oxide found in its soil, had some of the biggest and tallest plants. This showed that the chemicals in the plants may have not been so harmful after all. However, further studies need to be done on effects on plants for a longer time and what happens to the animals and other life forms near them.
796 3321 Modeling Landfill Leakage and Testing an Alternate Solution: HDPE Layering Environmental Sciences S The project began as an experimentation on ways to reduce landfill leakage of toxic chemicals and heavy metals in the form of leachate through increasing the geomembrane s strength by implementing two layers of an HDPE liner rather than one. Three model landfills were created with only the layer being tested, to simulate a real Municipal Solid Waste Landfill MSWL , and each model MSWL contained two layers of HDPE liner, the primary layer used to prevent leakage in landfills. The initial idea was that by adding more of the main layer, leakage can be reduced or slowed down. In the MSW landfill models, the mean of the final amount of leakage was found to be 0.23 mL. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance HELP program was used to calculate real landfill leakage , the range of leakage varied based on the simulated amount of rainfall per month on the virtual landfill within the program, ranging from up to 0.871 mL down to 0.02 mL per week. The average of these results was 0.366mL. The two data sets were then compared and a t-test was used to find the statistical significance of results. Evaluation of the test s result showed that there wasn t a large enough statistical significance to justify the use of an additional HDPE layer. More leakage may have been stopped if more layers that are present in a real MSW landfill were used, as only the primary HDPE liner was used.
797 3322 Absorbency Wars Environmental Sciences S Our problem statement was, How does pad construction affect amount of fluid solute remaining in pad We decided to do this question because we wanted to create an environmentally-friendly reusable menstrual pad. We also wanted to create an alternative to purchasing pads because pads on the market are expensive. To create the mock blood, we mixed powdered sugar, water, red food coloring, and cocoa powder into a mason jar. After setting it aside, we made a pad template and made two pads with fleece on the outside and cotton or zorb in the inside, two with cotton on the outside and fleece or zorb in the inside, and two pads with zorb on the outside with fleece or cotton on the inside. We carried out the experiment by taking the weight of each pad prior to placing the mock blood on it and then adding 5 milliliters to it. We then poured 1 milliliter of blood every 48 minutes for four hours on each of the six pads. Finally, we collected data by weighing the mass of each pad to see which one met the expected weight. To analyze our data, we used a data table and laboratory notebook to record observations.At the end of our experiment, we found that the fleece with cotton and the fleece with zorb pads were more absorbent because they reached the expected weight as well as having the absence of a red stain on the fabric underneath all of the pads.
798 3323 Effects of Gasoline Contamination on Potassium Levels of Sandy Loam Soil Environmental Sciences S In the case of floods, gasoline can make its way into crop fields from leaks from cars. This gasoline contamination can prevent crops from growing thus, since the contaminated land becomes useless farmers yield less crops and profits. One of the required macro nutrients for plant growth is Potassium, which aids the plant produce enough energy to grow the fruit or vegetable. Analyses of Potassium levels in gasoline contaminated sandy loam soil were done to test if gasoline altered the concentration of this macro nutrient in the soil. It was observed that, with the higher concentrations of gasoline mixed into the soil, the color of the solution in the test chamber was slightly lighter, meaning that the concentrations of potassium in those sample soils were lower than the levels in regular soil.
799 3324 Removing Microplastics From Water II: Utilizing Electrocoagulation with a Biodegradable Flocculant Environmental Sciences S Plastic is a ubiquitous material because of its durability a property that also results in the formation of microplastics, which are incredibly persistent pollutants in water. Microplastics, classified as less than 5 mm lengthwise, can absorb compounds like BPA and other pollutants that endanger aquatic ecosystems. In this project, a technique called electrocoagulation was used to remove microplastics from water by passing a current through the sample, neutralizing the surface charges of the microplastics and causing them to flocculate into larger pieces called coagulants. Electrocoagulation can be enhanced by adding flocculants such as poly-gamma-glutamic acid PGA , a byproduct of the fermentation of Glycine max, commonly known as soybeans. The goal of this experiment was to identify the effects of electrode, plastic, and flocculant type on electrocoagulation. PGA was produced by fermenting soybeans with Bacillus subtilis spores. Electrocoagulation was completed with combinations of electrode, plastic, and flocculant types. Percent efficiency of each trial was calculated by dividing the mass of accumulated microplastics by the initial mass. Trials with PGA, regardless of electrode and plastic type, resulted in the highest percent efficiency of 60-75%. Analysis indicated a statistically significant difference between PGA and other flocculants, controlling for all other variables. Therefore, it was concluded that PGA is highly effective. Additionally, PGA is biodegradable and is relatively simple to produce via fermentation. Electrocoagulation and flocculation can be applied on a larger scale in water treatment facilities to inexpensively and efficiently limit pollution discharged into waterways.
800 3325 The Effect of Mechanical and Chemical Soil Stabilizers on Slope Erosion Environmental Sciences S In this project, I tested the effects of different mechanical and chemical soil stabilization techniques on slope erosion. I chose this project to combat slope erosion on my property. My hypothesis for this experiment is that mechanical slope stabilization techniques will be more effective than chemical slope stabilization techniques at preventing slope erosion. During the process of my experiment, I built 7 identical plant boxes and set them to a slope of 20 . I then applied a different mechanical or chemical soil stabilization technique in each box, leaving one with just soil as a control variable. I ran one inch of water down each box and collected the water and soil runoff in a pan. I then filtered the water and measured the water in milliliters. The separated soil runoff was left to dry and weighed in grams. After completing my project, the data showed that overall mechanical soil stabilization techniques performed best for preventing slope erosion. Fiber rolls prevented soil runoff better than all other tested techniques and rubber mulch prevented water runoff better than all other tested techniques. The best performing mechanical technique was the use of fiber rolls and the best performing chemical technique was the application of cement. I also compared my newly collected data to the data from the previous year. My previous project tested the effectiveness of geotextiles and vegetation on preventing slope erosion. After comparing the data, I determined that the most effective method for preventing slope erosion is the use of geotextiles.
801 3326 How does temperature affect biodegradable materials? Environmental Sciences S This project will test out the biodegradability of biodegradable straws at different temperatures. The purpose of this experiment is to test out if it is worth buying biodegradable items to help reduce the compost on the earth while the earth is going through drastic temperature changes. Majority of people are concerned about the footprint they leave on Earth, and biodegradable or earth friendly straws are popular items in the market. To test this out three containers will have 4.8 cups of soil, 14 milliliters of water, and a succulent to mimic the earth. Container one is at room temperature which is at 75 F, another in 80 F, and in a 64 F as the initial temperature. In each container a straw of 82 grams is left for two weeks to measure the rate of decomposition. This experiment resulted that the straw under the heat lamp decreased 2 grams from the initial mass, and the straw in the fridge increased 1 gram in mass. The one in room temperature had no change. It proved that heat effects the rate of decomposition, and that biodegradable straws are more useful in hotter areas.
802 3327 "Water for All!" Environmental Sciences S The purpose of this project was to determine which filter could extract the most dissolved solids to an ideal drinking range . The hypothesis of the project was that if we use a steam distiller, then the water will be most cleared of dissolved solids . The basic procedure of the experiment is to first create the three filters, then you must pour the contaminated water through them. Lastly, take a tds monitor and measure the filtered water. The coffee filter did the least, as the average ppm was 221. The stacked substances filter did a little better, as the end average result was 170 ppm. However, proving our hypothesis correct, the water distiller did the best job as the average end result was 5 ppm. The water distiller would be the ideal filter to use in third world countries where clean drinking is scarce. The project met our objectives by finding which homemade filter would clean the most total dissolved solids.
803 3328 The Effects of Electricity and Selective Ions on Plant Growth Environmental Sciences S The fruits, vegetables, and herbs that farmers cultivate are a necessity in propagating the nation s population. But, the need for more and better yields is and will continue to be an obstacle in sustaining this growing population. This project s objective was to augment and increase yields through the means of electricity and selective ions. It is already known that the conduction of electricity through a plant increases its overall growth, but the concept of additive ions playing a role in this process has not been tested, yet.The results of this pioneering project show a direct correlation between ionic strength and plant growth, validating the hypothesis. Although this procedure isn t a cost effective one when thought about on a magnified scale, a future continuation of it is through the use of Electro-magnetism which will reduce the costs significantly if also proven beneficial. This project can also be tested in a hydroponic environment where the conductivity of the already enhanced electrical current will theoretically increase in one of its greatest conductors, water. So, the discovery made in this project could help farmers around the world in producing the necessary foods that the growing population does and increasingly will require in the near future.
804 3329 Detrimental Agriculture: Is it really worth it? Environmental Sciences S Climate change is accelerating at an alarming rate in the 21st century, with one factor being the common diet. Methane, a greenhouse gas produced by the livestock industry, boldens climate change by decreasing the loss of heat, mainly because of the expansion of dairy and meat. An analytical issue is that most existing data estimates globally using statistics rather than experimental trial, so many environmentalists are in need of raw data from experimental proportion. To solve the problem, natural gas mainly methane , produced by intestinal processes, was tested on a simulating environment to find a comparison between normal and affected temperatures. By running experiments with methane-natural gas in a variable and atmospheric air in the other over a 6-day period, temperatures were recorded and later calculated to equate the data. It is expected that the approach would be a data model for research and shift the diet to plant-based foods to slow climate change.
805 3330 Optimizing a Small Solar Still for Emergency Situations Environmental Sciences S During natural disasters and emergencies e.g. shipwrecks , drinkable water is an immediate necessity. Power and gas outages may limit available potable water, creating a need for effective solar-powered water stills that are easily set up using common and inexpensive materials. Despite large-scale commercial solar still advances, systematic exploration of factors important for effective smaller solar stills suitable for personal emergencies is lacking. The goal was to build a small efficient solar still. It was hypothesized that reflective panels, angled placement, distillate cooling, and Fresnel lenses would improve the efficiency of a solar still in producing drinkable water. To construct a basic solar still, non-potable water was placed in a black metal basin supported on an insulator in a larger plastic bowl. This bowl was covered with an inverted glass bowl to collect distilled water. To test the hypothesis, still setups using reflective panels, cooling, Fresnel lenses, angled placement, and different covers were investigated. Still efficiency was measured by distillate weight, while still quality was determined by total dissolved solutes in the distillate. The data demonstrated that surrounding the basic solar still with foil panels, aiming a Fresnel lens at the water basin, placing the still at a 15-20o angle, and using a hemispherical top all significantly improved still efficiency. Cooling the bottom of the still had a smaller effect. Combining all these factors increased still efficiency 3.5 fold, from 5.4 L m2 day to 19.0 L m2 day. These data showed a significant improvement over the basic solar still, confirming the hypothesis.
806 3331 The Absorption of Carbon in Common Plants With Relation to Carbon Emissions Environmental Sciences S The purpose of this experiment was to determine which plant is the best at absorbing carbon on an individual level as not much research has been put into this. It is important to recognize the fact that the results of this experiment are meant for the individual rather than a large organization. The presented hypothesis was if peas, beans, garlic, and daffodils are all grown in the same environment, then the beans will absorb the most carbon because they grow the quickest.The experiment was carried out by first researching easy-to-grow plants that were then grown from the seed bulb stage. The plants were allowed to grow for 43 days before they were dehydrated in an oven. From there, a percent of carbon in each plant 48% 2% was calculated using the biomass left from the dehydration process. The biomass was calculated after drying each plant and subtracting the mass of the corresponding dried seed bulb e.g. the mass of the dried pea seed was subtracted from the dried mass of each pea plant .It was ultimately concluded that the garlic plants absorbed the most carbon when growing, refuting the hypothesis. If this experiment were to be repeated, more attention would be paid to the growing periods of the plants in order for them to mature. This would give a more accurate depiction of what plant absorbs the most carbon.
807 3332 The Effects of Natural Chelating Agents In The Removal Of Lead From Water Environmental Sciences S Lead contamination is a real problem in first and third world countries. The fact that water is not potable in certain places is troublesome and lead us to decide to try and find a natural solution to this problem. By researching and experimenting with natural chelating agents such as garlic, apple cider vinegar, and cilantro we could find an efficient solution to this problem. In comparison to a synthetic agent, Edta, garlic was the most efficient in removing lead from water. Though it proved to be the best of the natural chelating agents, several improvements could be made so that it could compare to synthetic chelating agents.
808 3333 Microplastic Macro-problem: Measuring the Accumulation Difference of Microplastic in Farm-Raised and Wild-Caught Crassostrea virginica Environmental Sciences S The purpose of this experiment was to determine if microplastics can be found in Crassostrea virginica Eastern Oysters And if so, whether the concentration of microplastics, which are known to be harmful to animals when ingested in large quantities, are higher in farm raised or wild caught oysters. We hypothesized there would be more plastics in farm raised since they would be more directly exposed to pollutants due to their proximity to land. To do this, we bought 20 oysters, 10 farm raised and 10 wild caught. These oysters were shucked, dried, and scanned with an FTIR. We exported the resulting data to excel, where we created graphs to compare to 5 known samples polyacrylic, polyamide, polyester, elastine, and nylon. The oysters showed identical readings to the known sample plastics, so we took the surface area of all clearly defined plastic peaks as a method of comparison between the two. The mean percent composition of all plastic for the wild caught samples was only 3.85988%, while farm raised was 4.18592%. The results clearly indicated the concentration of plastics was higher in farm raised oysters, supporting our hypothesis. The effects of microplastics on human health remain relatively unknown, so our research will aid people in avoiding unnecessary plastic consumption until a determination is made regarding the health effects.
809 3334 Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Constructed Wetland Models Environmental Sciences S Agricultural and urban wastewater treatment is important for protecting water quality, and constructed wetlands are an effective treatment option. However, during treatment, plants respire by CO2 and some C and N are converted to CH4 and N2O, which are potent greenhouse gases GHGs . This project assessed the removal emission efficiency of surface-flow constructed wetlands SFCWs to determine their effectiveness against environmental gradients. Three replicas of four wetland models with varying saturation points .533, .800, 1.067 LL-1 and macrophyte variant Iris pseudacorus were constructed. After allowing plants to acclimate, models were covered with an airtight chamber for gas sampling at 0, 15, and 30-minute intervals AG . 64.5 mg of CH4N2O influent was loaded into select pilot models. Another set of gas samples were taken at 0, 1 and 2 hours post-treatment BG . Water samples were taken from model substrates at 0 and 2 hours post-treatment. Analysis by GCMS yielded significantly p 0.01 different flux densities between series and changed significantly with time. All CO2-F dropped in post-influent testing, while N2O and CH4 emissions increased by 47% from AG series. Models with high saturation nearing 1.067 LL-1 yielded significantly p 0.05 greater nitrate removal than at .533 LL-1 removal concentrations 1.117 and .367 mg NO3- L-1, respectively and released 48% higher CH4-C and 134% N2O-C resulting in elevated F and GWP. Thus, saturation plays a critical role in CW GHG emissions and demonstrates the importance of hydrologic conditions on total wetland GWP, which can inform future real-world projects in environmental control.
810 3335 The Environmental Effects of De-Icers on Roadside Vegetation and Wildlife Environmental Sciences S When deicers are used and the ice is melted, the runoff goes into the side of the roads. This runoff, containing harmful chemicals, can damage roadside vegetation and other wildlife. The experiment conducted will take a look at the effects of different deicers on roadside vegetation brassica rapa and wildlife eisenia fetida . We hypothesized that the chlorine-based deicers will affect the plants and worms growth the most, as well as the soil pH. Our experiment was split up into 2 parts. Part A tested the effects on vegetation. Part B tested the effects on wildlife. Other types of secondary data were taken as well, such as salinity and soil pH. After 3 previous failed attempts, we were able to complete Part A of our procedure and obtain salinity and soil pH. After analyzing, we found that sand was the least harmful out of all deicers tested. All deicers made soil pH levels drop. Also, every deicer, except sand, dramatically increased the salinity of the runoff water. We concluded that all deicers affect the plants over extended periods of time.
811 3336 Temperature affecting the pH of the water Environmental Sciences S The project I had was to was to determine whether or not different brands of water are the same, similar, or have nothing in common. The purpose of the project that I decided to do is that I wanted to see whether or not the water brand would change the quality of the water or not. The water brands I decided to go with are Aquafina, Ozarka and two other brands of water which was Sams and Nestle. To how I picked these waters over others is because these are some of the common waters that people can get or find normally in stores.The ph for them was the same however the numbers did change slightly. This may have been because of human error rather than the waters. when testing all of the waters, I realized I could also test the hardness of each water which i did, just as the ph, I also noticed that they had almost the same number but a slight difference. In conclusion based on all of the tests that were done on these four water brands, they all contained similar if not the same water. with this, I made a conclusion that it doesn t matter what kind of water you get because all of it is the same. The only difference is that they are called differently and are all located in different water bottles.
812 3337 Roads and Their Albedo Environmental Sciences S The purpose of my experiment is to see if California s actions by painting the roads white are better or worse for the environment and the surrounding area of the road. From completing my experiment in 5 days. And from checking and recording the temperatures of the road, air , and underground temperature every hour for 12 hours. I found that my data was conclusive to my hypothesis stating that If the roads are painted as different colors, the road with lighter color would radiate the most heat . By what I have learned from my experiment, the higher albedo of the roads equals higher air temperature. As the thermal radiation is reflected into the air from a higher albedo surface, it bounces around reflecting off of other objects. Thus heating the atmosphere. If a surface has a lower albedo, then the thermal radiation would get absorbed into the ground and then dispersed by thermal convection currents.
813 3338 Can Biochar Be Used To Control Flooding? Environmental Sciences S The purpose of this experiment was to test whether adding biochar to regular soil would act beneficial to flood control. If biochar is amended with soil, then more water will be absorbed in the ground. The hydraulic conductivity of biochar is measured by amending it to sandy loam soil regular soil , then calculating how long it takes for water to be absorbed. The time it took for water to be absorbed with the addition of biochar to soil was a 7.2% hydraulic conductivity. The conductivity was calculated by the amount it took for a controlled amount of water to drain through the heterogenous mixture. The time it takes for water to move through sandy loam soil, which is mainly used during agriculture was measured by the flow rate the amount of water that dripped through the soil. The hydraulic conductivity for sandy loam was 1%, which is lower compared to biochar. This means regular soil has a low hydraulic conductivity. This could be applied in agriculture when growing crops, to add biochar to the ground due to its nutrients. The flow rate of water through biochar was 1.4% higher than the average time water is absorbed in regular soil. This means biochar can help with flood control. An extension to this project would be conducting an experiment to demonstrate how the hydraulic conductivity of biochar can affect the amount of water farmers use to grow food and how biochar helps with the reduction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
814 3339 BARRETT++: A Sustainability Determination Model for Use in North American Urban Planning Environmental Sciences S Across the globe, urban sustainability is becoming a major talking point as global warming and pollution lead to disastrous consequences. To help evaluate the sustainability of major North American cities, the BARRETT++ model was created to aid urban planners as they increase their city s sustainability, and to help the public understand urban sustainability. The model used indicator factors, including renewable energy, annual income, and LEED certifications to determine the sustainability levels of metropolitan areas. These factors were then grouped into sectors, such as technology, agriculture, and building. Data was collected on these cities using several reputable online resources, and was then substituted into equations to determine a score between 0 and 100 for each factor. For each city, the individual factor scores were then averaged to determine the sector scores. To establish the overall sustainability score, the sector scores were averaged. After a few adjustments, the model worked routinely, calculating reasonable scores. The cities with the highest scores were Seattle and San Francisco, most likely due to their technology-based economies and educated populations. The lowest-scoring cities, Chicago and New York, suffered from dated infrastructure and high populations of uneducated immigrants. By increasing the number of indicator factors and evaluating more cities, this model can be used by the citizen population and urban planners to implement environmentally-friendly features into their respective cities.
815 3340 A Study In Rain Runoff Environmental Sciences S Abstract The purpose of my experiment was to test whether planting foliage, such as grass and other kinds of shrubs, could lessen the effects of rain water runoff. This could help urban developers decide to develop greener neighborhoods. This experiment is to prove that with more foliage in neighborhoods, the harmful effects of rain water runoff might be lessened. I tested different ground covers, like those located in ordinary residential areas a sidewalk or area covered with foliage. I used a watering can to mimic rain and poured the water through the different ground covers collecting the water output. The control was uncovered dirt. My results supported my hypothesis because storage bin 1 the one with the plants soaked up more water and drained through the lower hole before coming out the top.
821 3346 The AlphaGo of Investing? A Comprehensive Development & Evaluation of a Machine Learning Based Value Investing Methodology Mathematics S Millions of individuals without expertise in investing are living lower qualities of life due to neglecting to invest their savings or relying on unreliable and low-return mutual or index funds. A machine learning based alternative may be used to gain higher returns than the aforementioned options while demanding little domain knowledge from the investor. Currently, the majority of machine learning approaches are plagued with scalability, reliability, and profitability issues. The present work comprehensively developed and evaluated 4 machine learning algorithms to solve those problems using fundamental analysis. Random Forest was found to obtain the highest return on investment, at a roughly 23.60% annual gross return over 13 test years. However, it suffers from a relatively high volatility, while a 3-model ensemble approach achieves slightly less high annual gross return but a lower volatility. An innovative process involving ranking and identifying the top 20 stocks to invest in based on the algorithms confidence was found to enhance returns approximately 30%. Both metrics such as precision and combining feature importance ranking with feature distribution visualization suggested that the out-of-sample data may be reasonably used for forecasting. Decision tree visualization allows for potentially novel insights into how to perform fundamental analysis, benefitting the knowledge base as a whole. Finally, the returns of the algorithms were found to outperform most if not all mutual and hedge funds in the real world. Overall, the machine learning algorithms have been suggested to outperform benchmarks and most human investors while being scalable for reliable future usage.
822 3347 Sound Speed Estimation in Layered Media Using the Angular Coherence of Plane Waves Mathematics S We present a refraction-corrected sound speed reconstruction technique for layered media based on the angular coherence of plane waves. Previous work has successfully shown that sound speed estimation and refraction-corrected image reconstruction can be achieved using the coherence of full-synthetic aperture channel data. However, methods for acquiring the full-synthetic aperture dataset require a large number of transmissions, which can confound sound speed estimation due to the scatterer motion between transmit events, especially for in-vivo application. Furthermore, sound speed estimation requires producing full-synthetic aperture coherence images for each trial sound speed, which can make the overall computational cost quite burdensome. The short-lag angular coherence SLAC beamformer was initially devised as a faster alternative to the more conventional short-lag spatial-coherence SLSC beamformer. The main advantage of SLAC over SLSC is that coherence is measured between fully-beamformed I Q channel data for each plane wave as opposed to the receive channel data prior to receive beamforming. As a result, SLAC can significantly reduce the computation time needed to reconstruct a coherence image by taking advantage of receive beamforming. Previous work has used the coherence maximization of full-synthetic aperture channel data to perform sound speed estimation. By replacing spatial coherence with angular coherence, we apply a similar methodology to channel data from plane-waves to significantly reduce the computational cost of sound speed estimation. This methodology has been confirmed by simulated channel data from plane waves.
823 3348 Chaos Theory Mathematics S Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, an effect which is popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Chaos theory is a great way of looking at events, which happen apart from the more traditional views.Upon completion of this experiment, there should be an answer to the scientific question of By studying the order of chaos, can patterns be pulled out of a seemingly random algorithm Chaos theory defines a possibility of order and pattern even in randomness, so the hypothesis was stated that if many iterations of a random algorithm are completed, then the results would show similar patterns.After completion of this experiment, it has been confirmed that a pattern does emerge within many random iterations of an algorithm. What started out looking chaotic completed with an analogous pattern, so the hypothesis has been proven correct.Chaos theory has led to the creation of other minor fields, including fractals and chaotic dynamics. The term chaotic dynamics refers only to the evolution of a system in time. Incorporating spatial patterns into theories of chaotic dynamics is an active area of study. Chaos theory aids scientists daily in both fields of mathematics and experimentation, and will continue to grow for years to come.
824 3349 Equations of Volume in Fractal Prisms. Mathematics S The purpose of our experiment is to analyze the area of fractals and the volume of fractal prisms.We first had to calculate the individual area and volume of each fractal and fractal prism for each different side length we choose and each different iteration 0-14 and plan to make a logarithmic function to better estimate the volume of fractal prisms. A fractal is a geometric shape that repeats itself infinitely. When finding areas and volumes for the fractals and fractal prisms, we both started with a starting side length of 1. That would be our control group. The other side lengths are different groups. We went up to the 14th iteration. Once we completed solving the areas we multiplied the areas by a height to get the volumes of prism fractals. We had 4 groups with different heights for the fractal prisms and 1 group with just the area and in each group we had 8 different starting side lengths. After analyzing our data from the procedure above, we were able to create a logarithmic function that can help us estimate the volume of our fractal prisms if height, side length, and iteration are known . Our log function matched our independently calculated data with almost 100% accuracy. In conclusion, our function can be used to estimate the volume of fractal prisms for the Koch Snowflake fractal and Sirpinski s Square fractal.
825 3350 How Fast Can You Go? Mathematics S For my science fair project I used five algorithms to solve the 3x3 Rubik s Cube and compared the time it took to solve it. My hypothesis was that using different algorithms can effect how fast or slow you solve the Rubik s Cube . My hypothesis was proven during my experiment. My results indicate that algorithm C was the fastest Algorithm to use to solve a Rubik s Cube. I would like to have professional Cubers use these algorithms and see if the results hold up.
826 3351 How Many Butterfly Bushes Do Monarch Butterflies Need To Migrate? Mathematics S Monarch butterflies are facing a growing threat as their food supply is decreasing. Problems such as pollution and poor agricultural practices have led this food to decrease, and currently, their migration is classified as an endangered phenomenon. What I hope to do in this experiment is to investigate the number of butterfly bushes or food sources that are needed for a monarch butterfly to successfully migrate and survive winter. To investigate this, I set up an equation to represent a monarch s flight path and how much mass it will gain from food and lose from flying. Then, I plugged in different values to represent different numbers of butterfly bushes. I continued to do this until I reached a number that produced a value 50% greater than the starting lipid mass. When I reached that value, the number x was equal to 139. This indicated that 139 butterfly bushes would need to be encountered by a butterfly to migrate successfully. These results are very beneficial to anyone who wants to help out with the monarch butterfly population. If a butterfly needs to encounter 139 butterfly bushes or food sources in general during migration, someone keeping a butterfly bush in their backyard helps promote migratory patterns and further protect the process of migration.
827 3352 A Sabermetric Analysis of Distinct Pitching Arrangements in Major League Baseball Mathematics S With the advent of advanced technology and computing power, the game of baseball has come to be revolved around sabermetrics, a term coined to represent the empirical analysis of baseball through in-game statistics. In baseball, the most important position is the pitcher, the person who throws the ball with various velocities and spins to the opposing team s hitters. The pitcher s goal is to prevent the opposing team from scoring runs. Managers must decide when to remove starting pitchers for relief pitchers based on the game situation. Which inning and out the manager chooses to swap out a pitcher can be crucial to winning a game. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a pitching arrangement , or the general timing of these swaps, for every game. To distinguish between different pitching arrangements, the student researcher defined four different types of games standard, complete, failed starts, and bullpen. The student researcher examined the pitching logs of games from the 2019 MLB season from, recording various statistics that measure the effectiveness of pitchers. The student researcher found that while complete games are most desirable for managers, they are few and far between. By far, the most common type of game was the standard game, where the starting pitcher pitches for 5-8 innings, then is substituted out for various relief pitchers. Standard games were effective against failed starts and bullpen games. While both bullpen games and failed starts were very ineffective, failed starts represent the least desirable types of games for managers.
828 3353 Generation and Analysis of a Historical Coastline Accumulation Model of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch Through Mapping Software Mathematics S Coastline debris caused by ocean pollution can greatly impact wildlife, and clean-up operations are often ineffective due to the fluctuation in the amount of debris. The researcher aimed to determine the significance of hurricane season on the amount of shoreline debris. It was hypothesized that since hurricane season has historically contributed to strong winds and ocean currents, more debris would be recorded during these months. Using data from the MDMAP volunteer program, which contained debris totals from surveys taken from 2012-2019, 34 locations with the most consistent surveys were used to determine significance. The data was organized into affected for hurricane season and unaffected for the rest of the year. Of the thirty-four viable sites, twenty-seven followed the expected pattern of the affected mean being greater than the unaffected mean, with thirteen of these resulting in a p-value of less than 0.05 and supporting the hypothesis. Seven sites followed the opposite pattern, with two of these were statistically significant with a p-value of less than 0.05. The high number of insignificant sites could be contributed to human inaccuracies in the surveys, the impact of which could be reduced by using multiple sources for data. These results could be used to organize more efficient clean-up operations during the months that accumulate more debris. Models could also be created using past estimations of the location of the GPGP and ocean current graphics, to determine where larger concentrations of debris are coming from, and begin efforts to plan in-depth ocean clean-up operations.
829 3354 A Boundary Study of Forest Fire Regimes and Regrowth Patterns Mathematics S Dramatic increases in frequency, intensity, size, and duration of wildfires have been documented by NASA s Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery initiative. Most wildfire literature, however, simply delineates statistics such as acres burned, number of fire weeks, and carbon dioxide emissions. Some research, such as that by US Geological Survey USGS , has resulted in fire prediction analytics but, although useful for decision-making during events, this is an ex post approach as the fire is already active and site-specific. Furthermore, the US National Fire Danger Rating System NFDRS is an adjective based scale low, moderate, high, and extreme risk. The US Forest Service concedes that the usefulness of such broad categories is crude and limited.A more effective approach to wildfire risk would generate probabilities ex ante using panel data techniques, accounting for climatic and socio-economic characteristics. Using raw data N 43,230 obtained from CalFire for 2012-2015, fire incidents were analyzed controlling for county, month, and biome. A Random Effects model revealed the following with respect to number of fires 1cm increase in monthly precipitation, decreased fires by 1% 1 C increase in average temperature increased risk by 6% 1% increase in population density resulted in 12-19% increased risk. Results were robust across model specifications and estimation methodologies. The benefits of this model are its low-cost and ease of implementation. The model s fit and prediction capabilities would benefit from inclusion of additional variables such as powerlines, tourism, railroads, soil composition, and non-native species percentiles.
830 3355 Developing a High Fidelity Pedestrian and Evacuations Dynamic Model to Optimize Crowd Emergency Evacuation Response Time Mathematics S My research asked if I could use Crowd Dynamics, and Social Force Models to improve the evacuation time of the student body from the two school cafeterias. The Evacuation model covers, crowd flow rate, varying crowd density, individual s adjusted velocity, crowd density factors velocity of a person that accounts from the struggles of moving in a group , distance to a safety point, queue time wait time to go through the exit , and congestion points.Then I researched how to implement every person s individual walking speed into the model, and Monte Carlo Simulation fit the bill. It used an average walking speed Gaussian distribution to randomly assign each person their own velocity.I developed blueprints of the cafeterias, measuring for all the factors included in the model. Finally using all the information, I created the Evacuation model, I ran the model with the student body choosing a random exit, control model with a time of 6.97 min for the Auxiliary Cafeteria and 5.26 minutes for the Main cafeteria. I looked in the model and found that not every exit could handle the same amount of people, due to door width, distance from a safety point, close congestion areas.My optimal trial where I relieved the congestion points by making more pathways and redirected people, so all the exits evacuation times are equal hailed a 61% decrease in emergency evacuation time for the Auxiliary Cafeteria and a 20% decrease in the Main cafeteria, validated my hypothesis.
831 3356 Modeling Dengue Fever Cases Using Weather Factors Mathematics S Dengue fever, common in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, is a widespread mosquito-borne disease that affects approximately 400 million people each year. Due to the unavailability of proper medication, the prevention of dengue fever is the only viable option to protect from infection. Therefore, the prediction of dengue cases in advance would be beneficial. For that purpose, a multiple linear regression model was developed to predict dengue outbreaks using weather factors including rainfall, temperature, humidity, and wind speed. The model was built using the statistical software MINITAB and data from Colombo, Sri Lanka 2010-2018 . Furthermore, the Mallows Cp and R-sq adj criteria were used to establish the best regression model. The variables, months since January 2010, rainfall of the current month, two months prior to the current month s rainfall, and average wind speed were all found to be statistically significant in the prediction of dengue cases. Therefore, these variables can be interpreted as the weather factors that affect dengue cases. This study will benefit individuals in vulnerable regions, by helping health officials prepare for projected outbreaks, reducing the intensity and fatalities of future dengue epidemics.
837 3362 Which acne wash best prevents bacteria Medicine & Health S The foundation for my project is how acne forms and what helps get rid of acne.Acne starts when hair folecules become plugged with oil and dead skin. Acne keep growing when sebum builds up under the oil and dead skin cells. Acne can quickly turn into abscesses and really downfall. Other things that cause acne to turn into abscesses is bacteria, like e-coli and LPS. That same bacteria can make you more likely to have depression. Which is why it is important that you help get rid of acne. People think that it is not important to get rid of acne but it is, it really impacts way more than just your skin, it can affect your whole body.
838 3363 Does too much hair dye affect hair structure? Medicine & Health S Hair dye can have major effects on hair and the structure. People don t know the limitations of dyeing hair and I wanted to bring light upon the subject. If hair dye causes hair to be rough and brittle, then how much does hair dye affect the structure of the hair itself I did two phases of the testing, the first phase was dyeing the virgin hair and looking at the results of the original dying. The second phase was dying the hair once more but with different factors. I then observed the hair samples under a microscope. The results were as expected, the longer the hair was in the dye, the worse the structure and feeling. The less time the hair spent in the dye, the better the structure and feeling. The results are important because it shows what chemicals can do to hair follicles and so people can make more informed decisions.
839 3364 Multi-Scale Retinal Layer Segmentation and Anomaly Detection in Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Deep Learning Medicine & Health S Early diagnosis of retinal disease can be facilitated by OCT-based non-invasive detection and quantification of structural changes through the examination of morphological features of retinal layers. Recent developments in the field of deep-learning have led to improvements in quantitative analysis of medical images. I introduce a novel fully convolutional network designed to segment retinal layers and edema with higher accuracy and efficiency than traditional segmentation and quantification modalities. I propose a practical, reproducible pipeline for retinal analysis including automated multi-scale retinal layer and fluid segmentation, anomaly detection and morphology quantification. The pipeline includes a modified U-Net architecture with Inception inspired blocks and depth-wise separable convolutions and convolutional paths. These contributions improve segmentation accuracy on OCT retinal layer datasets at different scales and regions while simultaneously minimizing training and testing time. The model yields a 0.9258 dice coefficient on the validation dataset. After training on a human retinal dataset, the model is refined on normal OCT images of the murine retina. Subsequently, I challenge the model to detect retinal degeneration in response to prolonged exposure to the toxic substance, rotenone, and examine the model s ability to generalize. Local thickness averages and variance metrics are calculated by the algorithm in addition to the segmented image to facilitate data analysis and diagnosis. Furthermore, I include a convolutional autoencoder to identify potential biomarkers of retinal degeneration by detecting statistical anomalies in the morphological features of the retina. This deep-learning OCT image analysis considerably improves non-invasive detection and quantification of image-based biomarkers of retinal neurodegeneration.
840 3365 A Comparison of Three Over the Counter Proton Pump Inhibitors on Acid Suppression Medicine & Health S Disorders involving acid and heartburn are some of the most common afflictions with prescribed medication in the United States. Physicians treat many people for excessive acid production in the stomach, but over the counter medications are also available. These medications are classified as proton pump inhibitors, made to reduce the activeness of the gastric proton pump and decrease the amount of stomach acid produced. The problem I focused on was the efficacy of the acid suppression and how the medications differed. There have not been many comparison studies conducted on this subject. In order to test the effects these drugs have on increasing the pH, a simulated human stomach was created using a solution of 0.1 molar HCl and kept at a temperature of 38o C. This methodology was ideal primarily because human testing cannot be done at this level. The wireless pH probes were immersed in the beakers to collect pH readings every hour for 12 hours. At the end of data collection for all three medications, the pH levels were graphed and analyzed for significant changes in pH. My data did not support my hypothesis as there were consistent pH decreases, resulting in a higher acidity, compared to the increases expected from testing proton pump inhibitors.
841 3366 Enviromental affects on muscle memory Medicine & Health S In my experiment I endeavoured to try and find definite way to help improve muscle memory, which could help in concussion victims or neurological injuries in which some basic motor skills are forgotten. I thought that the cold water would have the most benefit on improving muscle memory. For my method in the experiment I had the participants type the word apple 5 times in water different temperatures per group , then 5 times again without being able to see the keyboard. While typing without being able to see the keyboard it is graded on a typing software to test accuracy and word speed. In the results of my experiment hypothesis was proven incorrect. In fact the cold water test results were lower than both the room temperature water and warm water in both words per minute and accuracy. The cold water also had the highest average of penalties at an average of 28.184 penalties.The warm water had the highest average accuracy of the trials with an average percentage of 48.288%, the 2nd highest was the room temperature water with an average accuracy of 33.154%. In summary of my results the warm water was most effective results, as it had the least amount of penalties and had the highest level of accuracy. I did find a way to help improve the muscle memory in typing on keyboards. If this was continued on a grander scale and was still successful it could help a great number of people.
842 3367 Antacids Natural (Herbal) vs. Chemical Medicine & Health S Have you ever had an indigestion problem If so, then you are familiar with antacids. Antacids are a substance generally alkaline used to neutralize stomach acid. Antacids are made up of chemical compounds like calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, etc. Usually, many people may think that chemicals are harmful to the body and they are now diverting towards natural treatments. The purpose of this experiment is to see if chemical or natural antacids work best in neutralizing stomach acid. For this experiment, I used 5 chemical antacids and 5 natural antacids and prepared the samples. Then I added each sample into 0.1M of HCl and measured the pH of the solution. According to the results all, the chemical antacids effectively neutralized the HCl than the natural antacids. Out of the chemical antacids, tablet 1 containing the active ingredients of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and aspirin worked the best, by bringing the pH level of the HCl from 1.11 to 6.23 by 5.12My results did not support my hypothesis in ways of neutralizing. Instead, the natural antacids brought the pH levels to the healthy stomach range than the chemical antacids did. Even though my results did not support my hypothesis it is a healthy choice to choose natural antacids because of it the pH levels to a healthy stomach range.
843 3368 MiRNA and Early Diagnostics of Ovarian Cancer Medicine & Health S Ovarian cancer is currently the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women, accounting for 13,980 deaths among 22,530 diagnosed cases just last year. It is estimated that 1 in 78 women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in their lifetime and 2 of 3 whom are diagnosed will die. Ovarian cancer is one of the least detected cancers due to lack of an effective method for early detection. Researchers have begun exploring the possibilities of biomarkers for early detection, however, current biomarkers such as CA-125 and HE-4 have been deemed ineffective. Recently, miRNAs and lncRNAs have shown promise in their ability to be used as effective biomarkers. This project aimed to create a profile of studies pertaining to the use of miRNAs and lncRNAs as biomarkers for early detection and curate a diagnostic tool. Over one hundred studies were analyzed to collect information about these biomarkers. The profile documented information regarding the number of patients studied, the stage of ovarian cancer, source of the sample, time point of analysis, method of analysis, diagnostic and prognostic capabilities, deregulation, and lastly, molecular mechanisms and targets. In order to create a useful diagnostic tool to be utilized by researchers, this information was implemented into a user interface. The interface allows users to filter data and search for specific characteristics. In consummation, being able to find an effective biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer could be groundbreaking. The conducted profile and tool provide a strong foundation for further life-saving research.
844 3369 The Natural Solution to Dandruff Medicine & Health S Dandruff is a substance we all have and it affects everyone. Because people have dandruff, there is always attention to getting rid of it. The most common method people use to get rid of dandruff is via specialized shampoos. However, most people use a dandruff removing shampoo composed of harmful chemicals instead of using an all-natural dandruff removing shampoo. In this study, an all-natural dandruff-removing shampoo was created and compared to a commercial dandruff-removing shampoo to determine which dandruff-removing shampoo removed the most amount of dandruff. The comparison was done by first taking count of the original amount of dandruff of the researcher, applying one of the shampoos, and then taking another count after shampooing. This process was done for both shampoos and the counting of the dandruff flakes was done by an app. The results of the comparison showed that the natural shampoo was more effective in removing the most amount of dandruff. This was done by conducting a single tailed T-test between the final values for each shampoo. This T-test resulted in the p-value being less than 0.05 indicating that the natural shampoo did remove more dandruff than the Commercial Shampoo. This study can be expanded to test additional participants with more trials, comparing the natural shampoo with more commercial shampoos, and also creating an app specifically for counting dandruff.
845 3370 Effect of Excess Fluoride on Neuronal and Thyroid Cells Medicine & Health S This project addresses the effect of excess fluoride on neuronal and thyroid cell function. High levels 1.5 ppm of fluoride are found in ground water sources in many parts of the world especially in India and Africa, where it causes number of diseases including neurological disorders, thyroid dysfunction and cancer. People who are economically disadvantaged are unable to afford expensive filters and hence use ground water containing excess fluoride for designated purposes. Over the last three years, I have designed an inexpensive, eco-friendly dip-bag made of household materials to remove excess fluoride from ground water.To study, the effect of fluoride on human health, I analyzed de-identified clinical data collected from a region in South India having high levels of fluoride in ground water and identified Epilepsy and thyroid disorders to be among the major health problems. Additional in vitro studies showed that excess fluoride levels caused death of neuronal precursor cells with increased activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the cell culture supernatant. Excess fluoride also caused moderate cell death in thyroid cells. To understand the mechanism of fluoride induced toxicity, RNA from neuronal cells exposed to fluoride are currently being analyzed by RNA sequencing and is expected to reveal regulatory pathways.From the community perspective, understanding the biological pathways associated with fluoride toxicity in neuronal cells will help design antidotes that can benefit patients.In summary, my studies to date has built an inexpensive community-friendly bio-filter for de-fluoridation, and identified excess fluoride associated health disorders and their potential mechanism.
846 3371 The Race to Beat - Improving Sleep with your Heart Medicine & Health S With stress and anxiety being such a prevalent problem in today s society it is important to ensure that the body heals during sleep. Though the quantity of sleep does not dictate the regeneration process, sleep quality does. For this reason, we wanted to study the correlation between heart rate and sleep quality. We hypothesized that a lower heart rate would mean a better sleep quality because when at rest the heart rate is low and resting is the fundamental goal of sleeping.Sleep quality is qualitative so it is difficult to put it into numbers, for that reason we tried to collect as much data as possible to ensure that we get the most accurate results. We began by finding willing participants that had Apple watches. We explained the instructions to the participants and asked them to fill out a survey each morning with the heart rate data from the watch along with the sleep quality. We took the data and plotted it on a scatter plot and used Google s data analyzer to create a trendline. All three data sets minimum, maximum, and average heart rate paired with sleep quality showed a negative correlation. Meaning that when heart rate increased the sleep quality decreased and vice versa. The data supported our hypothesis stating that heart rate and sleep quality had a negative relationship. Such knowledge would help people to better their sleep quality by targeting a lower heart through methods such as yoga, reading, etc.
847 3372 The effect of foot size on speed Medicine & Health S A person like LeBron who weighs over 249 can be as fast as lightning with a size 15 foot, while another person like Kemba walker that is 184 and has a 11.5 foot size is able to run at the same pace or even greater running speed than LeBron.They were all measured and showed the same weight, the heaviest was 155 and the lightest was 140 so they were all as close as their build provided them. They all ran a 20-meter yard dash and where timed each 3 rounds. They all were tested with cleats on their feet soccer cleats The first trial concluded with Anderson the smallest and lightest of the bunch taking 1st as in speed. He wore a size 8.5 he also went last. The 2nd trial had Chris winning and he wears a size 10.5 providing an idea that maybe the biggest size isn t the best. Trial #3 followed Alejandro with the best time since everyone was way slower on the third trial compared to the 2nd and 1st trials.This data alone wasn t enough to show that a foot size can make a difference in how fast a person can be thought of the power the leg may have since a bigger foot would resolve in more power and abundance of space but in my head the result had no effect on me since I hypothesized that there would not be a clear trial where we can see a change of direction.
848 3373 Allergies: looking for symptom solutions among high school students Medicine & Health S I chose to do this project due to my interest in medicine and healthMy data showed the most common allergies and the most common symptomsThis is important because it can show what type of symptoms are most common and ways to treat them
849 3374 The Heart Knows Medicine & Health S Through this experiment we tested three different breathing techniques, the Relaxing Breath Technique, Diaphragmatic Breathing, and Alternate Nostril Breathing. The basis of this experiment was to try to find which breathing technique is most beneficial in lowering the heart rate, and to support our hypothesis that the Relaxing Breath Technique would serve as most useful in doing so.We managed to test this by recording our resting heart rates, and doing a set of fifty jumping jacks each. Afterwards we measured our heart rates immediately, then we did one of the selected breathing techniques by following our set procedure. We did this a set of three times to get an average, and rested in between each set, and continued the same process for each of the three breathing techniques.Once we completed the experiment and reviewed the result we noticed that the Relaxing Breath Technique was the most effective of the breathing techniques tested. The results showed that for both the people tested this technique brought their heart rate closest to their initial heart rate. After the Relaxing Breath Technique, the Alternate Nostril Breathing Technique came second, and Diaphragmatic Breathing Technique came in third for effectiveness. Based off of the results, our hypothesis that the Relaxing Breath Technique would lower heart rates closest to the initial heart rate was correct.In conclusion, after researching breathing techniques, completing the full experiment and reviewing the results we found that the Relaxing Breath Technique proved itself to be the most useful after all.
850 3375 Will Adding Support To An Elastic Knee Brace Help Improve ACL Tears ? Medicine & Health S We have decided to create a prototype knee brace that is accessible, flexible, cost effective and can be worn for long periods of time. Our team chose to do this project, because one of our team members has had personal experience with having their ACL torn two years ago. With her having her ACL torn, she has told the team that when she had her metal knee brace on it was very painful, uncomfortable and nowhere near flexible nor accessible. The price for this metal knee brace wasn t very cheap, it was quite expensive. The knee brace made her pain worse than before, because she was dragging her leg due to the metal and the weight. After only half a school day, she would have to give her knee a break and take her brace off. The healing process took longer due to her having to take the knee brace on and off. We don t want this situation to continue in society and we can come up with a solution. The data that has been collected, shows that our knee brace can improve flexibility, accessibility, the time it can be worn and lower the cost spent to wear it. Our goal is for ACl injuries to heal successfully.
851 3376 The Effects of Antioxidants on the Regeneration of Dugesia tigrina Succeeding Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Medicine & Health S Radiotherapy, a common treatment for cancer, induces oxidative stress, resulting in a range of detrimental effects from nausea to loss of reproductive health. However, antioxidants have the ability to regulate oxidative stress in cells. This project aimed to test the effects of antioxidants on healthy human cells following radiotherapy by utilizing Dugesia tigrina as a model due to their similar regenerative properties. Dugesia tigrina were irradiated with a linear accelerator machine and, dependent on the research group, were fed different antioxidants weekly including piperine, curcumin, lipoic acid, and ascorbic acid. After the first week, the researchers bisected, measured, and recorded the lengths of each planarian. Moreover, the researchers determined and recorded the light and touch reaction times of the planaria. Depending on their group, the planaria were fed with their corresponding antioxidant weekly over the course of four weeks. At the fourth week, the lengths and reaction times were measured for the second time. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the planaria in the piperine testing condition had a significant increase in growth. Hence, piperine was the most successful antioxidant in combating the side effects of ionizing radiation. This can be implemented through diets or be transformed into a supplement targeted for radiotherapy recipients. Furthermore, this can also be applied towards diseases induced by oxidative stress such as Parkinson s or Alzheimer s disease.
852 3377 The Effects of Escherichia coli on L-Dopa Pills Medicine & Health S This project is an experimentation on the effects of L-Dopa pills on the growth of gut bacteria, particularly on Escherichia coli. Previous studies showed that there is an effect of L-Dopa pills on the gut microbiota. For this project, the experimenters tested L-Dopa pills on another common gut bacteria and search for possible ways to decrease the bacteria s consumption of L-Dopa pills. To do this, plated agar petri dishes were divided into controls, added L-Dopa, and added fiber supplements. The three tested fiber supplements were Insulin, Methylcellulose, and Benefiber. Thus, it was predicted that the bacteria group with the fiber mixture would be the most beneficial. Through a three-week span, the dishes were constantly examined and bacterial colonies were collected. The bacterial colonies with added supplements were compared and analyzed with the constants and L-Dopa plates. According to the results the group containing all the various fiber supplements had the highest growth rate of approximately 196%, while the bacteria group containing only the L-Dopa had a growth rate of approximately 79%. Thus, it can be concluded that the various fiber supplements are a well-fitted substitution for the L-Dopa that the bacteria consumed. In conclusion, the hypothesis was correct as it was seen that the mixed fiber supplements combined allowed for the greatest growth in the bacteria group. With these discoveries, doctors are able to better prescribe fiber supplements to make L-Dopa medications more effective and to help the medications consumed by patients be more effective.
853 3378 Diabetic Food Alternatives Medicine & Health S Type one diabetics are being told they can eat whatever they want if they just give the correct amounts of units to suffice for the meal. In reality, blood sugar requires more than insulin to maintain stable. This project is testing and monitoring a diabetic s blood sugar when a regular meal and a healthier, alternative version are consumed.The diabetic was given one meal each day, alternating between higher carb and lower carb meals. Each day had the same starting blood sugar at 89. After consumption, the diabetic s blood sugar was measured in intervals. Once all meals were tested, a graph was made to show the differences at hours at night.The results were noticeably similar to each other. High carb meals had highs and ended up crashing whereas low carb meals kept a stable line. This coordinating data give proof of what a diabetic s blood sugar when all they are given is douses of insulin instead of maintaining a healthier diet.
854 3379 Designing Multi-Epitope Vaccines to Treat or Prevent Cancer Using Cluster Analysis Medicine & Health S This project investigated the characteristics of ideal epitopes to create multi-epitope vaccines and if they differed based on disease. By identifying distinct characteristics for different types of epitopes varied by what disease they are associated with , finding antigenic epitopes would be much easier and creating multi-epitope vaccines for specific diseases. To do this, different epitopes for Breast, Brain, Skin, and Blood Cancer were chosen along with influenza. The antigenicity, hydrophilicity, flexibility, and binding affinity were calculated using the Immune Epitope Database IEDB . This database and analysis resource used the Parker hydrophilicty hrediction, the Kolaskar Tongaonkar antigenicity prediction, and the Karplus and Schulz flexibility prediction to find these values. The epitopes were all very similar, notably the highest scoring HLA alleles. This shows that antigenic epitopes have very similar characteristics, including but not limited to flexibility, hydrophilicity, and antigenicity, and that this provides a better way to identify antigenic epitopes as opposed to which ones are best suited towards specific diseases. The most common HLA alleles were the most common ones for Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians, and Asians, meaning that most of these epitopes can be used to make multi-epitope vaccines for a wide range of people.The t-SNE plots were not useful in identifying any clusters, especially when observing all alleles and the three parameters. While there are oddly shaped groups, they are not demarcated enough to be considered a cluster. The other plots were also very similar even between different diseases, showing that the epitopes share certain traits.
855 3380 Digestion Times for Allergy Medication Medicine & Health S Advertisers are always saying that their medication works the fastest, but which allergy medication really does digest fastest. This project looks at which allergy medication dissolves or digests fastest in simulated stomach acid. The allergy medicine was put in simulated stomach acid which was made of hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride and potassium chloride by measuring the time dependent variable for each allergy medicine independent variable My hypothesis was that if a person takes a allergy relief medicine then Levocetirizine will digest the fastest. The experimental results did not support my hypothesis by showing that instead of Levocetirizine digesting the fasted it was actually wal-fex. This experiment tells People what allergy medicine to take to get the fastest results to relieve them of their allergies symptoms.
856 3381 Computational single cell data analysis to identify biomarkers for cisplatin resistant cells Medicine & Health S Single-cell RNA sequencing has emerged as a powerful tool to analyze new cell types, cellular heterogeneity and cell differentiation routes. This technique made important contributions to our understanding of cancer cell heterogeneity and selective resistance of cancer cell subpopulations to molecularly targeted cancer However, little is known about the influence of cisplatin at the single-cell level. By comparing scRNA-seq data from control and cisplatin group, we uncovered cisplatin-resistance cluster of cells with high expression of novel gene Ms4a3 and surface marker CD63. Although additional studies are required to fully elucidate the functional role of the CD63 and Ms4a3, these scRNA seq results could offer a new biomarker of cisplatin resistance that provides valuable insights into chemosensitivity and cancer at a single cell level.
857 3382 Testing and Examining The Most Efficient Shielding Against Ionizing Radiation in Medical Facilities Medicine & Health S The purpose of this experiment was to find an alternative to lead for radiation shielding in medical facilities that take X-rays. Ionizing radiation can be very dangerous in the sense that due to the function in X rays it can knock off electrons causing probable diseases such as Cancer. That is why we need the most efficient Shielding for this radiation when using X rays in medical facilitates and I believe that Brass will be a better shield than the currently used substance lead. The five variables that were chosen for the experiment were chosen on three different criteria which are High atomic density, accessibility, and relatively cheap pricing. The data for this experiment was compiled by having participants, including myself, have a ct scan taken of their hand with a certain substance atop their hand. Then analyzing the X-ray to see the visibility of the substance. The X-rays were divided into three different categories depending on how much of the bone is visible in the X-ray. The results that came back were that Brass, Lead and Copper were the best radiation shields. In addition to that Aluminum and Iron partially blocked radiation but not as well as the substances that are the best at shielding. Lastly, Zinc only slightly blocked the radiation and still showed the majority of the bone was still showing in the X-ray.
858 3383 Viva Voce: Treating the Human Voice with Effective Remedies Medicine & Health S This experiment analyzes the effects of eight vocal remedies menthol cough drops, natural cough drops, vapor inhaler, lemon and honey, ginger root, pure pineapple, warm salt water, tap water , on the decibel measurement of the voice when singing G#6 plus 40 cents. The sub-topics investigated within the experiment are Which vocal remedy is the most effective for eliminating breathiness and hoarseness from vocal sound To what extent do the natural vocal remedies surpass in rank pharmaceutical-based products on the GRBAS scale Which remedy produces the highest decibel measurement for G#6 plus 40 cents The experiment was carried out using eight different, store-bought remedies, and the Decibel app. For eight days at the same hour of 2 30 PM CDT , each test was carried out by self-ingesting a vocal remedy and recording the volume decibel produced when singing. The choice to sing G#6 plus 40 cents was reasoned by analysis of personal vocal range. The recordings produced a PEAK, MAXIMUM, and AVERAGE value for each repeat. The AVERAGE volume from each recording was taken and chronicled into a larger raw data scheme. Average value was used because it corroborated for the amount of periods within the sound recording. The averages were then processed via t-tests, standard deviation, and ANOVA. The findings of the results show that the data proved the predictions in some ways, but not completely. There was no exact answer to the research question however, there were slight correlations within data sets that were noted.
859 3384 Let's Whiten Those Teeth: Fluoride vs. Antibacterial Toothpaste Medicine & Health S In this experiment I am testing the most effective paste against tooth decay between antibacterial paste and fluoride paste which are two of the most popular paste . The goal of this experiment is to advise the general public with the most preventive paste against decay , which will promote healthier teeth. I believe that the antibacterial paste will be the most effective. The general procedure of this experiment is testing 9 eggs in which the yolk were removed . The eggs are submerged in equal values of a highly acidic beverage , coke . 3 of the 9 eggs will be labeled the control , 3 will be labeled fluoride paste , and 3 will be labeled antibacterial paste. The eggs will be brushed with their respective toothpastes. The control group does not get paste . After we wipe the paste of both groups off with a paper towel . We repeat this process in the morning , afternoon, and night to mimic an eating schedule as well as an advised rule to brush three times a day. We will do this for 3 days . After the 3 days we will compare the surface area and structure of the eggs using a ruler for the outside and a microscope for the inside . Our control will show us what a fully decayed egg or teeth would look like and with that we can compare with our independent variable group on how much decay was prevented.
860 3385 Wristbulence Medicine & Health S When people are alone, and they get a heart attack or some related issue, there will be no one to help. My goal is to change this by creating an alert system that will alert anyone at the right time. In this project, I intend to use an Arduino Uno to create an alert system to prevent these types of situations. This project is an experiment to test the feasibility of such an alert system. This project is an experiment to test the feasibility of such an alert system. I researched about FitBit and Garmin s technology to understand the complex systems that work in order to track heartbeats. I used a basic idea from FitBit s Alta HR technology and expanded on it to build an alert system. Socially, people will need this tool as many people die unexpectedly of related causes. This alert system intends to serve as a life-saver and is attractive mostly to those undergoing heart problems. My procedure is to code the NodeMCU and the sensor to create a WiFi-based notification machine that sends SMS and email. My conclusion came to be that my hypothesis that the SMS will be faster was correct. This is because, according to my graph result, the SMS was at least 10 ms faster than the email.
861 3386 Would teeth whiteners with different bleaching ingredients have the same results? Medicine & Health S Teeth whitening is widely used by many people. The main ingredient in teeth whitening is hydrogen peroxide, a universally known substance that has several purposes. I tested to see whether teeth whitening strips that didn t contain hydrogen peroxide worked just as well as those that did have it. Eggs were used to represent the teeth in the experiment and were submerged in coffee, which stains teeth, and then tested to see which whitening strips were better at whitening with clear tape used as the control. In the end, the experiment had 25 replications for each of the three treatments. There was an unexpected result the sodium hypochlorite the bleaching ingredient competing against hydrogen peroxide strips actually worked better. There is a lot more that needs to be researched, though, but for further tests we can find a way to make something to replicate the tartar on teeth, then the results may be more accurate to how teeth whitening works. Overall this experiment ended up with different results than anticipated but with this information teeth whitening products can be changed to show the most effective in people.
862 3387 Exploring the epigenome and transcriptome to identify biomarkers in ovarian cancer Medicine & Health S Every year around the world more than 100,000 women die of ovarian cancer. In the US, ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and the fifth deadliest cancer in women. Cancer can be caused by mutations and epimutations. One type of epimutation is DNA methylation which is being studied as a mechanism in tumor development. Studies have shown that differentially methylated genes are potential cancer driver genes.The purpose of this project is to determine the differential methylation and gene expression correlation of the genes hSulf-1 and HMSH2 as well as other targeted markers across the ovarian cancer genome using the cancer genome atlas and MethylMix- an R package for identifying DNA methylation driven genes. In the 582 ovarian cancer patients compared to the healthy subjects, BRCA1, IQGAP1, BLCAP, and HSF1 were found to be significantly differentially methylated while the genes hSulf-1 and HMSH2 were not found to have as high methylation valuesThe dysregulation in methylation patterns of cancer patients inversely correlated with the gene expression levels for BRCA1, IQGAP1, BLCAP, HSF1, and HMSH2. However, hSulf-1 was found to have no correlation due to an insignificant p-value.Further studies would be needed starting with invitro cancer cells to validate the dysregulation in methylation identified in the current study.Future applications of this study include computational outlier detection to decrease skew and further improve the data. Pathway analysis can also help to further understand how these genes are signaling and modulating cellular functions.
863 3388 The Effectiveness of different types of Sunscreen against UV radiation Medicine & Health S This experiment is to figure out the best SPF Sun Protection Factor amount of sunscreen that will protect a person against UV radiation. Sunscreen is a cream or lotion that absorbs or reflects some of the ultraviolet radiation and helps protect against sunburns. This experiment will give you the knowledge of what amount of SPF is best to protect your skin.
864 3389 The Effect of Method of Treatment on Cancer Cell Death Medicine & Health S Every year 1,753,350 cases of cancer are diagnosed. A cancer diagnosis can change someone s life. In some cases, it s a death sentence and in others, it is grueling months or years of chemotherapy. Some factors that affect the methodology of chemotherapy are the types of cancer and their stage, as well as the other drugs present in the body of the patient. While intravenous chemotherapy is one of the most common forms, studies have shown that intralesional chemotherapy or intertumoral chemotherapy has proven effective in some forms of cancer. In this experiment I tested the effect of Paclitaxel at an intravenous dose and an intralesional dose onto HEK293, HEPG2, and Hela Cells. I treated them with 0, 3 micromolar, and 30 micromoles of Paclitaxel and measured apoptosis over 48 hours. For the human embryonic kidney cells and cervical adenocarcinomas, the greater concentration of PTX at 30 microliters leads to a higher number of cells dying. The hepatoma cells had less cell death as the concentration of paclitaxel went up. It is an effective drug when used on Cervical adenocarcinomas however, it is the wrong chemotherapy drug for liver cancer. An aspect to expand on in this project would be furthering researching the liver hepatoma resistance to Paclitaxel in conjunction with a different type of chemotherapy drug and its intended doses. Overall, while the intravenous treatment for most cancer is effective, more research needs to be done into intralesional chemotherapy and its effect on patient outcomes.
865 3390 Do Body Proportions Matter? Medicine & Health S The purpose of my project was to see if bigger body proportions make you faster as a swimmer. Based on my personal experience with swimming, my hypothesis was that being shorter was a disadvantage. In my experiment, I had three boys and three girls swim 100, 50, and 25 yards freestyle three times or trials. I timed them and calculated their average. Then I calculated their height, wingspan, leg length, hand width, and torso length. I saw that height really did not really matter, but swimmers with bigger hands were faster. Another thing i noticed was the technique. Better technique allows you to be faster too but bigger body portions help out. This could help shorter swimmers by allowing them to work on technique.
866 3391 Testing different techniques of Immobilizations used during Brain Radiotherapy. Medicine & Health S Cancer of the brain is the tenth leading worldwide cause of death for both women and men and the most common treatment is brain radiotherapy. However, the thermoplastic mask, the most popular device used during the treatment, is uncomfortable and expensive adding to a bigger burden for the patient and for some hospitals in low-income areas. This study measured the intrafraction movement and comfortability ratings of the thermoplastic mask, tape immobilization, vacuum bag, and no immobilization to find a better option for patients and their doctors. The surface imaging system was used to test participants for five minutes being asked to move their head at the one and two minute mark, measuring movement from the isocenter.To follow up a survey was used to ask the participants of feelings they felt during testing. The movement measured for the devices were then compared to that of the thermoplastic mask producing a p-value of more then .1 for when compared with tape and p-values of .001 when compared with the vacuum bag and no immobilization. These results show that the tape was just as restrictive to movement as the mask was, while the vacuum bag and no immobilization was not. The comfort ratings show the highest complaints for thermoplastic mask with nine complaints, then the tape with five, no immobilization had one, and the vacuum bag had zero. Overall it was determined that the tape immobilization a cheaper, more comfortable and efficient alternative for the immobilization mask used during brain radiotherapy.
867 3392 Protect Your Skin Medicine & Health S More and more people are turning to natural products every year. One of the natural projects people are turning to is sunscreen. Sunscreen has many chemicals in it such as oxybenzone, avobenzone, homosalate, octinoxate, octisalate, and octocrylene. The objective of this project is to test different oils in the form of a natural sunscreen compared to a commercial sunscreen. I want to know if a natural sunscreen will protect better than a chemical commercial sunscreen. My hypothesis is if various types of natural oils are made into natural sunscreen and tested for UV protection, then raspberry seed oil will provide the best sun protection out of the natural oils. Raspberry seed oil has been shown to have the highest SPF out of most natural oils. During the procedures, sunscreen was made with the different oils and tested with a UV meter outside. After analyzing all the data collected and comparing the numbers, if society were to use a natural oil, raspberry seed oil would be recommended over coconut, almond and avocado oil. If there is not a preference of natural or commercial brand then sticking to the commercial brand would be the better option. My hypothesis was proven correct that the raspberry oil would perform the best regarding UV protection among the natural oils.
868 3393 which commercial water is the safest and healthiest to consume ? Medicine & Health S In our project we were in search to see which commercial water is the safest and healthiest to consume.After, three tests pH,TDS, and a heavy metal tests and two trails per test we eventually found out that depending on whats your biggest concern among tests the opinion my vary, b